When was the flu vaccine developed: The “History” of the Flu Vaccine From 1940 to 2030?
The “History” of the Flu Vaccine From 1940 to 2030?
Featured on BBC Two’s ‘Trust Me, I’m a Doctor’, the history of the influenza virus and development of a new type of influenza vaccine – a Universal Influenza Vaccine provided viewers with some useful and interesting insight. Unlike the current conventional vaccine, this new future vaccine would protect people over multiple seasons, and even in the event that a brand new flu virus appears, as happened in 2009.
We aim to develop a Universal Influenza Vaccine which means people do not need to be vaccinated each year, and are prepared for the unexpected. In this blog, we’re going to be exploring the history of the vaccine – as well as a brief history of the virus itself – to set the scene.
The very first description of flu was described in the ‘Book of Epidemics’ by Hippocrates in 412 BC, where he very clearly outlined the virus’ symptoms. However, the virus’ first “official outbreak” was not described until 1580. This is when records may show the very first epidemic, fitting the full description of influenza as we describe it now. It may have resulted in the decimation of whole cities.
The term influenza originates from Italy in the 1400s; this was after the ‘Influence of the Stars’ epidemic raged across Europe, Asia and Africa. Over 31 potential outbreaks were recorded between 1404 – 1900, resulting in thousands of deaths.
In the last century there were three influenza pandemics that occured – the Spanish Influenza, Asian Influenza and Hong Kong Influenza. Spanish influenza, which probably originated in France, killed up to 100 million people – more than both World Wars combined!
But what caused the flu?
A group in London lead by Wilson Smith, along with his colleagues Sir Christopher Andrewes and Sir Patrick Laidlaw, discovered the cause of flu. Nobody knew, until then, that it was a virus.
Soon after (in the 40s) another virus was also identified, and named influenza B. This virus is also an important cause of disease in humans; this season (2017/18) this virus is significant, and is known this year as “Japanese Flu”. Also this year, a variation of the influenza virus is causing significant problems across the world, and is known as “Aussie Flu”, or “h4N2”.
The History of the Vaccine
The discovery of the flu virus led to early testing of a simple “killed virus vaccine” in the thirties on British troops. Later, in 1940s’, the first official vaccine was tested, and it was demonstrated that this simple killed virus vaccine was effective – and protected people against that strain/type of flu. However, the vaccine only protected against the strain/type of flu it “contained”, not any new flu that might appear.
The killed virus vaccine was “locked down” at the time it was made, and could only protect against the viruses that it was made from.
The Vaccine and the Future
The current conventional flu vaccine and its potential to protect people and save lives is constantly being developed, and work is far from complete. The effectiveness of the vaccine varies enormously each year, from just 3% up to 70%.
In 2009, the world saw the first outbreak of a Pandemic Influenza virus this century. Such new viruses occur when the virus juggles its genes with those of another virus in a different animal, and then humans are exposed to a virus never seen before.
Each year, however, the virus also changes slowly. Unlike a Pandemic Influenza virus that appears from nowhere, these yearly viruses are caused by slow and subtle changes. Because of these viruses that drift (known as antigenic drift to scientific geeks in the field) each year, we need to have a new vaccine.
This year, with Aussie Flu, we have seen that influenza can catch us unprepared. We know that the virus has “drifted” slightly from that which is in the vaccine. The yearly vaccine is not perfect, it relies on a judgement that locks down the vaccine, but in the months that follow the virus can change.
In addition, we have had “Japanese Flu” – this was a B virus. In many countries, the yearly vaccine did not contain a killed virus that protected against that strain, hence we now read many reports of “Japanese Flu”.
This year, we are still in the middle of a major influenza outbreak in the northern hemisphere. Healthcare systems in most countries are at breaking point. This follows a southern hemisphere outbreak that, at least in Australia, has been reported as the worst ever.
We need a vaccine, a Universal Influenza Vaccine, not a vaccine locked to particular strains of the virus, that protects against the virus as it slowly mutates and drifts away from that used in the conventional vaccine each year. We also need a vaccine that protects against the unexpected Pandemic virus that can appear from nowhere, as it did with devastating consequences in 1918, and more recently in 2009 – when up to 1 million people are believed to have died.
At FluCamp, we study viruses like the flu and the common cold in safe and controlled conditions, through the use of clinical trials. We hope that one day our work, with the help of our volunteers, will contribute to the development of a vaccine that protects against any influenza virus that might slowly develop or suddenly appear.
Healthy volunteers, like those we recruit, are at worst likely to end up in bed feeling rough, but what we learn from them has been, and very much is, invaluable.
To find out more about FluCamp and the work that we do, click here page for more information, or call us on 0207 756 1414.
The Great Pandemic 100 Years Later
In 1918 an epidemic dubbed the Spanish flu killed at least 50 million people. What have we learned since then?
In the fall of 1918, near the end of World War I, another threat to human life was looming. While the danger had been growing since the previous year, the Spanish flu reached pandemic levels. The disease spread almost everywhere on Earth, including the Arctic. However, during the end of World War I the Spanish press were among the first to cover the event in detail. Even the Spanish king himself was afflicted, leading to the mistaken belief that the disease started in Spain.
A quarantine facility for infected soldiers. (Photo courtesy of CDC)
Once government officials acknowledged the danger, cities took extreme measures to attempt to stop the spread of the disease. Schools, theaters, and other public gathering places were forced to close, and the United States government earmarked an unprecedented sum to halt the spread. Vaccines were developed and promoted by governments, although we now know they were targeting the wrong influenza strain. In the end, it is estimated that between 50 and 100 million people died of the disease or from complications of the disease.
Although there were attempts at vaccination during the pandemic, the functional version of flu vaccines in the United States began in the 1940s. Thomas Francis Jr. and Jonas Salk, better known later for their work on the polio vaccine, were instrumental in the development of flu vaccines. The first approved version of the vaccine was administered to soldiers in 1945, during World War II. Civilians were able to get vaccinated the following year.
Influenza viruses are able to mutate through antigenic drift and shift, which necessitates constantly adapting vaccine varieties. Since adopting new standards in 1973, the World Health Organization (WHO) determines the three most likely influenza strains, or candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs), to include in that year’s flu shot. There are also quadrivalent vaccines on the market.
Volunteer drivers perform ambulance duty in St. Louis. (Photo Courtesy of CDC)
Until recently, almost all flu vaccines have been manufactured using fertilized chicken eggs to propagate the virus. This technique involves growing each of the three predicted CVVs in separate eggs, and combining the three into one vaccine. One of the primary advantages of this strategy is that eggs are cheaper and propagate influenza to high titers. There are drawbacks, though. In some rare instances, the egg-based vaccines have caused allergic reactions. If an avian influenza strain were to become virulent, it could decimate poultry populations and cause a shortage of eggs for consumption or vaccine manufacturing, which occurred in 2015 with the highly pathogenic H5N2. There are now viral vectored vaccines on the market now that can help the poultry producers if another H5 outbreak like this occurs. These vaccines use Charles River’s Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) cells or eggs.
Still, egg-based techniques can be time consuming and unpredictable, with a six month lag between CVV isolation and finished vaccines, and fluctuations in the amount of vaccine harvested from each egg. Therefore, influenza vaccine manufacturers are seeking alternatives.
Alternatively, researchers have been working on cell-based vaccines to replace the standard egg method. In 2016 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the manufacture of Novartis’ vaccine Flucelvax using cell-based virus isolation. In this process, cultured animal cells are used to incubate the viruses instead of eggs. This process not only eliminates the potential problem of an influenza outbreak, but also allows for faster manufacturing, though not necessarily faster than traditional methods where influenza in eggs incubates in 48-72 hours
Since the Spanish flu crisis there have been three more influenza pandemics, most recently in 2009. Luckily, since the invention of vaccines and other advances in modern health care, none have been nearly as deadly as the 1918 pandemic. However, without a universal flu vaccine, and with some people unable or unwilling to get a yearly shot, it is only a matter of time before another outbreak occurs. Influenza is a tricky virus, and has even made headlines this year with new strains being found in dogs. But with continually advancing technologies like cell-based vaccines, future doctors are ready to put up a fight against the flu.
Innovative universal flu vaccine shows promise in first clinical test | Science
Seasonal flu vaccines induce antibodies against the “head” (slate) of the influenza surface protein hemagglutinin, but a new universal vaccine triggers antibodies (fragments of them shown in gray) that bind to the stalk (light blue) portion.
Julianna Han/Ward Lab/Scripps Research
By Jon Cohen
For epidemiologists, the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly intensified their long-standing nightmare about another virus: the emergence of a new and deadly strain of flu. A universal flu vaccine, effective against any strain of the influenza virus that can infect humans, could protect us from this peril, but progress has been slow. A novel concept for one universal vaccine candidate has now passed its first test in a small clinical trial, its developers report today in Nature Medicine.
“This is an important paper,” says Aubree Gordon, an epidemiologist at the University of Michigan School of Public Health who studies influenza transmission and vaccines.
The influenza virus rapidly accumulates mutations and easily “reassorts,” or swaps, genes between strains, creating variants that can dodge any past immunity people had acquired naturally or from vaccines. That’s why a new flu vaccine must be developed each year.
