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Yeast infection and steroids: When to self-medicate (or not)


When to self-medicate (or not)

Q: I tend to get yeast infections. What can I do to prevent them, and is it okay to use over-the-counter medication?

A: You’re in good company: 70 percent of all women will have at least one yeast infection in their lifetime, and 45 percent will have multiple infections. About five to eight percent of women will have what we call recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), which simply means yeast, vaginal or vulva infections that crop up four or more times a year.

What are yeast infections?Let me start with a little Microbiology 101. Candida, the bacteria associated with yeast infections, is a fungus that 20 percent of women have as part of their regular vaginal flora. It only causes problems when it overcomes and overgrows the normal bacteria in the vagina, usually when the “local” environment has been disturbed. Such disturbances can occur if you take antibiotics, steroids or estrogen medications (such as birth-control and hormone-replacement therapy).

Likewise, certain medical conditions can also change things: pregnancy (with its huge outpouring of hormones), diabetes (which changes the glycogen and sugar content of the vaginal cells and their secretions) and HIV (which diminishes immunity and allows for the overgrowth of many things, including yeast).

In addition, antibiotics taken to kill “bad” bacteria in the body may also cause the demise of protective lactobacillus bacteria in the vagina, allowing yeast to multiply and become dominant. So, if you always seem to get a yeast infection after you take antibiotics you may want to take some anti-yeast medications towards the end of the antibiotic course.

Are they sexually transmitted?I’m often asked if yeast infections are sexually transmitted and if a patient’s partner needs to be treated; the answer is no. However, I have found that in very susceptible patients, the presence of semen and/or use of spermicides can upset the vaginal flora and change the pH levels, and in some cases instigate yeast infections.

What are the symptoms?A typical yeast infection is usually unpleasantly announced with a clumpy discharge or liquid, itching and swelling in the vaginal lips. In addition, because the area is so irritated, it may burn when you urinate and sex may smart.  You should see a doctor or nurse practitioner the first time you experience symptoms to confirm the diagnosis. She or he will swab the secretions and put a sample in special solutions, then look under the microscope to see if there are yeast (they look like short swollen pieces of string, or hyphae). The pH of your vaginal secretions can also be checked when making the diagnosis (it increases with yeast infections).

Over-the-counter treatmentsSince the advent of over-the-counter yeast medications, many women are self-diagnosing and self treating. Studies have shown that they are right about half the time — but therefore also wrong as often. In most cases, an over-the-counter medicine won’t hurt you, but if you don’t feel better within a few days, a doctor’s visit is mandated.

There are many over-the-counter creams, suppositories and vaginal tablets available, and they contain one of four active ingredients: butoconazole nitrate (Femstat ), clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin and others), miconazole (Monistat  and others), and tioconazole (Vagistat). These drugs are in the same anti-fungal family and work in similar ways to break down the cell wall of the Candida organism until it dissolves. Depending on the product, they can be used for one, three or seven days, and should be applied at night before you go to sleep. If you have severe itching, cream options may deliver faster local relief to the labia. All of the products mentioned above are considered safe during pregnancy.

Prescription treatmentsI would urge all women who have made unsuccessful attempts to self-medicate to make sure they see a doctor, because often these symptoms aren’t from yeast; they can be caused by bacteria or dermatologic conditions requiring therapies ranging from antibiotics — both local and pill form — to steroid creams.

If your yeast infections are occurring more than four times a year, make sure your doctor performs tests to rule out pre-diabetes or HIV infections (although, in over half women who have recurrent infections, there is no obvious cause; there may just be a genetic tendency to these infections). There is help. Another option is fluconazole (sold as Diflucan), an oral tablet that must be prescribed. One dose is usually sufficient, though it takes a few days for symptoms to subside. Unlike the others, Diflucan should not be taken during pregnancy. Studies have shown that 150 milligrams of Diflucan given weekly for six months cause 90.8 percent of women to be free from RVVC.

Dr. Reichman’s Bottom Line: If you occasionally get symptoms of yeast infections and recognize them as such, it’s perfectly okay to use over-the-counter products. But if symptoms recur and/or don’t abate, see your healthcare provider.

Dr. Judith Reichman, the “Today” show’s medical contributor on women’s health, has practiced obstetrics and gynecology for more than 20 years. You will find many answers to your questions in her latest book, “Slow Your Clock Down: The Complete Guide to a Healthy, Younger You,” which is now available in paperback. It is published by William Morrow, a division of .

PLEASE NOTE: The information in this column should not be construed as providing specific medical advice, but rather to offer readers information to better understand their lives and health. It is not intended to provide an alternative to professional treatment or to replace the services of a physician.

Can betamethasone be used for a yeast infection?

A skin cream containing betamethasone in combination with clotrimazole MAY, in certain circumstances, be used for some yeast infections: however, a skin cream or lotion that only contains betamethasone should NEVER be used for a yeast infection because it does not kill the yeast and can make the infection worse.

Topical corticosteroids, such as betamethasone, weaken the skin’s defenses and allow yeast infections to invade deeper into the skin. Even though it may look like the fungal infection is clearing up, with symptoms such as itching and redness decreasing, as soon as you stop using the steroid cream, the yeast proliferates rapidly, spreads, and infects more of the skin. The result is a significant yeast infection.

In addition, betamethasone is classed as a moderate-to-high potency corticosteroid, and if a steroid cream was deemed necessary to use in combination with an antifungal, then a low potency steroid, such as hydrocortisone, should be chosen first.

Even though some combination antifungal/steroid creams say on the packet that they treat fungal or yeast infections, for most fungal or yeast infections a simple antifungal, such as clotrimazole, by itself, is sufficient to clear the infection. Even for very inflamed yeast infections, a topical antifungal is usually enough to bring down the inflammation.

Most yeast infections (such as jock itch or ringworm) will resolve within a week. Vaginal yeast infections are best treated with an antifungal cream or pessary that is inserted into the vagina, or with one dose of an oral antifungal tablet. Never treat vaginal yeast infections with a combination antifungal/steroid cream.

In some developing countries, such as India, very severe yeast and fungal infections have been associated with the use of over-the-counter mid-to high-potency topical corticosteroids, such as betamethasone. These are commonly sold as fixed-dose combinations with an antifungal medication and one or two antibacterial medications. One dermatophyte species, Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been identified as the main cause of these significant infections and laboratory testing has shown it is resistant to most common antifungals, mainly because of the widespread use of topical OTC antifungal/corticosteroid creams.

Common Causes of Yeast Infections

Did you know that yeast infections can happen anywhere in the body, including your mouth and skin? They can also get into your blood.

More than 20 types of candida (yeast) normally live in your GI tract, on your skin, and in your mucus membranes without causing any problems. Their growth is kept in check by bacteria.But when something happens to kill off the bacteria or change the conditions where yeast lives, it can multiply and cause mild to serious infections.

This article touches on the most common causes.



People who wear dentures, particularly those who also have diabetes, may be more likely to get thrush. Clean your dentures thoroughly each night to prevent infection.

Douches and Vaginal Sprays

Some products can change the acidity level in your vagina. That encourages the growth of yeast and can remove the helpful bacteria that keep yeast at bay.


The change in estrogen and progesterone levels in women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, using hormone replacement therapy, or taking birth control with estrogen can lead to vaginal yeast infections.


Wearing underwear (or tight jeans or a wet swimsuit) that doesn’t breathe can increase body heat and moisture in the vagina. This creates conditions yeast likes to grow in. Choose underwear with a cotton crotch, and change out of swimsuits and workout clothes as soon as possible.

Diaper Rash

Change babies’ diapers often. Soiled and wet diapers can lead to diaper rash. Once the skin is irritated, a yeast infection can set in.