Existing flu vaccines contain weakened or inactivated influenza viruses with a mix of hemagglutinins (HAs), the proteins that stud their surfaces. These vaccines primarily aim to trigger antibody responses against HA’s top part, or head. Genetic changes in flu viruses rarely alter most of the head. But a small part of the head does reassort, or mutate, frequently, which allows new viral strains to dodge any immune memory and forces flu vaccinemakers to prepare new formulations each year, with updated HAs.
HA’s bottom portion, or stalk, is less apt to vary, and epidemiological studies have shown people who have been exposed to an influenza strain and developed antibodies to the stalk can ward off a wide variety of other strains. So, the new universal flu vaccine candidate, one of a handful in development, puts HA’s stalk front and center. The study shows for the first time that “you can develop a vaccine strategy that produces stalk-reactive antibodies in humans,” says virologist Florian Krammer of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, who co-leads a multi-institutional universal flu vaccines consortium funded by the U. S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and helped develop the candidate tested in the new trial. Other clinical trials testing stalk-based universal flu vaccine candidates have yet to report data.
Targeting the stalk is harder than it sounds, because immune memory cells built up over a lifetime of flu infections react so strongly to the conserved region of HA’s head that this response overrides production of antibodies against the stalk. Some researchers have tried to make flu vaccines that only contain HA’s stalk, but this fragment is highly unstable. To get around this problem, Krammer and colleagues made what they call chimeric HAs, which link the protein’s conserved stalk to unusual heads that are entirely new to the human immune system and don’t trigger a person’s immune memory. Only low levels of head antibodies are produced, allowing a strong new immune response to stalk to dominate. In essence, the head of the chimera is only there to stabilize the stalk.
Influenza vaccines contain three to four strains of the virus that are classified as group A, which breaks into two other divisions, and group B strains. The researchers developed vaccines made from live, weakened versions of influenza viruses or inactivated viruses bearing chimeric HAs representing only one division of group A. In the trial, 51 participants received the various vaccines and their antibodies were compared with those of 15 people who received placebos. A single shot of vaccine with chimeric HA inactivated viruses, the researchers report, “induced remarkably high antistalk antibody titers.”
The trial was only a phase I study to establish safety and measure immune responses, which means it didn’t test the ability of the vaccines to protect people from influenza. Still, when the researchers transferred human antibodies triggered by the experimental vaccines into mice and then “challenged” the rodents with the influenza virus, the mice lost far less weight than untreated mice who also were infected, suggesting the antibodies protected them. Immunologist James Crowe, who runs the vaccine center at Vanderbilt University, says the study is “a serious effort” to test the stalk antibody hypothesis and “an important first step.”
Krammer says it will likely take at least 2 years to develop chimeric HAs representing enough other strains from influenza groups A and B to be combined into a universal vaccine. That mix would then be tested in a large-scale, multiyear study designed to show that the vaccine candidate works better than the seasonal vaccine. The seasonal vaccine works fairly well in years when its HA closely matches the variants in circulation, so the chimeric HAs would only show their true power during one of the rarer years when there’s a mismatch.
This “long development path,” Krammer suspects, is the main reason his team lost an initial corporate partner, GlaxoSmithKline, which has another universal flu vaccine in clinical trials. “It’s difficult to get to get a lot of interest for something like this,” Krammer says.
Influenza (Flu) Immunization: Myths and Facts
Influenza (flu) vaccines are a safe and effective way to help people stay healthy, prevent illness and even save lives. The influenza virus can cause serious illness and even death in people with certain chronic health conditions.
The influenza vaccines available in B.C. are either inactivated or live attenuated vaccines. The inactivated influenza vaccine, or flu shot, is made of killed influenza viruses and is given by injection. The live attenuated influenza vaccine is made from weakened influenza viruses and is given as a nasal spray.
Many people use the term flu to refer to any illness caused by a virus, such as stomach flu or the common cold. However, the influenza virus causes illness that tends to be more severe than these viruses.
Myths and facts about influenza and influenza immunization
Myth: Influenza is not a serious illness.
Fact: In years when influenza is widespread in B. C., hundreds of people may die from influenza or its complications, such as pneumonia. Influenza can lead to serious illness in seniors 65 years and older and in other high risk groups.
Myth: I have never had influenza, so I do not need to get an influenza vaccine.
Fact: Most people can get sick with influenza several times during their lives. An influenza vaccine is the best protection against the influenza virus.
Myth: The influenza vaccines can give me influenza.
Fact: The inactivated influenza vaccine (flu shot) cannot give you influenza. The vaccine contains killed influenza viruses that cannot cause infection.
The live attenuated influenza vaccine given as a nasal spray contains weakened influenza viruses. Common reactions to the live vaccine include mild symptoms such as a runny nose, nasal congestion, cough, sore throat and fever. These symptoms are less severe than those from influenza infection and last a shorter time.
As a precaution, people with weakened immune systems should not get the live vaccine.
Myth: The influenza vaccines cause severe reactions or side effects.
Fact: The influenza vaccines are safe. Most people who get the flu shot only have redness, soreness or swelling where the vaccine was given. Some people, especially those who get the flu shot for the first time, may have a headache, muscle aches or tiredness. People who receive the live attenuated influenza vaccine may have mild influenza symptoms as described above.
Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a rare condition that can result in weakness and paralysis of the body’s muscles. It most commonly occurs after infections. In rare cases, GBS can also occur after some vaccines. GBS may be associated with influenza vaccine in about 1 per million recipients.
Myth: Getting an influenza vaccine every year weakens my immune system.
Fact: Because the influenza virus strains change most years, you need to get immunized each year to be protected against new strains. People who get the vaccine each year are better protected than those who remain unimmunized.
Myth: I should not get an influenza vaccine because I have allergies.
Fact: Most people with allergies can get an influenza vaccine without any problems. However, if you have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of influenza vaccine or any part of the vaccine, talk to your health care provider. You may need to be tested for allergies before being immunized. People with egg allergies can be safely immunized with an influenza vaccine.
Myth: The influenza vaccines protect against the viruses or bacteria that cause colds or stomach illnesses.
Fact: Influenza vaccines do not protect against the viruses or bacteria that cause colds or stomach illnesses, often called the stomach flu. The influenza virus is very different and typically causes more severe illness than the common cold or the stomach flu. Influenza vaccines only protect against the viruses that cause influenza.
Myth: The vaccines do not work because I still get influenza (the flu).
Fact: There are many different types of viruses that can cause flu-like symptoms any time of the year, but these are not actually the influenza virus.
The influenza vaccines protect against the strains of influenza viruses that health experts think will likely cause influenza during the flu season. The vaccines do not protect against other viruses that cause similar illnesses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or parainfluenza. Because the influenza virus strains change most years, you need to get immunized each year to be protected against new strains.
In elderly people and people who have certain chronic health conditions, the vaccines may not prevent influenza completely but may decrease symptoms, complications and the risk of death from influenza.
Myth: I am pregnant and should not get an influenza vaccine.
Fact: The inactivated influenza vaccine or flu shot is considered safe at any stage of pregnancy. Women in the second half of pregnancy are at higher risk of hospitalization due to influenza, especially those in the third trimester. As well, women at any stage of pregnancy who have chronic medical conditions are also at higher risk of serious influenza complications and should be immunized.
It is not known if the live attenuated influenza vaccine is safe during pregnancy. Pregnant women, or those intending to become pregnant, should receive the inactivated influenza vaccine (flu shot), which contains killed influenza viruses that cannot cause infection.
Myth: I am a nursing mother and should not get an influenza vaccine.
Fact: It is safe for babies to breastfeed after mothers receive the influenza vaccine.
For More Information
For more information, see the following HealthLinkBC Files:
How Are Influenza (Flu) Vaccines Made?
The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine
Veterinarian Dr. Andrew Bowman swabs a pig’s snout at the Union County, Ohio fair.
Pigs, pandemics and a better vaccine
But even the most effectively formulated seasonal flu shot is, by design, only intended to protect people from the types of flu that commonly circulate in humans.
Among researchers, another main area of concern is the possibility of a flu pandemic, which occurs when a flu virus that typically infects animals, like pigs or birds, changes in such a way that it can spread rapidly — and perhaps lethally — from person to person.
That’s where experts like veterinarian and professor Andrew Bowman, who leads Ohio State University’s animal influenza research program, come in.
Bowman and his team spend each summer traveling to more than 100 county fairs, where they swab the snouts of exhibition pigs in search of flu strains with pandemic potential. Much like the CDC researchers who analyze human flu specimens, their goal is to use genetic testing to get an early look at potentially troublesome changes in the viruses they capture.
“As we characterize these strains, we can identify viruses that might be able to spread human-to-human so that we can have effective countermeasures in place before … an outbreak,” Bowman says. These countermeasures include collaborating with the CDC to have the building blocks of a pandemic flu vaccine at the ready, should the need arise.
But it doesn’t take a pandemic for the flu to be a serious, even fatal, health threat — especially for older adults.
“The typical patient that gets complications from the flu is usually an older person, and usually somebody with an underlying medical condition,” says emergency physician Jeremy Brown, author of Influenza: The Hundred-Year Hunt to Cure the Deadliest Disease in History.
New RNA Technology Could Get the Flu Vaccine Right, Every Year
We’ve been making the flu vaccine in nearly the same way for 70 years. A new technology based on RNA could disrupt that.
Developing the flu vaccine each year is like a game of prediction.
Scientists must peer into a “crystal ball” of viral surveillance data and make their best forecast of which viruses will be dominant the next season. Since it takes nearly six months to make enough vaccine, these early picks can be poor matches. Consider that even in a good year, the flu vaccine is only about 60 percent effective at preventing illness.