Other Medical Causes

  • Diabetes. If your diabetes isn’t well-controlled, the increase in sugar in the mucus membranes (moist tissues) of your vagina can create a fertile environment for yeast to grow.
  • Weakened immune system. If you have HIV/AIDS or another condition that hampers your immune system, your body can’t fight off infections as well. If you’re getting cancer treatment or have had an organ transplant, your chances of getting yeast infections like thrush or invasive candidiasis are higher.
  • Hospitalization. When yeast enters the bloodstream, doctors call that invasive candidiasis. It’s most common in people who have recently been admitted to a hospital or live in another type of health care facility, such as a nursing home.

Study Warns About Higher Infection Risk With Steroids for Inflammatory Diseases

Leeds, UK—Even small doses of oral steroids used to treat patients with certain inflammatory diseases can significantly increase the risk of infection, a new study cautions.

The research, published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) focused on patients with polymyalgia rheumatica and/or giant-cell arteritis in England. University of Leeds–led researchers focused on nearly 40,000 adults, mean age 73 years, with those diseases to gauge the effect of steroid treatment on infection risk.

The study reported higher absolute risks of infection when patients were taking oral steroids than when they were not taking them. The research looked at the use of prednisolone, prednisone, and hydrocortisone.

Of the 39, 938 patients being treated in 389 family practices between 1998 and 2017, 22,234 (55.7%) had at least one infection over a median follow-up period of 4.8 years, with 5,937 (26.7%) requiring hospital admission and 1,616 (7.3%) dying within 7 days of diagnosis. The most common types of infections were lower respiratory tract ailments, conjunctivitis, and herpes zoster, the study notes.

Researchers calculate cumulative risks of all-cause infection at 18.3% (95% CI, 17.9%-18.7%) at 1 year, 54.7% (95% CI, 54.1%-55.2%) at 5 years; and 76.9% (95% CI, 76.2%-77.5%) at 10 years. The study adds that the increases in adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause infection per 5-mg prednisolone-equivalent daily dose increase and per 1,000 mg-cumulative dose increase in the last year from the patient’s end date of follow-up were 1.13 (95% CI, 1.12-1.14) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.49-1.52), respectively.

At the same time, adjusted HRs associated with periods of current glucocorticoid versus no glucocorticoid use ranged from 1. 48 (95% CI, 1.39-1.57) for fungal to 1.70 (95% CI, 1.60-1.80) for bacterial infection. Dose-related associations were determined for bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infections, which appear to be little affected by patient age, duration of underlying chronic disease, and baseline vaccination status, according to the study team.

“We quantified the excess risk of all-cause, bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infection conferred by oral glucocorticoids in people with polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell arteritis and found strong dose responses for all types, even at daily doses of less than 5 mg prednisolone,” study authors conclude.

“In periods with prescribed medication, patients’ risk was 50% higher than when it was not prescribed,” the authors add. “Increases in risk ranged from 48% for fungal to 70% for bacterial infections.”

Researchers urge more education about the risk of infection, need for symptom identification, prompt treatment, timely vaccination, and documentation of history of chronic infection.

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Yeast infection from antibiotics: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

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Taking antibiotics can lead to a yeast infection in the vagina, also known as a fungal infection or vaginal candidiasis.

A yeast infection is a form of vaginitis, which means inflammation in the vagina. Vaginitis is common, affecting one-third of females at some point in their lives.

Vaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida fungus, is the second most common type of vaginal infection in the United States, after bacterial infections.

This article looks at how taking antibiotics can lead to yeast infections. It also describes which antibiotics can cause these infections and how to treat them.

A yeast infection occurs when something upsets the delicate balance of bacteria and yeast in the vagina.

A small amount of Candida fungus is usually present in the vagina, and beneficial bacteria help keep this fungus in check.

Antibiotics work by killing bacteria that cause infection, but they can also kill beneficial bacteria in other parts of the body, including the vagina.

Without enough beneficial bacteria to keep the yeast at bay, Candida yeast can multiply, causing the symptoms of a yeast infection.

Some people are more prone to yeast infections than others. According to current estimates, 8% of females have recurring Candida infections, and around 5% have four or more yeast infections in a year. They can develop at any age, but these infections are more common during reproductive years.

The common symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection tend to be more noticeable just before a menstrual period. A person may experience:

These symptoms are mild in most cases. In severe infections, redness, swelling, or cracks form in the walls of the vagina.

It can be difficult to distinguish between a yeast infection and a urinary tract infection (UTI). Learn to tell the difference here.

Not all antibiotics are likely to cause yeast infections — only broad spectrum antibiotics tend to have this effect. These drugs can kill several different types of bacteria.

The following three types of broad spectrum antibiotic, in particular, may increase the risk of a yeast infection:


Share on PinterestA doctor may prescribe tetracyclines to treat eye infections, acne, or UTIs.

Doctors prescribe tetracyclines for acne, UTIs, intestinal tract infections, eye infections, sexually transmitted infections, and gum disease.

Examples of tetracyclines and common brand names include:

  • demeclocycline (Detravis)
  • doxycycline (Adoxa)
  • eravacycline (Xerava)
  • minocycline (Minocin)
  • omadacycline (Nuzyra)
  • tetracycline (Sumycin)


Doctors prescribe quinolones for difficult-to-treat UTIs, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and bacterial prostatitis. Common examples include:

Broad spectrum penicillins

Broad spectrum penicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin, may also lead to yeast infections.

It is usually straightforward to treat a yeast infection. In most cases, the person will either apply a cream or ointment to the inside of the vagina or take a pill containing fluconazole.

A doctor can prescribe antifungal creams or tablets. People can also find over-the-counter antifungal vaginal creams at drugstores, or choose between brands online.

Pregnant women should avoid treating yeast infections with fluconazole, due to the risk of birth abnormalities. Research has not indicated that a single 150-mg dose of fluconazole can cause this effect, but taking it for longer periods or at a higher dosage carries this risk.

Some infections require stronger treatment, including infections that keep coming back. In this case, a doctor may recommend additional doses of fluconazole or creams that contain boric acid, nystatin, or flucytosine.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that anyone who suspects that they have vaginal candidiasis speak to a healthcare professional. This is because the symptoms are similar to those of other vaginal infections, which require different treatment.

A healthcare provider can ensure that a person gets the right medication for the infection. To identify vaginal candidiasis, they usually take a small sample of vaginal discharge for examination under a microscope.

Some people try home remedies to treat yeast infections. Read about common home remedies, and how well they work, here.

Share on PinterestEating yogurt that contains live cultures may help prevent yeast infections.

Taking certain antibiotics increases the risk of a yeast infection. Other factors that increase this risk include:

  • using a douche or vaginal spray
  • using hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills
  • pregnancy
  • diabetes
  • having a weakened immune system, possibly because of HIV or medications that affect the immune system, such as steroids or chemotherapy

While yeast infections are more common among sexually active people, there is no evidence that they are sexually transmitted.

People can help prevent vaginal candidiasis by taking antibiotics only when they are necessary. It is worth remembering that antibiotics do not work on viral infections, such as a cold or the flu.

Antibiotics also do not work on some common bacterial infections, such as many types of bronchitis, sinus infection, and ear infection. Always speak to a healthcare professional before starting a course of antibiotics.

Wearing cotton underwear can also help prevent yeast infections.

In addition, there is some evidence that eating yogurt that contains live cultures every day or taking Lactobacillus acidophilus capsules may help prevent these infections.

While little high-quality research has investigated this use of probiotics, many healthcare providers recommend taking a probiotic supplement either during or immediately after completing a course of antibiotics to reduce the risk of a yeast infection.

Some types of antibiotics can lead to a vaginal yeast infection, which is a form of vaginitis known as vaginal candidiasis.

Antibiotics kill bacteria, which can upset the delicate balance of yeast and bacteria in the vagina. This allows the Candida fungus to multiply, leading to symptoms such as itching, burning, or pain during sex.