But Pfizer has recently entered into a collaboration with German biotech BioNTech to develop new RNA vaccine technology to create a better flu shot. The multi-year partnership will build upon BioNTech’s RNA technology and could significantly speed up the vaccine manufacturing process, removing much of the guess work of matching the right formulation to the season’s dominant strains.
“It always a bit of lottery each year when the flu vaccine comes out. There’s always concern whether they’re will be enough supply in time for the peak season and how well it’s going to work,” says Phil Dormitzer, Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer, Viral Vaccines at Pfizer’s Pearl River, N. Y. research site. “If we are able to reduce or eliminate the mismatch we have from year to year, it would be a huge opportunity to help prevent influenza illness and death.”
Removing the guesswork
With conventional vaccines, the flu virus is grown in chicken eggs or mammalian cells, and then inactivated and processed to be made into vaccines. The disadvantage to this approach is there is much variability in the finished product — the virus can mutate even during vaccine production — and the production process must be updated for every new strain.
But with this new technology, scientists would not need to use live cells in the lab. Instead, they would monitor surveillance data on the current viral strains and use information on the genes of those strains to synthetically produce corresponding RNA. When a person is injected with the RNA, their own muscle cells would turn into vaccine “factories,” creating proteins that stimulate the immune response. “We predict that their cells will gobble up the RNA and start expressing the flu antigen,” says Dormitzer. Because this approach more closely mimics what happens when a person is infected with the actual flu (but without the person becoming sick), a stronger immune response will hopefully be elicited. “You get more arms of the immune system involved,” adds Dormitzer, referring to aspects of immunity that involve both antibody and T-cell activity.
The manufacturing process for the RNA vaccine is also simpler that the current vaccine technology. At research scale, an RNA vaccine can be made eight days after the sequence of a new flu virus is first known. The equipment used to make the vaccine bulk could fit in a shipping container. “Experts predict that the vaccine could be made quickly, such that you can pick your strains closer to the actual flu season removing a lot of the guesswork required with the current technology,” says Dormitzer. “Unlike in conventional flu vaccine manufacturing, even if the flu strains change from year to year, the production process remains the same. ”
It also gives scientists and public health officials better tools to rapidly respond to major flu outbreaks or pandemics. “You can even consider making rescue vaccines,” says Dormitzer. “In many cases, if we did get the strains wrong a new vaccine could be rapidly produced to specifically address the strain causing the outbreak.”
The technology is several years away from being tested in the U.S., but Dormitzer is optimistic about the potential of this new approach. “It’s technology that has the capacity to disrupt and greatly improve influenza vaccination,” he says. “If successful, it could supplant a lot of the way we do things now.”
There’s A New Flu Vaccine Every Year. Why Can’t A Coronavirus Vaccine Be Ready That Fast?
Since the coronavirus genome sequence was published, researchers have been hard at work to create an effective, safe vaccine against the new virus. For those of us waiting, it feels like a long time, but it’s not unusual for vaccines development to take more than a decade.
So how do they create new flu shots every single year?
Developing a vaccine to an entirely new virus is more complicated than updating a vaccine for a … [+] different version of a known virus
To answer this, it’s important to understand why we don’t just use the same flu vaccine each fall. “Influenza viruses change over time, they drift,” explains Dr. Pedro Piedra, professor in molecular biology and microbiology at Baylor College of Medicine, in Houston, Texas. This drift comes from very tiny genetic alterations that occur frequently in a key part of the virus. These are essentially cosmetic changes, not structural ones: the virus reproduces the same way, and makes us sick in the same way. It’s still an influenza virus, just with different surface decorations. But it’s those decorations that trigger the body’s immune response.
Flu virus particles are covered in two types of protein molecules, hemagglutinin (H) and … [+] neuraminidase (N). The exact sequence of these proteins can change, creating new strains, but that doesn’t change how the vaccine is made.
The H’s and N’s of influenza
Two types of protein molecule cover the surface of the influenza virus particle. These proteins are called hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). When you hear a flu strain referred to as “h2N1” or “h4N2,” that code indicates which version of these two proteins that virus carries. These proteins are the antigens that the immune system reacts to. When they change, they provide a bit of disguise for the virus. Antibodies that you have in your body against one strain of flu won’t attack a different strain as vigorously, even though they’re both influenza viruses.
Each year, around January or February, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consults with global virus surveillance teams to select which strains of influenza are likely to be most prevalent in the coming year. In the U.S., the flu shot usually contains antigens from four different flu strains. “In any given year, you have one to two strains that are going to need to be replaced,” said Pietra. Once the strains are identified, flu manufacturers get to work growing the viruses and purifying the antigens that will be used in that season’s formulation. “Although it seems rapid, there’s an intense amount of work that occurs within a 4-6 month period to ensure that the vaccine supplies for influenza are available for the coming fall,” Pietra said.
“I hope nobody thinks that because vaccines are being made on annual basis, they are of inferior quality.” — Pedro Pietra, Baylor College of Medicine
This system works well enough when seasonal flu strains change only slightly, because our immune system can still recognize the virus, even though the changes cause the antibodies to be less effective. Pietra points out that it’s a whole different ballgame when a completely novel influenza virus arises. “That can cause a pandemic, because we haven’t seen it,” he said. “Something similar to what happened in 2009 and 2010, with the novel h2N1.” Even so, the new influenza virus behaves basically the same way, and a vaccine can be made using the same systems, but incorporating the novel antigens.
After months of studying the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, researchers know that the so-called “spike protein” on its surface induces antibody production. So why can’t vaccine makers use the same strategy they use for the seasonal flu shot, but substituting the spike protein?
Starting from scratch with the spike protein
The coronavirus is covered in spike proteins, and scientists had to learn how to isolate those … [+] proteins before they could make an effective vaccine
“They’re worlds apart,” Pietra said. A coronavirus is completely different than an influenza virus, so first, the virus had to be studied in an animal model to understand how it behaves inside the body. Once the spike protein was identified as an antigen, researchers had to learn how to purify it.
Even under identical laboratory conditions, Pietra said, different proteins behave differently. “You have to optimize the conditions for that particular antigen.”
The end product must contain large amounts of antigens, with no impurities — and it has to stimulate the immune system.
Antigens may fold into a certain shape under conditions inside the body, but fold differently when they’re isolated in the laboratory. If the purified antigen differs too much in shape from the antigen as it’s attached to the live virus, it won’t be effective as a vaccine. More testing is done to ensure that the antigen will generate plenty of antibodies.
Finally, there are different delivery systems, or platforms, that can be used to make the vaccine. These can use killed or inactivated viruses, or they can use just certain proteins isolated from the virus. New, more efficient platforms are always being developed, and several different coronavirus vaccines are currently in development using different platforms.
“It’s being developed very rapidly, because it’s unprecedented, the pandemic that we’re having,” Pietra said. “Many things are being done at super speed.” It’s worth noting that when a new vaccine is being developed over the course of a decade, not all of that time is needed for development and safety testing. Mass-producing a vaccine requires significant logistical planning to develop appropriate manufacturing systems.
Normally, companies won’t commit millions of dollars to establish these systems until they’re certain the vaccine will be safe and effective, and in demand. To speed things up, the government has committed funding to kickstart manufacturing on several vaccine candidates, so that distribution can begin quickly after safety and efficacy testing wraps up.
Even after a coronavirus vaccine is brought to market, vaccine researchers will keep working to design new and better versions of the vaccine. We don’t yet know how long immunity to SARS-CoV-2 will last, although some evidence suggests antibodies stick around for months or even a year. It’s possible that booster shots will be needed, to maintain immunity year after year, and we can’t rule out that new strains may emerge. Whatever happens, vaccine technology continues to improve, and new advances will keep coming.
Full coverage and live updates on the Coronavirus
90,000 Vektor announced the development of a unified influenza and COVID-19 vaccine :: Society :: RBK
Studies have shown that the simultaneous illness of seasonal flu and coronavirus significantly increases the severity of influenza and increases the likelihood of death, said Rinat Maksyutov, general director of the center.
Photo: Evgeny Epanchintsev / RIA Novosti
Specialists of the Vector Scientific Center of Rospotrebnadzor are developing a combined influenza and COVID-19 vaccine. This was announced by the head of the center Rinat Maksyutov at a special session within the framework of the annual meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club.
“The center is working on the development of a combined vaccine against coronavirus and seasonal flu,” said Maksyutov.
According to the head of the center, Vektor conducted a comprehensive study of co-infection with the seasonal influenza virus and coronavirus.“It showed that the simultaneous illness of influenza and COVID-19 significantly increases the severity and mortality of the seasonal flu,” he said. “The relevance of these studies has not only a theoretical evidence base, but also a practical one,” added Maksyutov.
WHO pledges to draw conclusions about the “Vector” vaccine after three phases of trials
NEW VACCINE FOR PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA
Domestic inactivated subunit influenza vaccine for the prevention of influenza – “Sovigripp”, is undergoing clinical trials to expand the possibility of its use in children and pregnant women.
Expansion of the age categories for the use of the Sovigripp vaccine will make it possible to use the drug not only for the prevention of influenza in all age groups of the population, but also for the category especially vulnerable to the influenza virus – pregnant women. Recall that the Sovigripp vaccine has already proven its effectiveness and safety for active annual preventive immunization against seasonal influenza in people over 18 years of age, as well as in the elderly (60 years and older).
Already in the epidemic season 2015-2016., anyone of any age can be vaccinated with an effective and safe vaccine of domestic production – “Sovigripp”.
The unique vaccine “Soviripp” is made by the adjuvant Sovidon (copolymer of N-vinylpyrrolidone and 2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine), which is used in its production. The fact is that similar vaccines used for the prevention of influenza contain the adjuvant Polyoxidonium, and only Sovigripp contains Sovidon, an adjuvant with immunomodulatory, detoxifying, antioxidant and membrane-protective properties.These qualities are due to its polymer nature. Studies have shown that the drug has virtually no toxicity and pyrogenicity (increase in body temperature), which will greatly help to relieve the sometimes arising fears and fears of some parents regarding vaccination of their children.
The Territorial Department of the Office of Rospotrebnadzor for Moscow in the Central Administrative District of Moscow informs that pre-season vaccination of citizens against influenza has begun in Moscow.Organizations engaged in medical activities have already received more than 40% of the total volume of vaccine for this year. In the Central District, more than 230 thousand people will be vaccinated against influenza free of charge.
This year, the Moscow authorities also participated in financing the procurement of influenza vaccines, together with Rospotrebnadzor. Due to this, the number of doses has increased significantly.
Including the purchase of a new vaccine “Sovigripp”, developed by Russian scientists. In the epidemic season 2015-2016., anyone of any age can be vaccinated with an effective and safe vaccine of domestic production – “Sovigripp”.
After vaccination, immunity reaches a sufficient level of resistance to infection in 10-14 days and lasts for 7-9 months.
The Territorial Department of the Office of Rospotrebnadzor in Moscow in the Central Administrative District of Moscow reminds residents of Moscow that vaccination is the main and most reliable way to protect themselves from influenza and complications of the disease.The optimal period for vaccination is the first months of autumn.
Any Muscovite can apply for a flu shot at the clinic at the place of attachment. Vaccination of preschoolers and schoolchildren takes place at their place of study.
For immunization of the population against influenza, contact:
• to the Moscow Department of Health, tel: 8 (499) 251-83-00;
• to the hotline of the Moscow City Consultative and Diagnostic Center for Specific Immunoprophylaxis of the Moscow City Health Department, tel: 8 (499) 194-27-74;
• to the Office of Rospotrebnadzor for the city of Moscow, tel: 8 (495) 687-40-70;
• to the Territorial Department of the Office of Rospotrebnadzor for the city of Moscow in the Central Administrative DistrictMoscow, tel: 8 (495) 692-36-40.
90,000 Did you ask about the flu shot? The doctor answers
MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS
MINSK CITY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
GU “MINSK CITY CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY KOMVOTE RANGE
Head of the Department of Immunoprophylaxis, State Institution “Minsk City Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology”, doctor of the highest category
Glinskaya Irina Nikolaevna
Doctor-epidemiologist of the Department of Immunoprophylaxis of the State Institution “Minsk City Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology”, doctor of the highest category
Volosar Lyudmila Albertovna
Head of the anti-epidemic department of the center of hygiene and epidemiology of the Moscow region, doctor of the first category
Vysotskaya Veronika Stanislavovna
Doctor of the city center of vaccination at the city children’s infectious diseases clinical hospital, doctor of the first category
Zyl Andrey Anatolievich
1. Relevance of influenza
2. Section 1. Vaccines for the prevention of influenza
1 What does live vaccine mean?
2 What does an inactivated (ie killed) vaccine mean?
3. What do all influenza vaccines have in common?
4. What is the difference between influenza vaccines?
5. What names of influenza vaccines are used in our country?
6. The Fluvaxin vaccine appeared in our country recently. How do experts characterize it?
7.How are influenza vaccines given?
8. How do we know which flu viruses will come to us in winter?
9. Can influenza vaccines differ in terms of the virus variants included in them?
Section 2. Efficacy and safety of vaccines for the prevention of influenza
1. When will the protection against illness be formed after the flu shot?
2. Does a flu shot guarantee 100% protection against illness?
3. Can the influenza vaccine cause reactions?
4. Which influenza vaccines are most likely to develop reactions?
Section 3. Contraindications for vaccination
1. When vaccines against influenza are not allowed
2. Can I get a flu shot if I have a chronic heart disease?
Section 4. Risk contingents
1. For whom the flu is most dangerous
Section 5. On the annual vaccination against influenza and the choice of vaccines
1. Is it necessary to be vaccinated this year if I was vaccinated in the past?
2 What is the best way to get the same vaccine every year, or is it better to change them?
3.Which flu vaccine to choose for an 8 month old baby and his breastfeeding mother?
Section 6. Particular questions on vaccine prophylaxis of influenza
1. Is it possible to get the flu after vaccination and infect others?
2. Do I need to prepare for the flu vaccine?
3. Is it possible to vaccinate a child if he has a cold more than 4 times a year?
4. Can I be vaccinated if I have a cold, but the cough remains?
5.If I did not have time to get vaccinated before the flu epidemic, can I get vaccinated during the epidemic?
6. Why do adults receive one dose of influenza vaccine, while some children are advised to have two?
7. Is it possible to be vaccinated against influenza and diphtheria at one time?
8. Got the flu shot last year, but got sick anyway. What is the meaning of this vaccination?
9. There is an opinion (in particular, adherents of alternative medicine) that vaccination is harmful to children. They argue that during the period when the child is still developing immunity, the body is just beginning to produce it itself, the injected vaccine supposedly oppresses and weakens the body.And in general, any vaccination reduces the ability of a child’s body to develop immunity on its own. Maybe she is not needed by the little-sham?
10. When is the best time to get the flu shot?
11. Where can I get a flu shot?
12. Why is it recommended to vaccinate 40% of workers in the team?
13. How will children be vaccinated against influenza in schools and kindergartens?
Influenza vaccination in facts
If you have any additional questions regarding vaccinations against influenza – contact numbers
Relevance of influenza
Almost every person who cares about their health and the health of their family and friends is faced with the question: “Do I need to get a flu shot?”
We will try to answer this question, as well as a number of questions related to this problem.
Influenza viruses are among those pathogens that have an extremely high ability to change. Therefore, our immune system, when faced with a modified influenza virus, begins to perceive it as a new, previously unknown virus. And while the immune system “adjusts” the production of protective antibodies to fight the influenza virus, the person develops the disease. It is with the variability of influenza viruses that the annual seasonal increases in morbidity are associated.
After vaccination or influenza, protective antibodies are formed in the body, but they persist for a little more than six months and then are destroyed. When a new influenza virus arrives next year, it again “takes our immune system by surprise” and we get sick again.
Therefore, the annual flu vaccination is the only truly effective means of protecting against the disease.
Section 1. Vaccines for the prevention of influenza
There are the following types of vaccines for the prevention of influenza: live and inactivated (i.e.e. killed).
What does live vaccine mean?
A live vaccine is a vaccine that contains a live vaccine (ie, specially designed for a vaccine) influenza virus.
What does an inactivated (i. e. killed) vaccine mean?
An inactivated (i.e. killed) vaccine is a vaccine that contains a whole killed influenza vaccine virus or its individual particles (antigens).
Inactivated vaccines, depending on the integrity of the vaccine virus, are subdivided into:
|Whole Virion , t.e. vaccines containing the whole vaccine virus.|
|Subunit vaccines i.e. vaccines containing only the outer particles of the influenza vaccine virus.|
|Split vaccines , i.e. split vaccines containing separate external and internal particles of the influenza vaccine virus.|
What do all influenza vaccines have in common?
All influenza vaccines provide reliable immunity against influenza disease.
How are influenza vaccines different?
By injection method
Live vaccines are administered by spraying with a dispenser or by instillation in the nasal passages
Killed vaccines given by injection
Age at which vaccinations can be carried out
Live and inactivated whole virion vaccines can be administered from the age of 3 years and older
Split and subunit vaccines can be administered from 6 months of age
Frequency of development of reactions
With the introduction of live and inactivated whole-virion vaccines , the likelihood of developing reactions is higher than with the use of split and subunit vaccines
With split and subunit vaccines , the likelihood of developing reactions is lower than with live and inactivated whole virion vaccines
List of contraindications
With the use of live and inactivated whole-virion vaccines , this list has been expanded compared to the list for split and subunit vaccines
For vaccination using split and subunit vaccines the list of contraindications is minimum
List of indications
The list of indications for vaccination with live and inactivated whole virion vaccines is less compared to the list for split and subunit vaccines
With split and subunit vaccines , influenza vaccines can be given to pregnant and lactating women, children from 6 months of age and individuals with a history of certain medical conditions
What are the names of vaccines
against influenza are used in our country?
All of the following names of vaccines are registered with the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus and have experience in application in our country and abroad.
Live vaccine is represented by influenza allantoic intranasal live dry – LHV (manufacturing country Russia).
Inactivated vaccines presented:
Whole Virion Vaccines – Grippovac (manufacturing country Russia), inactivated influenza vaccine – IGV (manufacturing country Russia).
Split vaccines – Vaxigrip (producer country France), Fluarix (producer country Belgium), Fluvaxin (producer country China).
Subunit vaccines – Grippol (manufacturing country Russia), Grippol neo (manufacturing country Russia), Grippol plus (manufacturing country Russia), Influvac (manufacturing country Netherlands).
Fluvaxin vaccine appeared in our country recently.
How do specialists describe it?