It is usually straightforward to treat yeast infections with over-the-counter antifungal medications. However, anyone who suspects that they have this type of infection should speak to a doctor to rule out other issues with similar symptoms.

Yeast infections: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

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Vaginal yeast infection is a common fungal infection of the genitals. It causes inflammation, irritation, itching, and vaginal discharge. It most commonly affects women, but men can get it too.

Vaginal yeast infections, also called vaginal Candidiasis or vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC), are experienced by as many as 3 out of 4 women during their lifetime. Most women experience at least two infections.

This article will look at the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of yeast infections, as well as medication and home remedies.

Share on PinterestFrequent symptoms of vaginal yeast infection include itching, burning, and vaginal discharge.

Symptoms of a vulvovaginal yeast infection include:

  • Itching, burning, or irritation of the vagina or vulva, which is the tissue surrounding the vagina
  • Pain or soreness in the vagina or the vaginal opening
  • Vaginal burning with intercourse or urination
  • A thick, white, odorless discharge that resembles cottage cheese, or a watery discharge
  • Rash

Sometimes a more complicated yeast infection may occur, with more severe symptoms. Four or more infections may arise in one year.

There may be severe redness, swelling, and itching, leading to skin fissures or sores.

Medical conditions that can cause a complicated yeast infection include pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, having a weakened immune system, and the presence of an alternate Candida fungus, as opposed to Candida albicans.

In men, it affects the head of the penis. Symptoms include redness, irritation, and discharge. It can also affect the skin or the mouth.

Treatment of the infection depends on whether it is complicated or uncomplicated.

Uncomplicated yeast infection

There are two ways to treat an uncomplicated yeast infection: Direct vaginal therapy or oral treatment.

When treating an uncomplicated yeast infection, a short-course of vaginal therapy is normally sufficient.

One option is a one-time treatment of a prescription or an over-the-counter medication such as butoconazole (Gynazole-1), clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin), miconazole (Monistat 3), and terconazole (Terazol 3). Some of these are available to buy online, including clotrimazole, Monistat 3, and terconazole.

Since these medications are oil-based, they can weaken latex condoms and diaphragms, potentially making them less reliable. Non-latex condoms are available to purchase online.

Alternatively, an oral antifungal, fluconazole (Diflucan), can be used in one single dose.

Complicated yeast infection

In the case of a complicated yeast infection, treatment will include the use of long-course vaginal therapy or multi-dose oral formulations.

Maintenance medications may be recommended. These drugs are taken regularly to prevent the infection returning.

Long-course vaginal therapy includes treatment with a vaginal cream, ointment, tablet, or suppository for approximately 7 to 14 days.

Sometimes, two to three doses of oral fluconazole may be recommended instead of direct vaginal therapy.

If symptoms are severe, a doctor may prescribe a few days of topical steroids to help ease symptoms while the antifungal medication works.

Before using antifungals, it is important to be sure that the symptoms are due to a yeast infection. The overuse of antifungals can increase the chances of yeast resistance, so that the medications may not work in the future when they are needed.

If maintenance medications are necessary, these begin after one of the above methods of treatment has finished. It may include weekly treatment with oral fluconazole for 6 months or weekly treatment with vaginal clotrimazole.

If the patient’s sexual partner has yeast symptoms, they might want to consider treatment, too. The use of condoms is often recommended.

Alternative therapies are sometimes used to treat vaginal yeast.

These include a boric acid vaginal suppository, available to purchase online, and the oral or vaginal application of yogurt.

These alternative therapies are currently not supported by research studies, but they may provide relief from Candida symptoms and, possibly, reduce the presence of yeast.

Share on PinterestDoctors treat yeast infections according to their severity and complications.

Common yeast infections are caused by the yeast species Candida albicans, but other species of Candida can also cause an infection. They may need different treatment.

Balanced levels of yeast and bacteria are normally present in a woman’s vagina, but disturbances in this delicate balance can lead to the development of an infection.

Normally, the bacteria Lactobacillus creates an environment that does not encourage yeast overgrowth, but if yeast becomes dominant, symptoms of a yeast infection may emerge.

Yeast infections of the vagina are not sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but they can spread through oral-genital contact or during intercourse. They are more common in women who are sexually active.

Factors that increase the risk of a vaginal yeast infection include:

  • Use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, or both
  • Pregnancy
  • Use of hormonal contraceptives or contraceptive devices
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Being immunocompromised

Any activity that can cause changes in normal vaginal flora, including douching, can contribute to a yeast infection. Poor diet and lack of sleep may also increase the risk.

When diagnosing a vaginal yeast infection, a doctor will start by asking questions about sexual practices and any history of any STIs or previous yeast infections.

They might also perform a pelvic exam to inspect the vulva, vagina, and cervix for signs of infection. A sample of vaginal discharge may be sent to a laboratory to confirm the diagnosis.

Laboratory tests are usually ordered if an infection does not go away or keeps returning.

Examining a swab of vaginal discharge under a microscope can reveal if high levels of yeast are present.

Once it is clear whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, treatment can begin.

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent a Candida infection, certain actions can reduce the risk of developing a vaginal yeast infection.

Women who are susceptible are advised to:

  • Avoid douching
  • Do not use feminine deodorant or deodorant pads or tampons
  • Wear underwear made from cotton or other natural fibers
  • Wear loose fitting pants or skirts
  • Wash underwear at a high temperature
  • Avoid tight underwear and pantyhose
  • Eat a healthy, varied diet
  • Promptly change wet clothing, for example bathing suits
  • Avoid hot tubs and hot baths

Oral or intravaginal probiotics may be recommended if a woman has more than three yeast infections annually.

Anyone who believes they have symptoms of a yeast infection should speak with a doctor for an accurate diagnosis as soon as possible.

Learn more about yeast infections here.

Candida and Steroids – The Candida Plan

The case against inhaled steroids seems to be getting stronger all the time. With the latest research, inhaled steroids are being implicated in the creation of systemic fungal candida infections. While antibiotics continue to be the number one cause of the systemic form of fungal candida that creates a multitude of various symptoms from skin rashes to arthritis to diabetes and cancers, steroids have also been found to play a significant, but lesser, role.

Steroids suppress the immune system and can lead to many imbalances in the body. In hospitalized patients, immune system suppression plays a role in creating systemic blood-borne candida infections that place patients at a higher risk of death. Those with lesser degrees of immune system suppression can exhibit a variety of fungal candida symptoms.

A study done at the Nagasaki School of Medicine demonstrated that “The amount of Candida spp. was significantly greater in asthmatic patients taking inhaled steroids” than those who didn’t, as well as being “significantly greater in asthmatic patients.”

The combination of steroids and antibiotics creates a systemic fungal candida infection at a much faster rate. A common risk that very little doctors will discuss occurs when a patient on an inhaler is given antibiotics for some other condition.

The approach can’t be to just give another medication for the fungal infection created by steroids, antibiotics, or the combination of the two. An earlier study has shown that antifungal medications were ineffective against Candida in patients on steroid inhalers. In fact, antifungal medications can actually create fungal infections, an effect called the Paradoxal Effect.

A recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that the millions of Americans who use steroids daily do no better than those who use them as needed. Given the additional risks created by steroids in the development of systemic fungal infections, better options should be available. Switching to an “as needed” approach can produce less damaging results. Considering healthier alternatives altogether would be the best approach.

For a better approach to health and life, get started with Dr. McCombs Candida Plan.






Dr. Jeffrey S. McCombs, DC, is founder of the McCombs Center for Health, the Candida Plan, the Candida Library, and author of Lifeforce and The Everything Candida Diet Book.


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90,000 why is it repeated and how to treat it?

Thrush is considered an unpleasant, annoying, but not dangerous infection. But this is not the case! It is good if the symptoms of infection occur a couple of times in your life, but what if irritation, burning and itching follow literally every 2-3 months?