Fluvaxin vaccine has been used in a number of countries around the world since 2004. (Asian countries, Russian Federation, Chile, etc.)etc.). Since this period, more than 18 million doses of the vaccine have been used. The safety and efficacy of the vaccine is identical with the Vaxigrip vaccine, which has experience in using in our country.
In 2010. in Minsk, more than 250,000 people were vaccinated with the Fluvaxin vaccine. In general, over 1,212,000 people were protected with the use of this vaccine in the republic. The Fluvaxin vaccine has established itself as a highly effective and safe drug.
How are influenza vaccines given?
Live vaccines are given by instillation or spraying into the nasal passages.
All inactivated vaccines are injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously. The intramuscular route of administration is preferred because it implies better absorption of the drug and therefore more efficacy. The subcutaneous route of administration is less preferable for the reason that the vaccine remains for some time at the injection site and slowly dissolves, which in turn affects the rate of formation of protective immunity.
Intramuscular injection of the vaccine is carried out in the shoulder (children 18 months and older, adolescents and adults), and subcutaneous – in the subscapularis region or the outer surface of the shoulder.
How do we know which flu viruses will come to us in the winter?
Influenza virus circulates according to certain biological laws. Almost always virus , which caused a rise in the incidence in Southeast Asia in the spring, arrives in Europe in the fall.
There are several hundred laboratories in the world that monitor influenza viruses. Analyzing information about the viruses that cause influenza, experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) annually by April – May make recommendations on the variants of influenza viruses that should be included in the seasonal vaccine.
Statistics of the last 20 years indicate that those variants of influenza viruses that were recommended by WHO for inclusion in vaccines coincided in more than 90% of cases (in some years there were discrepancies in one of the 3 variants included in the vaccine ).
Can influenza vaccines be different
for the virus variants included in them?
No, vaccines from different manufacturers do not differ in their influenza virus variants.Each year, vaccines include those influenza virus variants recommended by WHO experts.
Section 2. Vaccine efficacy and safety
for the prevention of influenza
When after influenza vaccination
will there be a protection against the disease?
15-20 days after vaccination, immunity develops, which provides protection against influenza for 9-12 months.
Does a flu shot guarantee 100% protection against illness?
No medical or prophylactic drug gives 100% guarantee against the disease.
How reliable protection is developed after vaccination depends on many factors, incl. age and health of the patient, individual characteristics, etc. But on average, 70-98 people out of 100 vaccinated will not get the flu. If, nevertheless, the vaccinated person gets sick with the flu (2-30 people out of 100 vaccinated), then the disease will be mild and without complications.Thus, vaccination guarantees protection against illness from severe and fatal forms of influenza.
The influenza vaccine is intended primarily to protect against influenza viruses and not against other respiratory viruses. At the same time, the influenza vaccine has additional, to some extent, immunomodulatory properties. Thanks to this, the immune system of about 20-25 people out of 100 vaccinated acquires additional protection against other respiratory viral infections.
Can influenza vaccine cause reactions?
Administration of any vaccines, incl. flu vaccines may cause reactions.
The appearance of fever or redness at the injection site is a natural reaction to any vaccine, indicating the beginning of the formation of protection.
After vaccination against influenza, those vaccinated may experience:
General reactions – are reactions that generally affect the body and are manifested in the form of an increase in body temperature, malaise, headache, etc.
Local reactions are reactions that appear at the injection site in the form of induration and tenderness.
These manifestations are short-term, do not require treatment and disappear on their own within 2-3 days, without disrupting the ability to work and without requiring additional treatment.
Which influenza vaccines are most likely to develop reactions?
With the introduction of split and subunit vaccines out of 100 vaccinated against influenza, 2-8 people may have local reactions in the form of redness, induration or soreness at the injection site, and in 1-7 people out of 100 vaccinated – general reactions in the form of a short-term an increase in body temperature (up to 37. 5 ° C), general malaise.All these symptoms are short-lived and disappear spontaneously, usually after 1–2 days.
More often there are general reactions to the introduction of live vaccines: out of 100 vaccinated against influenza, 8-15 people may have general reactions in the form of an increase in body temperature (up to 38 ° C), general malaise. All these symptoms are short-lived and disappear on their own.
Section 3. Contraindications for vaccination
When shouldn’t the flu vaccine be given?
There are certain health conditions where the flu vaccine can be temporarily postponed (temporary contraindications) or the vaccine should never be given at all (permanent contraindications).In any case, the doctor decides on contraindications, after examining and interviewing the patient.
Temporary contraindications to vaccination against influenza include a state of acute illness or exacerbation of a chronic illness. After normalization of the condition (decrease in temperature and recovery) or the transition of a chronic disease to the stage of remission, the vaccine can be administered.
A permanent contraindication of to influenza vaccination is established extremely rarely, in the case of an immediate allergic reaction in the form of anaphylactic shock, urticaria, Quincke’s edema to chicken egg white (i.e.because the cultivation of the vaccine virus occurs precisely on chicken embryos). Such reactions occur in persons who, when trying to eat a chicken egg in any form (boiled egg, scrambled eggs, etc.), a person immediately develops swelling of the lower lip, throat, etc. If there are no such reactions, then influenza vaccination is safe for such a person.
Can I get the flu shot,
if there is a chronic heart disease?
It is possible and necessary. Chronic diseases (including heart disease) are not a contraindication, but an indication for the flu vaccine. Patients with chronic diseases tolerate vaccination well and develop adequate protection against the disease. The vaccination carried out does not lead to an exacerbation of the chronic disease, while the transferred flu with a high degree of probability can lead to an exacerbation of the chronic disease and the aggravation of its further course.
However, during an exacerbation of a chronic disease, the doctor will suggest postponing the vaccination until the condition stabilizes.
Section 4. Risk contingents
For whom is the flu most dangerous?
Influenza is dangerous for everyone, because during the seasonal rise in the incidence of influenza, healthy people also die. However, the greatest threat from influenza and its complications is posed to young children, the elderly, and people with chronic diseases. These are, first of all, children with lesions of the central nervous system, patients with heart pathology (congenital heart defects, a history of heart attack, coronary artery disease, etc.)with diseases of the lungs, kidneys, endocrine system, with immunodeficiencies, etc. Unfortunately, these conditions are sometimes mistakenly considered as contraindications for influenza vaccination. Although such persons require priority protection.
Influenza is also dangerous for women planning pregnancy. It is advisable to get vaccinated before pregnancy or during the second or third trimester. Influenza in a pregnant woman can lead to fetal malformations or miscarriage.
Influenza is also relevant for people who, due to the nature of their profession (teachers, educators, salespeople, doctors, other people working in teams), come into contact with a large number of people and have a high risk of contracting the flu.
Section 5. On annual influenza vaccination and selection of vaccines
Is it necessary to vaccinate this year,
If vaccinated in the past?
The protective antibodies produced after vaccination are usually destroyed within 9-12 months after vaccination or their amount becomes insufficient to protect against influenza in the new season. In addition, the variants of influenza viruses that are included in vaccines are updated annually. So it’s worth getting vaccinated annually.
How best to vaccinate:
the same vaccine every year or is it better to change them?
Considering that every year the variants of influenza viruses in all vaccines are the same, there is no reason to change the vaccine you like.
Which flu vaccine to choose for an 8 month old baby and his breastfeeding mother?
The use of inactivated split or subunit influenza vaccines is advisable.Both of these types of vaccines form immune defenses of a similar strength and are equally safe.
The high degree of purification of vaccines and the minimum number of reactions to vaccinations makes it possible to use them in infants from 6 months, people with chronic diseases, in pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Section 6 Particular questions on influenza vaccination
Is it possible to get the flu after vaccination
and infect others?
You cannot get the flu with any vaccine.Since during the production process, vaccine viruses lose their ability to cause disease, but they retain the ability to form protection.
As for split and subunit vaccines, during their production the vaccine viruses are broken down into separate particles, which additionally guarantees that there is no risk of getting the flu after vaccination.
When vaccinated with a live vaccine, the risk of contracting the vaccine virus to others is extremely low. In the case of vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccines, there is no risk of infection of the surrounding people with the vaccine virus.
Do I need to prepare for influenza vaccination in any way?
Most people do not need special preparation for influenza vaccination. For individual patients (for example, those with allergic diseases), the doctor may prescribe medication. In patients with chronic diseases, vaccination is carried out while taking conventional therapy.
Can a child be vaccinated if they have colds more than 4 times a year?
Not only possible, but also necessary.It is such a child that is most susceptible to complications that develop after suffering the flu. It is necessary to vaccinate such a child in the absence of an acute illness.
Is it possible to vaccinate if I have had a cold, but the cough remains?
It is not recommended to be vaccinated during the period of acute illness. As for the residual effects, they are not a contraindication, but in any case, your condition will be assessed by a doctor before vaccination, who will make the final decision.
If I did not have time to get vaccinated before the flu epidemic, can I get vaccinated during the flu epidemic?
It is widely believed that vaccination is contraindicated once the incidence of influenza begins to rise. This has to do with live influenza vaccines. Inactivated vaccines can be used throughout the influenza season if the risk is high enough. However, if the vaccine was given when the person has already contracted the influenza virus (but the symptoms have not yet appeared), then the vaccination will be ineffective.
Why are adults given one dose of influenza vaccine, while some children are advised to have two?
This is due to the fact that adults have an immunological memory for influenza viruses, so one dose is enough to “refresh” it. Young children are given 2 doses only in the first year of vaccination. In subsequent years, one vaccination is enough for them to form effective protection.
Can I get a flu and diphtheria vaccine at one time?
The influenza vaccine can be combined with any vaccine other than tuberculosis vaccine. The only condition is that both vaccines will be injected in different parts of the body.
Got a flu shot last year, but got sick anyway. What is the meaning of this vaccination?
There are 2 ways to explain this situation.
First, along with the influenza virus, disease in humans can cause more than 200 types of other respiratory viruses. Moreover, it is almost impossible to distinguish these diseases by clinical symptoms.Therefore, if you were vaccinated and you have an illness with fever, headache, weakness, this does not mean that the flu has developed. Most likely, this is another viral infection, because you are protected from the flu. And it is important for us to protect you from the flu – from the infection that gives the greatest number of complications and deaths.
Secondly, if there is a small chance that you have developed the flu. How hard was it? I will answer with great confidence – you have not had serious complications.And if you had not been vaccinated and contracted the flu, then such complications could be and the outcome of the disease could be unfavorable.
Rarely, but there are situations when a person was vaccinated and “met” the influenza virus “at a time when the defense had not yet had time to form. And it takes 14-21 days to develop sufficient protection.
Therefore, it is still worth getting a flu shot.
There is an opinion (in particular, adherents of alternative medicine) that vaccination is harmful to children.They argue that during the period when the child is still developing immunity, the body is just beginning to produce it itself, the injected vaccine supposedly oppresses and weakens the body. And in general, any vaccination reduces the ability of a child’s body to develop immunity on its own.
Maybe the kids don’t need it?
This is not at all true. On the contrary, the vaccine is the weakest training of the immune system. The system learns to work with the antigen. But if these antigens are safe in terms of complications, then when meeting with wild pathogens, the immune system will work much more intensively and its training will go through the disease.And the disease is always the risk of complications, and even death. I completely disagree with the statements that by vaccination we relax the immune system, that it will only work with vaccines and react worse to some other pathogens. There is no theoretical or practical basis for such a statement.
But, as far as little children are concerned, they are really very vulnerable. If the baby does not have brothers and sisters who can “bring” the flu from school or kindergarten, the parents do not live in a hostel, but in their own apartment, then maybe it is not worth protecting him with a vaccine.The likelihood of infection in such a situation is minimal. But if there is an older child attending school, then there is a risk of catching the virus, and in this case, vaccination is justified. After all, the incidence rates among children are usually two to three times higher than among adults. And 90 percent of those hospitalized for the flu are children. Their disease is difficult and it is they who must be protected in the first place.
When is the best time to get the flu shot?
It is best to get vaccinated against influenza in the fall: in September-November, before the seasonal rise in the incidence of influenza and ARI.Within 2-3 weeks after vaccination, a protective level of antibodies against influenza viruses will form.
Where can you get a flu shot?
It is possible to vaccinate in a polyclinic at the place of residence, in medical commercial centers, the city center for vaccination, medical and sanitary units of enterprises.
Vaccination is free of charge for selected contingents at risk.
Currently, more and more business leaders, taking care of the health of their employees, purchase influenza vaccine for their immunization.For the convenience of vaccination of workers at enterprises, mobile vaccination teams are organized. As part of the mobile team, there is a mandatory presence of a doctor who will examine the patients and determine the indications and contraindications for vaccination.
The rest of the population is given the opportunity to be vaccinated on a paid basis.
Why is it recommended to vaccinate 40% of employees in the team?
Indeed, it is recommended that at least 40% of people working in a team should be vaccinated against influenza .
This achieves two main goals. The first goal is the individual protection of the vaccinated person. The second goal is the formation of collective immunity among workers. Herd immunity gives an additional degree of protection to the vaccinated and reduces the likelihood of illness in unvaccinated team members. The more vaccinated, and therefore protected from influenza, the lower the likelihood of the introduction and spread of the virus among those working in the team. With coverage of less than 40% of workers, herd immunity practically does not work.
Of course, the maximum effect of vaccination against influenza, as with other infections, can be achieved if more than 95% of employees are vaccinated in the team. However, when vaccinating against influenza, it is difficult to achieve such indicators, given that vaccination is carried out in the pre-epidemic season for 2-3 months.
Thus, coverage of influenza vaccination for at least 40% of employees in a team provides individual protection of the vaccinated person and forms additional protection opportunities due to herd immunity.
How will children be vaccinated against influenza in schools and kindergartens?
Parents are informed in writing (and possibly verbally, at a parent meeting) against what and how their children will be vaccinated, what vaccine will be used. Then they sign the consent (or refusal) in the prescribed form. It is glued to the child’s medical record. On a certain day, the vaccination team (doctor and nurse) comes to school and vaccinates.A school nurse can also do this, but only after the child has been examined by a doctor. If the mother wants to be present when the child is vaccinated, she can go with him to the polyclinic at the place of residence. At the same time, it does not matter if the child goes to school or kindergarten. The same mechanism of getting vaccinated in kindergartens.
TAKE CARE OF YOUR HEALTH AND
ABOUT THE HEALTH OF YOUR LOVE.
BE SURE TO PROTECT FROM THE FLU !
Factual influenza vaccination
How often did the vaccinated and unvaccinated against influenza get sick with influenza and other respiratory infections
employees of the same enterprises?
If you have any additional questions,
for influenza vaccinations,
You can ask them to the authors of the content:
Glinskaya Irina Nikolaevna by phone 292-40-25
Volosar Lyudmila Albertovna by phone 292-40-25
Vysotskaya Veronica Stanislavovna by phone 200-68-34
Zylu Andrey Anatolyevich by phone 258-76-12
Vaccination against influenza in TUSUR
The flu vaccine is on the National Vaccine Schedule.You can get it for free. To do this, you need to undergo a medical examination, fill out an informed consent and have a passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation and an OMS policy.
Why do I need a flu shot?
Influenza is an acute viral disease that affects the respiratory, nervous, cardiovascular and other systems of the body. Influenza can cause various complications: rhinitis, sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia, myocarditis, pericarditis, muscle complications, CNS damage, kidney damage, and others.May contribute to exacerbation and / or decompensation of chronic diseases. In some cases, it is fatal.
How will the vaccine be administered?
The vaccine is injected once in a dose of 0.5 ml intramuscularly into the upper third of the outer surface of the shoulder (in the area of the deltoid muscle).
What is the name of the vaccine to be administered?
Within the framework of the National Calendar for free vaccination against influenza for adults and children in 2020–2021, inactivated subunit highly purified vaccines will be used in the Tomsk region:
- for children – “Sovigripp” (produced by several enterprises of the Russian Federation),
- for adults from 18 to 60 years old – “Flu-M” (produced by the St. Petersburg Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums of the FMBA of Russia),
- for adults over 60 years old – “Sovigripp”.
The difference between these two vaccines lies in the content of different amounts of active ingredients. In “Sovigripp” added a substance that stimulates the immune system – the adjuvant sovidone. There is no adjuvant in the Flu-M vaccine, but the dose of the main component is increased.
Both vaccines are inactivated (do not contain influenza virus). The vaccine is based on destroyed particles of the virus that are not capable of reproduction. They contain the antigens needed to make specific antibodies against the influenza virus.
How long will the vaccine last?
Immunity against the influenza virus is developed for a period of 6 to 12 months.
Why do all the friends who got the vaccine still get sick with influenza and acute respiratory infections?
This is practically impossible. Currently, inactivated vaccines are used to vaccinate against influenza. This means that they do not contain the whole virus that would cause the disease.
When reactions appear after administration, most likely this is a coincidence of two accidents – vaccination against the background of developing diseases. When, for example, there were no symptoms of the disease, the disease was in the incubation period, and at that moment the person was given the vaccine. Or if the patient was not examined by a health worker, did not notice that he had a red throat, and gave the vaccine. The patient would have developed this disease anyway, and this is not related to vaccination in any way.
What to do if the body reacts to the vaccine with a fever?
Reactions to the vaccine are uncommon, but may occur. Just in case, you need to have an antipyretic, antiallergic, anesthetic, sedative in your home medicine cabinet (in case of a too pronounced reaction from the nervous system).
How to behave after vaccination?
A light, balanced diet and the absence of alcoholic beverages will make vaccination easier to tolerate.Don’t eat exotic foods. Nobody knows how it will end. An allergy to a piece of unfamiliar fruit can be mistaken for a vaccine reaction.
Try to avoid crowded places and do not visit hospitals and clinics unnecessarily. This simple rule will reduce the likelihood of encountering people infected with the virus.
What are the contraindications?
- Allergy to chicken protein.A doctor must be warned about allergies.
- Children up to age six months.
- Anyone who has an acute infection or if a chronic illness has worsened will receive a temporary medical treatment against the flu shot. In this case, you need to wait until complete recovery for at least 2 to 4 weeks.
Oncological diseases, pregnancy, immunodeficiency states are not a contraindication for vaccination.Everyone who suffers from these diseases, on the contrary, needs vaccination, because they have an increased likelihood of transferring the infection and its complications during the epidemic season.
Another category of people who should not be vaccinated against the flu are people with onset of symptoms. Headache, mild nasal congestion, and joint pain can be the initial signs of the flu. Any unfamiliar or insignificant at first glance manifestation of the disease is a contraindication to vaccination.