Chronic yeast infection

You do everything you can to prevent thrush: wear cotton panties and change clothes, take a shower after the pool or the beach. But the symptoms come on again and again: maddening itching, redness and swelling of the skin signal a chronic yeast infection.Doctors believe that having four or more episodes of vaginal yeast infections per year is indicative of a chronic yeast infection. Usually 5–8% of women fall into this category. This fact seriously complicates the work of doctors and the confidence of the patients themselves: the treatment is more difficult to choose, it is often ineffective. Why do yeast infections keep coming back no matter what you do? According to experts, the cause may be something that you simply do not know about.

Your DNA can work against you

In 2011, French scientists identified two genetic mutations that could make some women more susceptible to Candida albicans, the fungus “responsible” for chronic vaginal fungal infections.A healthy immune system recognizes candida overgrowth and activates defenses against it, but the immune system in women with these genetic defects cannot make key proteins to effectively defend against fungal growth.

A genetic link may explain why frequent fungal infections are common in families across generations of women. Researchers at Radboud University in the Netherlands examined the genetic profiles of 11 patients from 5 families who had chronic fungal infections and identified an inherited genetic mutation that made members of these families more susceptible to candida.

Problems – in men

Representatives of the stronger sex can also suffer from thrush, and it provokes balanitis in them. 12 to 15% of men report an itchy rash after having sex with a woman who has a yeast infection. Even after candidiasis in both passes, the partner can subsequently infect the woman.

Vaginal yeast infections are not classified by doctors as sexually transmitted diseases, because Candida is naturally present in the vagina and even virgins and nuns can get thrush.Treatment of a sexual partner is usually not necessary. But candida can be passed between sexual partners.

Contraceptives with aggressive ingredients

The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) considers spermicides, including those found in condom lubricants, to be one of the main causes of vaginal irritation that can lead to thrush. Also, beware of using condoms if you are already treating a yeast infection: some medications increase the likelihood of condom rupture, making them less effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.

In addition, glycerin, which is part of lubricants, can contribute to the development of chronic attacks of thrush. If you are prone to developing yeast infections, switch to a glycerin-free version of the lubricant.

Oral sex

A study by researchers from Michigan showed that the risk of contracting a yeast infection in women increases significantly after oral sex. Researchers state that Candida albicans is found in the mouth in about one third of all adults.

Possible pregnancy

Due to hormonal changes, the vaginal secretions of expectant mothers contain more sugar, which can feed Candida albicans. As hormonal changes take place, sometimes women have new problems with thrush. This is because changing hormone levels can kill more of the “good” vaginal bacteria that control candida growth.

Pregnant women should not use high doses of fluconazole, which is usually used for thrush, for a long time, because it can increase the risk of birth defects in the fetus.In addition, treatment must be strictly supervised by a physician.

There are many misconceptions that you cannot get treatment for chronic yeast infections if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. But topical treatments for frequent yeast infections are safe for pregnant and lactating women.

Underwear Problems

If high humidity stimulates yeast growth, then wearing well-ventilated panties should help fight yeast infections, right? Yes, but all your efforts are nullified if you use spacers.Hygiene products can trap moisture and prevent air circulation, creating a humid environment that yeast loves. Another problem: yeast can concentrate on the pads, exacerbating the infection.

Your immune system may be malfunctioning

If you take medications that suppress your immune system to treat autoimmune diseases such as lupus, you may be more prone to recurrent yeast infections. Steroids, hormones can also interfere with your immune system to fight off yeast infections because they counteract the triggering of inflammation, which is a necessary component in your immune response.Diseases that attack the immune system, such as HIV and leukemia, trigger the growth of fungi.

Your blood sugar may be high

It is known that women with diabetes are more likely to have recurrent fungal infections, especially if patients have poor blood sugar control. Even if you don’t have diabetes, eating light carbohydrates can create the conditions for yeast to thrive. If you eat foods with a high glycemic index, they feed these microorganisms and can cause overgrowth of the fungus.Many of the same conditions that cause a vaginal yeast infection can also cause yeast to bloom in your gut. If you have low energy levels, depression, irritability, severe PMS, and hypersensitivity to food, chemicals, and other allergies, in addition to chronic vaginal yeast infections, there may be an overgrowth of Candida albicans in your gut.

Menopause is coming

In the years immediately preceding menopause, your hormone production undergoes a radical change.Hormonal shifts can cause imbalances in the vaginal flora, which can stimulate the growth of candida. But if menopause has already arrived, irritation and itching that resemble a yeast infection may be a symptom of vulvar cancer.

You sit for a long time

Sitting on plastic chairs for a long time can create a very humid environment suitable for yeast growth.

Medicines don’t work well

Your yeast infection can become resistant to drugs, especially if you take them frequently and without a doctor’s prescription.In order to fight the infection, you may need not one, but two drugs and a longer course.

You may have a rare strain of yeast infection

In a 2010 Iranian study of women diagnosed with a yeast infection, 1 in 3 people tested had a yeast other than Candida albicans. The second most common yeast identified in the study was Candida glabrata, which causes less discharge than Candida albicans. The main symptoms are redness and itching, and conventional medications such as fluconazole and miconazole may not work for these less common types of thrush.

Nearly 15% of women have even rarer types of yeast (such as Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida guilliermondii), and 1 in 10 women in the study had two or more types of Candida at the same time.

You may not have a fungal infection at all.

Women spend millions on medications for chronic yeast infections, but often the treatment is completely wrong. Only about a third of those treated for thrush have a yeast infection.In others, it may be bacterial vaginosis, vaginitis, or Trichomonas infection.

What feels like a yeast infection may even be a condition called vulvodynia, which causes severe pain and burning when the vagina is opened. Supposed causes include trauma, increased sensitivity to hormones, increased density of nerve fibers in the vulva.

Therefore, before treatment, an analysis and selection of drugs only by a doctor are always needed!

Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in Moscow

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammation of skin areas with a large number of sebaceous glands. Excessive production of sebum, or sebum, leads to the fact that pathogens receive a breeding ground. A common infectious agent is the yeast Malassezia furfur. It is present on the skin of humans and animals and is part of the normal microflora, but when special conditions are received, it begins to actively multiply, provoking an inflammatory reaction.

A dermatologist is involved in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The sooner you see a specialist, the faster you will be able to achieve remission and eliminate unpleasant symptoms.

Causes of seborrheic dermatitis

The following factors can provoke an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis:

  • endocrine system diseases;

  • neurological diseases;

  • stress, physical and emotional overwork;

  • decreased defenses after surgery or severe infection;

  • hyperhidrosis, hypovitaminosis;

  • contact with alkaline agents.

Exacerbation of dermatitis often has a seasonality – more often the disease manifests itself in autumn and spring.

Symptoms of the disease

The disease is classified into three types:

  • fatty type – characterized by increased production of sebum, may be accompanied by acne;

  • dry type – characterized by dryness, cracks, peeling of the skin, a feeling of tightness;

  • mixed type – in different areas there are inflammations with excessive and insufficient sebum secretion.

The disease begins with the appearance of small erythemas – limited areas of inflammation, covered with thick whitish or yellow scales, crusts. Many patients note rather severe itching, especially when the scalp and the external auditory canal are affected.

The disease most often affects areas of the face, especially the nasolabial folds, auricles and areas behind the ears, the scalp, the upper torso – the chest and the area of ​​the back between the shoulder blades. This is due to the fact that there are a large number of sebaceous glands.

Consequences of seborrheic dermatitis

Timely treatment of seborrheic dermatitis is very important. This disease is prone to protracted and frequent exacerbations. Unaesthetic appearance leads to psychological discomfort, and many patients note difficulties in communicating with other people. Severe itching reduces the quality of sleep, which can also lead to a deterioration in overall well-being.

As seborrheic dermatitis develops, the risk of a secondary bacterial infection increases.It is much more difficult to cure the associated inflammation.

Features of diagnostics

Interview and visual examination are sufficient to determine seborrheic dermatitis. However, it is important to differentiate this disease from other skin pathologies with similar symptoms. These include eczema and psoriasis, fungal and bacterial infections. To distinguish seborrheic dermatitis from other diseases, the doctor can sometimes resort to the necessary tests.

Treatment methods

Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis on the face, head and body is always complex, even if the manifestations have affected only one area of ​​the skin.The dermatologist will pay attention to the general state of human health – in the presence of somatic pathologies, systemic diseases, chronic ailments, it is important to correct the condition, to prevent dermatological complications.

General recommendations for any form of dermatitis include diet. You must adhere to the following rules:

  • rejection of foods that can cause allergic reactions: citrus fruits, red fish and caviar, chocolate, nuts, strawberries, etc.;

  • refusal from spices, marinades, smoked meats, confectionery, alcohol, fatty foods, as well as drinks rich in dyes;

  • the use of white meat, dairy products, cereals, soft fruits and vegetables. You can use olive oil, seaweed.

It is worth adhering to the restrictions for at least 4-6 weeks after the exacerbation of the disease has passed. These rules will help you get all the necessary vitamins and minerals, while ensuring the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, the function of the sebaceous glands and minimize the likelihood of aggravating skin problems. In the presence of chronic diseases of the digestive system, pronounced disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, it is important to consult a gastroenterologist. Sometimes the main course of treatment is accompanied by the intake of enzyme preparations to improve digestion.

The main drug therapy is based on the use of the following means:

  • local antifungal drugs: shampoos, creams, gels;

  • systemic antifungal drugs;

  • antiseptic agents;

  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;

  • corticosteroids – steroid anti-inflammatory;

  • keratolytics with zinc in the composition.

The doctor will select the combination of drugs individually. This takes into account the localization of scales, the severity of symptoms, the duration of the course of the disease, the frequency of exacerbations and many other conditions.

Additionally, external immunomodulators can be involved, which help to eliminate inflammation. Over-the-counter tar shampoos have also been shown to be effective in some cases.

Symptomatic therapy consists in the use of antihistamines.They relieve itching and burning, help eliminate swelling and redness of inflamed skin areas.

If a secondary bacterial infection has joined seborrheic dermatitis, antibiotic therapy will be required. For this, local and systemic drugs can be used. Also, the doctor may prescribe a combined agent with antibacterial and antifungal effects, their use simplifies treatment.

Treatment for seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp can include effective physical therapy.They are used as an adjunct to the course of medications. Most often, they resort to the following methods:

  • phototherapy – has anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating effects;

  • cryomassage – massage with an applicator soaked in liquid nitrogen. Exposure to cold leads to a temporary spasm and subsequent expansion of blood vessels, which improves blood microcirculation in the skin, relieves itching, and improves protective functions.

Also, if the scalp is affected, it is important to wash your hair regularly – at least every other day. It is necessary to use the shampoo recommended by the doctor, rubbing it into the skin with gentle movements and without rinsing for several minutes.

Preventive measures

Dandruff can be a harbinger of seborrheic dermatitis. To prevent complications, you need to use high-quality cosmetics, visit a dermatologist in a timely manner, because seborrhea is much easier to cure.It is better to refuse self-medication – only a doctor can choose the right medicines and care products.

For prevention, it is important to adhere to a balanced diet. Allergy sufferers should pay extra attention to the diet. Limit spicy, fatty, salty foods, condiments, alcohol, baked goods and sweets. You can also talk with your doctor about the need for additional vitamin and mineral intake.

Women should pay attention to the quality of hair care products: if possible, it is better to abandon the frequent use of varnishes and styling products, temperature effects on the hair.

It is also important to regulate the work of the sebaceous glands in the presence of disorders. You can contact a beautician for the selection of optimal procedures and cosmetics.

Dermatologists of the Family Doctor clinic specialize in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the skin. We provide quality care to our patients. We have everything you need for quick and accurate diagnostics and effective therapy.

To make an appointment with a doctor at a convenient time for you, call the unified contact center in Moscow +7 (495) 775 75 66, fill out the on-line appointment form or contact the clinic’s registry.


dermatovenerologist, oncologist, cosmetologist, candidate of medical sciences, leading specialist of the clinic

dermatovenerologist, cosmetologist, trichologist


dermatovenerologist, trichologist, cosmetologist, Ph. D.

dermatovenerologist, trichologist, Ph.D., associate professor

90,000 Sexual infections in men: causes, diagnosis and treatment in St. Petersburg

Regularly, people become infected with sexually transmitted diseases due to a lack of understanding that oral or anal unprotected intercourse with a stranger is as dangerous as vaginal intercourse. More than 13 million new sexually transmitted infections are captured annually. Therefore, it is clear that in the era of “free love”, sexual infections are increasingly becoming the cause of infertility.Half of the women undergoing fertility treatment have pelvic inflammatory disease. Only because of chlamydia, about 100 thousand women on the planet become infertile every year. Chlamydiae also initiate laryngeal infections, pharyngitis, stillbirth, neonatal death, and premature birth in infected patients.

Unfortunately, in 10-15 years the “unfading bouquet” of venereal diseases – the memory of a cheerful youth can make the birth of children for a couple unrealistic without the use of expensive assisted reproductive methods, when fertilization and the preservation of the desired pregnancy have to be achieved with the help of special medical manipulations. And this is an option for those who are very lucky. After all, there are cases when the result of chronic diseases of the reproductive sphere not cured in youth, inevitable infertility becomes.

Prices for services

Initial appointment with urologist FOR MEN + ultrasound of the prostate gland (assessment of complaints, taking anamnesis, if necessary, rectal digital examination, ultrasound of the prostate gland in men)

Initial appointment – a visit to a doctor of a specific specialty for the first time.Includes a conversation with the patient, initial examination, history taking, if necessary, rectal digital examination, ultrasound of the prostate gland.
The price is valid from 01.02.2021
The price is not valid for reception at the branches near metro station Bolshevikov and metro station Prosveshcheniya

To make an appointment

Initial reception of the head. Department of Urology Rylchikov I.B. + ultrasound (includes a conversation with the patient, initial examination, history taking, if necessary, rectal digital examination, ultrasound of the prostate gland)

Initial appointment – a visit to a doctor of a specific specialty for the first time.

To make an appointment

The ability to have children is particularly badly affected by such common diseases as gonorrhea, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis.It is they who have the ability to rise higher to the abdominal organs. It is very important to warn your doctor in time if a woman has ever had pelvic inflammatory disease. Indeed, in this case, the implantation of an intrauterine device is contraindicated for her. After the penetration of a sexually transmitted infection into a woman’s body, an adhesion process often occurs in the fallopian tubes, which leads to their obstruction or low patency. And then the woman has an ectopic pregnancy, which requires urgent surgical intervention.

Rough scars in the uterus – the result of adhesions caused by sexually transmitted diseases, can cause inevitable miscarriage and then a woman can become a mother only after IVF using a surrogate mother – a woman who bears a child conceived in laboratory conditions using assisted reproductive technologies from the genetic material of real parents.

Even if conception occurs, in the presence of a focus of chronic infection during conception in the body, mainly in a woman, pregnancy freezes in the early stages, which causes severe anxiety.An infection can also initiate a miscarriage, therefore, after a miscarriage, a woman must be urgently examined for the presence of genital infections – one of the most common of all real causes of fetal loss. To avoid these terrible pathologies allows the identification of infections of the genitourinary system at the earliest stages.

The symptoms of many diseases are very similar, but some of them are distinctive.