90,000 Safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines
Millions of Americans have been successfully vaccinated against COVID-19. Vaccines save lives, help people stay safe from COVID-19, and give the world hope to overcome the pandemic.
On May 13, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that people who have completed the full course of vaccinations may no longer wear a mask or maintain social distancing in most cases. However, the CDC also noted that people with weakened immune systems, such as cancer patients, should talk with their healthcare provider about the need for protective measures, even if they are vaccinated.Therefore, to protect our patients from COVID-19, all staff, patients and visitors must continue to wear masks while at MSK. These requirements also apply to people who have completed the full course of vaccination.
MSK Chief Epidemiologist Mini Kamboj answered the most frequently asked questions about COVID-19 vaccines and how they work.
All three COVID-19 vaccines provide strong protection against severe illness, hospitalization and death from coronavirus.
The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine has been shown to be 95% effective in a study involving approximately 43,000 people. The Moderna vaccine has been shown to be 94% effective in a study involving more than 30,000 people. In a study of over 44,000 people, the Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) vaccine was 66.9 percent effective in preventing COVID-19, including infections caused by new strains.
to come back to the beginning
COVID-19 vaccines are among the most effective in human history.They are just as effective, if not more effective, than vaccines for polio, chickenpox, measles, and influenza.
to come back to the beginning
Each of the vaccines – Johnson & Johnson (Janssen), Pfizer-BioNTech, and Moderna – “trains” body cells to reproduce one component of the COVID-19 virus (spike protein), thus triggering an immune system response. These “instructions,” as well as how they enter your body, differ slightly depending on which vaccine you are getting.
In all cases, the vaccine “teaches” your body to recognize the virus, and therefore, in case of infection, your immune system will be ready to fight the coronavirus.
to come back to the beginning
Public health authorities are watching closely for any sign of potential problems. Several very rare cases of serious side effects have been identified and investigated, but scientists have concluded that the risk of serious complications from COVID-19 disease is much higher than the risk of these side effects.Below is the evidence of this careful and ongoing study.
In mid-July 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that about 100 of the 13 million Americans who received the J&J vaccine developed Guillain-Barré syndrome. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare neurological disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks nerve cells. More information can be found here »
At the end of June 2021, the CDC reported that more than 1,200 Americans had heart muscle damage, possibly related to the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines.Heart problems were very rare – for every million second doses of vaccine administered, there are 12.6 cases of heart muscle damage. More information can be found here »
In the spring of 2021, the CDC Advisory Board initiated a study of several reported cases of an extremely rare but serious bleeding disorder in people who were injected with the J & J vaccine.This disorder, called sinus thrombosis of the dura mater with thrombocytopenia, is characterized by blood clots in the brain and other organs and a low platelet count. According to a study on April 21, 2021, of the 8 million Americans who were injected with the J&J vaccine, 15 cases of this disorder were identified, including three deaths. More information can be found here »
You should also be aware that unreliable sources posted incorrect information on social media about messenger RNA (mRNA) used in Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines.In fact, there are thousands of different types of mRNA in human cells. Each type of mRNA performs its own task.
It should be borne in mind that mRNA is not DNA, it cannot be combined with DNA to change your genetic code.
The mechanism of action of mRNA vaccines is as follows: they use a tiny piece of the genetic code of the coronavirus to teach your immune system to make a protein that will trigger an immune response if it gets infected.
Messenger RNA is fragile: after giving instructions to your cells, it is destroyed and excreted from the body (after about 72 hours).The messenger RNA does not even enter the cell nucleus – the part that contains the DNA.
Vaccines do not cause cancer. They do not expose you to the virus that causes COVID-19. You cannot catch COVID-19 or any other infection from the vaccine. You can read more about how mRNA vaccines work here »
to come back to the beginning
The rapid development of vaccines against COVID-19 is due to the fact that scientists had a head start.The technology for their manufacture already existed, and its use to develop a vaccine against the new virus became a top priority for the world community, which allowed billions of dollars to be spent on ensuring safety while implementing urgent measures to save lives. Regulators have simplified some steps in the approval process while vaccines still had to meet strict FDA standards for safety and efficacy.
CDC closely monitors all adverse reactions and they are rare.
to come back to the beginning
All vaccines have similar side effects, but they do not appear for long – from one to three days. Vaccinated people reported pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain. Serious side effects are rare. The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines were more likely to have side effects after the second dose.
According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, the risk of allergic reactions to mRNA vaccines in people with common allergies to drugs, food, inhalers , insect bites and latex, no higher than the rest of the population.
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It is imperative that you do not take these over-the-counter drugs before vaccination, as there is concern that certain pain medications may interfere with the immune response to the vaccine. It is also unclear if taking medications ahead of time actually helps reduce symptoms after vaccination. You should wait for the vaccination and then monitor your health. If side effects occur, over-the-counter medications such as Advil or Tylenol can be taken to lower fever, reduce chills, or relieve headaches or body aches.
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Some people may have some enlargement or tenderness of the lymph nodes. In addition, swollen lymph nodes can be detected by medical imaging and are mistaken for the progression of certain cancers – most notably breast, head and neck cancers, melanoma, and lymphoma.
This vaccine side effect usually occurs within 2–4 days after vaccination and can last an average of ten days.
On imaging, enlarged lymph nodes can be detected for a longer time. Therefore, our recommendations will be as follows:
If you develop these symptoms after vaccination, you should contact your doctor. In most cases, it is recommended to wait at least four weeks before undergoing an additional test so that the lymph nodes shrink back to normal size during this time.
Vaccination against COVID-19 should be administered following routine medical imaging procedures. If you have already received the vaccine, we recommend that you have routine breast exams, including mammography and MRI, no earlier than six weeks.
If you have had cancer, you should be asked to administer the COVID-19 vaccine, if possible, on the opposite side that has not been affected by the cancer.
If the enlarged knots are causing you discomfort, you can apply a warm compress. You can take acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve discomfort.
It is important to know that all types of vaccines can cause temporary swollen lymph nodes. This may indicate that antibodies are being produced in the body, as it should be.
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All three pharmaceutical manufacturers have conducted rigorous clinical studies involving people of different ages, gender, race and ethnicity.
In a clinical study evaluating the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, 42% of people were over 55 and 20% had other medical conditions. 17% of the volunteers were from ethnic minorities and other ethnic groups.
In a clinical study evaluating the Moderna vaccine, about 25% of people were over 65 years of age. The study group consisted of 63% Caucasian, 20% Hispanic, 10% Negroid / African American, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and less than 2% from other ethnic groups.
In the Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Evaluation Study, 59% of participants were Caucasian, 45% Hispanic, 19% Black / African American, and 9% Native American. 34% of all participants were over 60 years old.
In all of these groups, the three vaccines have demonstrated robust protection against COVID-19.
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Preliminary research shows vaccines are effective against emerging strains of coronavirus.
Because vaccines are in fact very effective, they can provide significant protection even if they do not work as well against a new strain.
The increasing number of strains is another reason to get vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible. The sooner people are vaccinated, the less likely the virus will develop a new mutation. More information can be found here »
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We recommend that all of our cancer patients get vaccinated against COVID-19. Some cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy, reduce a person’s immunity.COVID-19 vaccines may not be effective enough for these patients. But even in this case, weak protection against the virus is better than no protection at all.
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We believe the vaccine will be safe for patients with severely weakened immune systems, such as people who have undergone stem cell transplantation. But these vaccines may not work at certain stages of cancer treatment. You should discuss when to vaccinate against COVID-19 and its risks and benefits with your healthcare team at MSK.
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We recommend vaccination against COVID-19 for women who are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning to become pregnant.
There is currently no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines cause any pregnancy-related problems, including placental development. More than 60,000 vaccinated pregnant women are registered with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Of which one group is under close scrutiny to see how the vaccine affects pregnant women.There were no security problems.
New research shows that vaccinated pregnant women protect not only themselves but also their children. According to an article published in the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 90,438 pregnant women who received the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines had antibodies to COVID-19 in umbilical cord blood and breast milk. While these studies are preliminary, they provide encouraging evidence that some of the maternal immunity can be passed on to a baby before and after birth.
There is currently no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines cause female or male infertility.
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The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends getting vaccinated for people who have had COVID-19. Some participants in vaccine studies showed signs of previous COVID-19. They experienced the same side effects from the vaccines as those participants who had not previously been infected.
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Antibody testing to check for immunity to COVID-19 after vaccination is not recommended at this time. The COVID-19 antibody test used at MSK detects an immune response following infection with COVID-19. It does not determine the immune response resulting from vaccination. This is why vaccine response assessments should not be scheduled regularly.
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It is too early to tell how long the protective effect of the COVID-19 vaccines will last and whether regular booster vaccinations will be necessary.No vaccine provides 100% protection against contracting the virus or passing it on to others, so it is important to continue to follow safety measures such as social distancing, wearing masks and washing your hands regularly. We will receive new data as more people get vaccinated in the coming months.
Although the CDC recently released an updated guideline that mentions that people who have been vaccinated can congregate in small groups indoors without wearing masks or maintaining social distancing, this guideline does not apply to healthcare facilities like MSK , or people with cancer who are at high risk for the disease.
14 July 2021
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90,000 How vaccines changed the world. The history of vaccinations from the 18th century to the present day
Photo author, Getty Images
This is how rabies was vaccinated at the Pasteur Institute in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century
The Covid-19 pandemic caused humanity to remember how dangerous and destructive outbreaks of infectious diseases are, and how vaccines are made in such cases as the only hope for a return to normal life.