So the yeast fungus (the initiator of candidiasis (thrush)) provokes white masses, similar to cottage cheese, odorless.Sometimes with a yeast infection, there is pain, burning, internal itching, and a rash. Trichomoniasis is characterized by severe gray or yellow-green discharge, pain, burning, and itching. Gardnerelosis causes gray or white masses with a fishy odor, pain and burning. Chlamydia is characterized by odorless, white, watery discharge. Gonorrhea causes moderate, white, thick, odorless discharge, very similar to pus, and minor pelvic pain. Syphilis causes a purulent discharge and a hard red formation that turns into a large open sore with a crust on the edges and weeping spots.With herpes, bubbles appear on the skin, which are very painful, then the bubbles burst and their liquid, when it gets on the mucous membranes of the sexual partner, initiates infection. In human papillomavirus, warts develop on or around the genitals.

There are also such diseases of the genital tract that arise in the body due to immune disorders. Of course, if a woman plans to become pregnant in the future (or does not exclude the likelihood of preserving the fetus during an unplanned pregnancy), it is very important to be examined to exclude the presence of sexually transmitted infections.After all, most infections are treated with antibiotics, and many of them are prohibited during pregnancy. It is a well-known fact that the identification of genital infections at an early stage of pregnancy does not always make it possible to stop violations in the development of the fetus. And then the child may be born with very serious defects, or he becomes infected during childbirth, after which there may be visual impairments, hearing impairments, joints and other vital organs (chlamydia especially negatively affects the condition of the fetus).Many sexually transmitted diseases are asymptomatic for a long time (especially in men). There are diseases that progress implicitly, rarely reminding themselves of small outbreaks of exacerbations. That is why, with a constant examination by a gynecologist, it is so important to list all the alarming symptoms that you may have noticed recently in yourself and your sexual partner, although now they have probably disappeared.

Often the patient comes to the doctor when the disease is already at an advanced stage.Diseases are detected, the incubation period of which is about 6 months. All this time, a person is a carrier of a dangerous virus and infects sexual partners. In addition, many people, having discovered unpleasant symptoms (an unusual smell from the genital tract, specific discharge, pulling pains in the lower abdomen, urinary and menstrual disorders, pain during intercourse, slight bleeding after it, fever, chills and dull throbbing pain in the lower abdomen or back) instead of consulting a doctor, they try to “save money” and look at information about the disease on the basis of symptoms on the Internet, they also find average recommendations for drug treatment of these diseases, and then buy serious antibiotics in the store and self-medicate. Moreover, many patients consider it appropriate to take medicine only as long as the alarming symptoms remain. Although the disappearance of symptoms does not mean at all that the disease is gone. It is possible to confirm that the disease has been cured only with the help of special tests.

To make an appointment

It is important to remember that very often a person becomes infected with several sexually transmitted infections at the same time, therefore, the doctor chooses the tactics of treatment after receiving the test results and visual examination of the reproductive system, including using ultrasound.Of course, a person who self-medicates cannot correctly diagnose himself, choose medicines, dosage and determine the optimal time for taking medicines. Only a doctor can identify the true cause of the appearance of a rash or itching, because in some cases the doctor concludes that the unpleasant symptoms are non-infectious. Indeed, in reality, they can be provoked by hormonal disruptions caused by pregnancy (including an interrupted one), disruption of the endocrine system and other vital organs and systems, taking steroids, antibiotics (in case of individual intolerance to the drug), food and sun allergies, stress and many other factors that an experienced doctor must take into account.

That is why it is so important at the first alarming symptoms to visit a competent doctor, pass all the necessary tests, and then carefully follow the recommendations received. After the end of the medication, it is necessary to retake the tests for genital infections to make sure that the disease has receded. But not everyone is trying to make sure that the lost health has been fully restored. That is why there are so many cases when dangerous diseases of the genital area become chronic and periodically exacerbate, as soon as a person’s immunity decreases due to stress, colds or climate change.Such surprises in the form of an exacerbation of herpes or a yeast infection, not only give a person a lot of anxiety, but also deprive him of the joys of intimate life.

In addition to a visual examination of a doctor, blood tests can be used to identify sexually transmitted diseases. An analysis of biological material obtained by scraping epithelial cells from the genitals and cervical canal by PCR is also done. In some cases, urine is also taken for analysis. And also an ultrasound scan is performed. Treatment for any sexually transmitted disease should be carried out simultaneously by both partners.After all, a partner who does not receive drugs will inevitably infect the patient again, and he will again have to drink powerful antibiotics to eat. To open this vicious circle, both need to be treated, even in the absence of symptoms of the disease identified in the sexual partner.

Treatment of sexually transmitted infections is carried out in a comprehensive manner: for patients, patients are prescribed antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral drugs, drugs that normalize liver function and antihistamines (means for suppressing the body’s allergic reaction), after suppressing the infection with antibiotics and other potent drugs, the patient must be prescribed preparations to restore optimal intestinal and vaginal flora.And also the doctor prescribes drugs to normalize the immune status and vitamins. If necessary, the doctor prescribes a course of intravenous or intramuscular injections, as well as vaginal and (or) anal suppositories, tablets for oral administration. The use of numerous antibiotics for the treatment of genital infections has led to the emergence of various strains of bacteria that are resistant to certain types of antibiotics. That is why it is so important to conduct not only an analysis for the detection of microbes, but also a separate analysis for the sensitivity of harmful bacteria to various groups of antibiotics, so that the treatment is as effective as possible.

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Balanoposthitis – an interdisciplinary problem | Urology today

Oleg Viktorovich Akimov
Urologist-andrologist, dermatovenerologist
doktor144 @ mail. ru

Balanoposthitis is an inflammation of the glans penis (balanitis) and the inner layer of the foreskin (balanoposthitis), one of the most common inflammatory diseases in men (it is detected in 11% of patients, out of all those who apply to dermatovenerological or urological clinics).

In the preputial bag, due to the high temperature and humidity, the alkaline pH value caused by the excretion of the skin glands and decomposing smegma, favorable conditions are created for the reproduction of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and viruses.An unusually developed network of blood and lymphatic vessels contributes to the formation of a pronounced exudative reaction in inflammation of the head and skin of the penis and is one of the reasons for the frequent occurrence of complications of balanoposthitis in the form of phimosis and paraphimosis. The disease is often characterized by a chronic course and resistance to treatment.


The composition of the normal microflora of the preputial sac includes a limited number of microorganisms: Staphylococcus spp. , Propionibacterium acnes, Bacterioides melanogenicus and, extremely rarely, Proteus mirabilis.

  1. Most often, balanoposthitis is an infectious disease. Among infectious agents, various bacteria, fungi, viruses, staphylococci, streptococci, mycoplasmas, yeasts, HPV, causative agents of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, primary or secondary syphilis are distinguished. Some infections, primarily spirochetes, are associated with the development of xerotic balanitis. Human papillomavirus has often been detected in the tissues of the foreskin of patients who underwent circumcision.Examination of 100 men with infectious balanoposthitis revealed Candida albicans in 33%, various groups of microorganisms (hemolytic streptococcus, S. aureus, Klebsiella, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Gardnerella vaginalis, S. milleri) in 28%, and microorganisms of the Enterobacteria family were found in 8% of patients. and Streptococcus group D.
  2. Local factors – abrasions of the skin, chronic irritation of the skin with urine, narrowness of the foreskin, poor hygiene, coital trauma, frequent masturbation, dryness of the partner’s vagina.
  3. Skin diseases.
  4. Autoimmune factors. Some studies have indicated a link between balanitis and autoimmune diseases (vitiligo, alopecia, thyroid disease, pernicious anemia, diabetes mellitus, cicatricial pemphigoid, polymyalgia rheumatica, psoriasis, primary biliary cirrhosis, systemic lupus erythematosus).
  5. Hormonal factors. Sometimes disorders in the assimilation of male sex hormones by tissues predispose to the development of xerotic balanitis.
  6. Genetic factors. Familial cases of xerotic balanitis have been described.

Manifestations of balanoposthitis

  • Pain, itching, stinging, burning, any other discomfort in the glans penis. Sometimes there is an increased sensitivity of the glans penis, premature ejaculation appears, or the duration of intercourse decreases.
  • Redness of the head and foreskin, dryness, irritation, red spots, dots, bumps, cracks and ulcers on the head or foreskin, maceration (thinning) of the mucous membrane of the head, while it becomes like parchment.
  • Intense discharge from the glans penis, requiring the glans and foreskin to be washed several times a day.

Some forms of infectious balanoposthitis

Candidal balanoposthitis. In recent years, there has been a steady increase in morbidity, an increase in the frequency of chronic, resistant to therapy, forms of urogenital candidiasis in men. A characteristic sign of candidal balanopastitis is hyperemia, burning, swelling of the glans penis and foreskin after intercourse.Most often, spots of various shapes and sizes, limited from healthy areas of red color, are noted. If the disease often recurs, it is necessary to exclude predisposing factors: diabetes mellitus, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, exclude reinfection from a partner, immunodeficiency due to any reason (steroid use, chemotherapy, HIV infection, etc.).

Trichomonas balanitis usually affects males with long foreskins. Clinically, it can manifest itself in the form of redness, large erosions, phimosis.

Chlamydial and mycoplasma balanitis is usually associated with mycoplasma or chlamydial urethritis. Circinal specific balanoposthitis is characterized by the presence of spots in the area of ​​the glans penis with clearly defined boundaries.

Herpetic balanoposthitis in cases of a typical clinical picture with vesicular rash does not cause diagnostic difficulties, especially if there is a primary episode of the disease.

Gardnerella-associated (anaerobic) balanoposthitis .The disease develops in some men and is characterized by a pungent unpleasant odor, a slippery and sticky coating in the area of ​​the coronal groove of the glans penis and unexpressed erythema of the glans penis and foreskin.

Skin diseases leading to the development of balanoposthitis

  • Lichen planus. Flat polygonal papules may be present on the glans penis, which sometimes merge into rings.
  • Psoriasis. The disease is manifested by erythematous scaly papules and plaques located on characteristic areas of the skin, especially in places of constant trauma.Examination of the entire skin can often provide an accurate diagnosis.
  • Keira erythroplasia. Men over 40 are ill. Clinically characterized by a single or multiple erythematous plaques with a smooth or velvety surface of bright red color.
  • Paget’s disease. Due to diagnostic difficulties, the disease often goes unrecognized and progresses. Clinically, it can be a single, non-healing eczema-like plaque, accompanied by severe itching and sometimes pain.
  • Xerotic obliterating balanitis is a manifestation of lichen sclerosus on the penis. Complications of balanoposthitis
  • Atrophy of the receptor apparatus, decreased sensitivity of the glans penis, which leads to a decrease in the quality of sexual life.
  • Cicatricial changes in the genital organs – narrowing of the foreskin (phimosis), narrowing of the external opening of the urethra and scaphoid fossa (meatostenosis), paraphimosis.
  • Urinary tract infection (urethritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis), hydronephrosis, urolithiasis.
  • Some balanitis (Bowen’s disease, Keir’s erythroplasia) are considered precancerous diseases.
  • Other forms of balanitis (erosive and ulcerative balanoposthitis in primary syphilis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome) can lead to necrosis of the glans penis.


Outwardly, balanoposthitis is detected without difficulty, but it can be quite difficult to determine its true cause. Diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical signs and laboratory findings.

  1. STI tests by PCR.
  2. Scraping from the focus of inflammation to identify pathogenic yeast microorganisms C. albicans. The most accurate method for diagnosing candidiasis is the culture method, which differentiates C. albicans from other Candida species.
  3. Bacteriological examination of discharge from the glans penis – group A and B streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  4. PCR diagnostics for the determination of vaginose-associated bacteria and bacterial culture for the presence of anaerobic microflora (Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp.).
  5. Examination for Chlamydia trachomatis can be carried out by taking a smear from the urethra, preparing a preparation on glass with it and setting a direct immunofluorescent reaction.
  6. Microscopy of smears-prints obtained from intact vesicles, in order to detect in the preparation of giant multinucleated cells (Tzank cells) – genital herpes. This method, unfortunately, is unacceptable for non-vesicular forms of herpetic balanoposthitis, for which the determination of the titers of immunoglobulins M and G in serum is suitable.An increase in the serum titer of immunoglobulin M indicates a fresh infection, the presence of immunoglobulin G indicates a disease in the past.
  7. In order to exclude syphilis, examination for this disease is recommended.
  8. Bacterioscopic and cultural examination for gonorrhea and trichomoniasis should be performed.
  9. It is advisable to test blood for sugar and consult an allergist.

Methods of balanoposthitis treatment

  • At all stages of the development of the disease, it is recommended to pay more attention to the toilet of the external genital organs.
  • For mild forms of balanitis and balanoposthitis in the presence of moist, slightly edematous elements, cool baths with potassium permanganate (1: 8000) are recommended 2-3 times a day for at least 20 minutes for each procedure. After the bath, the affected surface is smeared with a medicinal cream, preferably with the addition of 10-15% zinc oxide.
  • Usually prescribed antibacterial or antifungal course, other anti-inflammatory drugs. Antibacterial treatment is carried out on the basis of the identified infectious agent, culture and the sensitivity of the isolated microorganisms to antibiotics.Most effective: Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Azitromycin, Levofloxacin (Floracid). Anaerobic balanitis, like Trichomonas infection, responds well to treatment with metronidazole. A combination of tinidazole and ciprofloxacin is effective.
  • Topically prescribed anti-inflammatory corticosteroid drugs or combination drugs (Triderm).
  • If yeast etiology is confirmed, treat both sex partners with the antifungal drugs Itraconazole and Fluconazole.The following antifungal creams have proven themselves well for the treatment of yeast balanoposthitis: Nizoral, Lamisil, Clotrimazole. With candidiasis balanitis, complex treatment is carried out: on the first day of the prescribed course of treatment, patients are exposed to a laser on the venous blood. Next, lasertophoresis is prescribed with proto-fungal or other drugs. When using complex therapy, clinical cure of patients with candidal balanitis and balanoposthitis occurs in 97% of cases. After 1 month and six months after the treatment, 3% of patients retained only the phenomenon of maceration of the skin of the glans penis.
  • If balanoposthitis is caused by phimosis, surgery is performed.
  • Treatment of erosive forms of the disease, regardless of their etiology, often causes great difficulties. This is primarily due to anatomical and many other reasons, which, even with the most rational and correct treatment, slow down the processes of epithelial regeneration so much that they cause inadequate psychological reactions in the patient. It should be emphasized that about 60% of exacerbations of balanoposthitis during treatment are associated with intolerance to cream bases.

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What is folliculitis and how to get rid of it?

Folliculitis is a skin disorder in which hair follicles become inflamed. Hair follicles are tiny pockets from which hair grows.

Usually the fault lies with a bacterial or fungal infection. First, small red or white bumps form around the hair follicles. The infection can spread, and the bumps can form hard, non-healing sores.This condition does not pose a health hazard, but it causes both physical and aesthetic discomfort. If a severe infection develops, a person loses hair, and scars form at the site of the bumps.

Signs of this condition include:

  • Formation of small red or white-headed bumps around the hair follicle,
  • Further formation of purulent vesicles that break down and crust over time,
  • Itching, burning, pain and tenderness of the skin in the area of ​​the bumps ,
  • Formation of a large lump or swollen mass at the site of folliculitis.

There are 2 main types of this inflammation: superficial and deep. With superficial inflammation, only a part of the follicle is affected, and with deep inflammation, the entire follicle. In the case of deep inflammation of the hair follicle, the symptoms are more severe.