The coronavirus is not the first enemy mass vaccination should be a weapon against. Hundreds of millions of people around the world were fortunate enough to stay alive, because they found the right to invisible killers who terrorized the world. Of course, if they lived where there is access to medical care.
Here are some examples of how vaccines have changed people’s lives.
Vaccination is perhaps the greatest success story in this area.
In the 20th century alone, this highly contagious viral disease killed more than 300 million people. The number of victims in earlier eras cannot be counted.
About 30% of those infected with smallpox died, often in agony, because their whole body was covered with purulent abscesses. The rest were blind or remained for life with terrible marks on the skin.
Photo by Reuters
For centuries, people have been desperately looking for a cure for smallpox – and in the end, they created the first vaccine.
The idea that an artificially induced mild form of a disease can create immunity in humans probably originated in China. According to sources, for about 1000 years, people there inhaled powder from finely crushed scabs of smallpox patients through their nose or inserted pieces of cotton wool soaked in smallpox pus into their ears.
Author of the photo, Getty Images
Caption to the photo,
People became blind from smallpox, died, left scars on their bodies
In Africa, a thread soaked in pus was pulled through the skin with a needle.
In 18th-century Britain, vaccination was hotly promoted by the famous aristocrat and intellectual Lady Mary Montague, who herself had smallpox in her youth and got acquainted with the relevant practices in Turkey, where her husband served as an ambassador.
The method did not differ in reliability. As a result, about one in thirty patients fell ill with severe smallpox and died.
Meanwhile, English farmers have long noticed that cowpox is contagious to humans, but not fatal.After studying this phenomenon, physician Edward Jenner created a reliable and safe vaccine based on cowpox.
On May 14, 1796, Jenner instilled her with her eight-year-old farm son James Phipps, who later lived to old age, and two years later published the famous pamphlet “Investigation of the causes and effects of vaccinia” – at his own expense, since the Royal Scientific Society reacted to Jenner’s method with distrust …
Doubts disappeared when the soldiers of the British army and navy were vaccinated against smallpox by order, and bad things did not happen to anyone.
Almost a hundred years later, Louis Pasteur, out of respect for Jenner, suggested calling the preparations based on the principle of creating artificial immunity vaccines: from the Latin vacca – “cow”.
Photo author, Getty Images
Edward Jenner inoculates a boy with a cowpox virus that is harmless to humans
Smallpox continued to rage in poor countries for more than a hundred and a half years. The WHO massive vaccination program, which began in 1967, helped to practically end it.
Photo author, Getty Images
The advent of cheap needles helped accelerate mass vaccination
It is believed that 80% of the population needs to be vaccinated to develop herd immunity. It was impossible to vaccinate several billion people.
But the tactic of spot immunization, first tested in eastern Nigeria, turned out to be quite effective: to quickly identify foci of smallpox and vaccinate neighboring residents. Smallpox was eradicated in a region of 12 million people with just 750,000 vaccinations.
Currently, live smallpox viruses have remained in only two places on Earth: laboratories of the highest level of protection in Russia and the United States.
This disease has killed far fewer people than smallpox, but it is much more brutal to the survivors.
Infected with it mainly in childhood. The virus enters the body through the mouth, then enters the bloodstream and affects the nervous system, often causing irreparable paralysis. Mostly it affects the legs, but one in ten patients dies of suffocation as a result of paralysis of the pulmonary muscles.
Photo author, Getty Images
A special device “iron lungs”: a person lies inside the capsule, and it seems to breathe for him, while he himself is absolutely immobilized
The only hope of such patients was artificial ventilation of the lungs inside special chambers created in the 1920s, called “Iron Lungs”. In these metal cocoons, people spent weeks, sometimes the rest of their lives.
Since poliomyelitis, unlike smallpox, has no external signs, its infectious nature was established only in 1905 by the Swedish doctor Ivar Vikman.
By that time, improvements in drinking water quality in big cities had reduced both the total number of polio cases and the percentage of people who were immune to it. Outbreaks have become more visible.
Photo author, Getty Images
According to the WHO, poliomyelitis mainly affects children under the age of 5 years.
It was believed, which later turned out to be incorrect, that polio is a problem mainly in developed countries.
In 1952, American physician Jonas Salk created a polio vaccine.In 1961, his colleague Albert Seibin came up with an improved version that could be swallowed rather than given by injection. The incidence in the United States and Europe has declined sharply.
One of the worst mistakes in vaccination history is associated with the polio vaccine. In 1955, the American firm Cutter Laboratories mistakenly released more than one hundred thousand doses of the drug containing the live polio virus. Ten children died and 160 were paralyzed for life.
A In 1988, WHO announced the start of a program to eradicate polio worldwide.In 1994, the United States was declared free from the disease called “the horror of parents”, in 2000 China, Japan and South Korea, in 2002 Europe, in 2014 Southeast Asia.
Photo author, Reuters
Endemic transmission of the virus continues in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan.
According to expert estimates, thanks to the polio vaccine, one and a half million people have survived in the world and 18 million can walk.
Now poliomyelitis makes itself felt only in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria, the number of cases is estimated in the tens of a year.
Vaccination against measles is an example of both success and failure.
The outbreak of Ebola in Africa, which attracted the attention of the whole world, killed about 20 thousand people. Measles last year quietly killed 207.5 thousand, although a vaccine for it has existed since 1963.
Photo author, Getty Images
Vaccination refusal is the main cause of rising incidence of measles
Extremely contagious virus spreads with droplets of saliva when coughing and sneezing or through direct contact and causes fever and rashes, in severe cases. life-threatening patients – diarrhea, pneumonia and inflammation of the meninges.
Before the vaccine was invented, measles claimed an average of 2.6 million lives per year. But it was not completely possible to overcome it, since, due to the high infectiousness, herd immunity occurs only when 95% of people are vaccinated.
In the United States and Europe, the incidence of measles has begun to rise again in recent years due to anti-vaccine attitudes spreading widely through social media.
The push was given by British physician Andrew Wakefield, published in 1998, a sensational article that the combined vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella allegedly causes autism in children.Although these articles were later refuted, and Wakefield himself was stripped of his medical license for scientific misconduct, the seeds he sown sprouted.
Photo author, Reuters
In 26 states, routine measles vaccinations for 94 million people were postponed due to quarantine, and only eight of them resumed (Brazil, Nepal, Philippines, South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Somalia).
Whereas in developed countries, measles cases die relatively rarely, in Africa the situation is worse.A measles outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo last year killed more than 7,000 people, mostly children.
The main problem in developing countries is not prejudice, but a lack of vaccine and a lack of medical infrastructure, especially in remote locations. WHO has asked UN Member States for $ 255 million in additional funding for measles vaccination.
Scientists believe that people have had malaria, also known as swamp fever, since prehistoric times.
And today, about half of humanity is at risk of contracting malaria, and 400 thousand people die from it every year.
Approximately half of all malaria deaths occur in Africa.
Photo author, Getty Images
Malaria is caused by protozoa from the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are spread by malaria mosquitoes that bite humans.
The disease is caused by a single-celled parasitic bacterium, Plasmodium malaria, which enters the bloodstream of a person when a malaria mosquito bites him.
The main ways to combat malaria are draining marshes where mosquitoes, mosquito nets and early suppression drugs are available – and there is evidence that Plasmodium has begun to become resistant to them.
Photo author, Getty Images
Malaria remains one of the oldest and most serious causes of death, especially in children. More than 200 million people fall ill with the disease every year.
Vaccines against malaria, forming immunity, have not yet been created, despite 32 years of intensive work and spent 700 million dollars.
The only prototype is being tested in Ghana, Malawi and Kenya, due for completion in 2023. So far, according to available data, it protects against malaria on average 40% of cases and for a period not exceeding four years – very weak compared to vaccines for other diseases. In this case, it is necessary to do not one or two, but as many as four vaccinations.
Experts express restrained optimism, but warn that the vaccine is unlikely to become a panacea for malaria.
The first batch of influenza vaccine arrived in Yamal / Government of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
The first batch of domestic influenza vaccine has arrived in Yamal today.According to the immunization plan for 2020, doctors plan to vaccinate 60% of the district’s residents. As told in the district health department, the inactivated vaccine “Sovigripp” was developed taking into account those variants of viruses that appeared in the current epidemic season in Southeast Asia and will circulate in Russia.
At the expense of the federal budget in the amount of 45% of the declared amount, the region will receive 249,894 doses of the vaccine. The remaining 15% will be purchased from the regional budget.
The AIDS Center was the starting point for the distribution of the vaccine to the municipalities in the county. There is a district warehouse for storing and distributing vaccines as part of the national and regional vaccination schedules.
Vaccination will become available after the drug is delivered to Yamal hospitals. Anyone can get vaccinated. Epidemiologists place particular emphasis on risk groups, which include health and education workers, as well as groups for the development of complications – pregnant women, children, citizens over 60 years old and people with chronic diseases.It is important for Yamal residents to get vaccinated by the end of October so that the immune system is ready for an epidemic rise in the incidence of influenza.
In order to prevent the spread of influenza in the workplace, at a meeting of the city sanitary and epidemiological commission, all enterprises of the fuel and energy complex were offered to independently purchase influenza vaccine. This also applies to managers of other organizations and enterprises who must take care of the health of employees.