The superficial form of the disease develops in several cases:

  • When the cause is hidden in a bacterial infection – most often it is Staphylococcus aureus. In this case, a bump with a white head is formed, which is filled with pus.Staphylococcus bacteria live constantly on the surface of the skin. But they are able to penetrate into its layer through cuts or wounds.
  • When a person takes a jacuzzi or swim in a pool where the chlorine level and pH are not regulated. In this case, after 1-2 days, red itchy rashes appear on the skin. The bacteria that were in the water due to the lack of proper sanitary and hygienic procedures are to blame for this.
  • When ingrown hairs are shaved too close to the skin, causing irritation.For this reason, folliculitis may appear on the face and neck. It usually affects men with curly hair.
  • When the cause is a yeast infection. A yeast infection causes chronically itchy red acne on the skin. They most often form on the back and chest, and sometimes on the neck, shoulders and face.

A deep form of inflammation of the hair follicles develops under the following conditions:

  • When the teenager just started shaving,
  • After a long period of taking antibiotics against acne.This type of disease is called gram-negative folliculitis.
  • When hair follicles are deeply infected with staphylococcal infection. In this case, boils and carbuncles are formed. The former look like a pink or red pimple that appears suddenly and hurts a lot. A carbuncle is a collection of boils.
  • If a person is infected with HIV / AIDS, they may develop eosinophilic folliculitis. Its symptoms are severe itching and recurrent acne that forms near hair follicles on the face and upper body.After acne has healed, the skin in its place may darken (hyperpigmentation). The exact cause of this type of inflammation is still unknown.

When to see a dermatologist?

It is imperative to see a doctor if acne spreads or does not go away for a long time.

What are the causes of folliculitis?

In addition to bacteria, yeast and shaved off ingrown hairs, viruses can cause inflammation of the follicles.Most of the follicles are found on the scalp, but they are found on almost all parts of the body. Exceptions are palms, soles of the feet, lips and mucous membranes.

Risk factors

Inflammation of hair follicles affects all of us. But some factors can make a person more susceptible to this disease. These factors include:

  • Male sex, especially men with curly hair who shave,
  • Having a disease that reduces the body’s resistance to infections.These include HIV / AIDS, diabetes and leukemia,
  • Presence of acne or dermatitis,
  • Taking certain medications – steroid creams or antibiotics prescribed to treat acne,
  • Regularly wearing clothing that retains heat or sweat, such as , rubber gloves or high boots,
  • Whirlpool baths or swimming in poorly maintained pools
  • Damage to hair follicles from shaving, waxing or wearing tight clothing.

Can you heal yourself?

In the simplest cases, folliculitis resolves after home procedures. To reduce discomfort, speed up recovery and prevent the spread of infection, it is recommended to:

  • Apply moist and warm compresses. Do this several times a day to relieve discomfort and help any accumulated pus drain out. Moisten the compresses with a solution of sea water (1 teaspoon of salt in 2 glasses of water).
  • Use soothing lotions. Try hydrocortisone lotion or over-the-counter cream to relieve itching.
  • Clean the affected area. Wash your skin gently with antibacterial soap twice a day. You can use a clean dishcloth to do this. Wipe your skin with a clean towel that should not be used by anyone. Use hot soapy water to wash the cloth and towel.
  • Protect your skin from damage.If possible, stop shaving for a while.

What to treat folliculitis ?

The selection of a therapeutic method depends on several factors: the type of disorder, the severity of the symptoms, and whether the person was helped by the procedures and means that he used on his own. Treatment options include taking medication or performing special procedures. But it’s important to understand that even if folliculitis treatment has helped, sometimes the infection will come back.

Drug therapy:

  • Creams or tablets to control the infection process. To treat a mild infection, doctors may prescribe antibiotics in the form of a cream, lotion, or gel. Tableted antibiotics are rarely prescribed. But they can come in handy for severe, recurring infections.
  • Creams, shampoos or tablets for combating fungal infections. Antifungal drugs are prescribed to treat yeast folliculitis.Antibiotics will not help in this case.
  • Creams and tablets to reduce inflammation. For people with an eosinophilic type of illness, doctors may prescribe a steroid cream to relieve itching. People with HIV / AIDS may notice symptom relief after receiving antiretroviral therapy.

Special procedures include:

  • Minimally invasive surgery . If a large boil or carbuncle forms, your doctor may make a small incision to remove the pus.This procedure helps relieve pain, speed up recovery, and reduce scar size.
  • Laser hair removal. If other treatments for folliculitis don’t work, doctors may suggest laser hair removal. This will save the patient from infection. But laser hair removal has its drawbacks – it is a high price and the need to perform several procedures. The laser permanently removes the hair follicle and thus reduces hair density. Potential side effects include skin discoloration, scarring and blistering.

Folliculitis is an unpleasant disease that does not pose a danger, but gives aesthetic discomfort. In addition, the re-formation of follicular acne leaves marks after they heal. If this condition persists, the best thing to do is see a doctor.


  1. Folliculitis, Mayo Clinic,
  2. FOLLICULITIS, The American Osteopathic College of Dermatology,
  3. Folliculitis, The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania.

Defeat Candida – Defeat headaches, allergies, skin and digestion problems

Fatigue, digestive problems, skin rashes, dandruff, memory impairments, allergies, depression, an irresistible craving for sweets and starchy foods – many experts associate these and many other symptoms with an excess of yeast in our body. This is especially true for the female body. Functional medicine expert Dr. Amy Myers devotes a significant portion of her medical practice to addressing women’s health issues.What factors contribute to an oversupply of yeast? How can you tell if they are the problem? What is Candida? And how does stress, alcohol and antibiotics affect it? What dietary and lifestyle changes can help you overcome excess yeast? Dr. Amy Myers’ answers to these and other questions are in this post.

According to Dr. Myers, nine out of ten of her patients suffer from an overabundance of candida (a type of yeast), and half of the women have an imbalance in candida – their body produces too much of this yeast (we need a very specific amount) to the detriment of beneficial bacteria.We used to think of candidiasis as an infection, but it’s much more complicated. It is encouraging that the overgrowth of this yeast can be stopped.

What is Candida? Where exactly in the body does it live? And how to understand that the problem is in her?

Candida is a fungus, a type of yeast. Many people use the terms “yeast oversupply” and “candida” interchangeably. There are hundreds of types of yeast, but the most common form is Candida albicans.

Candida lives in a small amount throughout our body: in the intestines, on the skin, in the mouth, on various organs and mucous membranes. By being in the right balance with the good bacteria in our microflora, Candida aids in digestion and nutrient absorption. You can make such a comparison: our microflora is like a tropical forest – when everything is in balance, the body is in harmony and functions smoothly.

The problem arises when the number of candida outweighs the number of beneficial bacteria.This can lead to digestive problems, the development of fungal infections, mood swings, confusion and other troubles. As a rule, an overabundance of candida is equated with female infections (thrush) or nail fungus. But the signs of an overabundance of candida can be much more subtle. Classical medicine recognizes only the systemic and often fatal form of candida overabundance, known as candidemia, when the blood is affected. About 90% of the patients I see have an overabundance of candida, which is not fatal, but extremely damaging to their health.

Symptoms of various types of yeast infections overlap significantly and the vast majority of them require similar treatment. Laboratory tests will help determine the type of fungus you may have.

What factors contribute to the growth of candida?

There are several factors that contribute to candida oversupply. The main ones:

Power supply . A diet high in sugar, refined carbohydrates, and excessive consumption of processed foods trigger excessive yeast overgrowth.The same can be said for alcohol such as beer and wine.

Antibiotics and other medicines . Even one course of antibiotics can kill too many beneficial bacteria and disrupt the microflora balance. If a woman takes antibiotics during pregnancy or has a yeast infection, it can lead to an oversupply of candida in the baby. Also, a cesarean section can negatively affect the microflora of the child. Yeast overgrowth can also be promoted by taking steroids.

Birth control pills . Yeast loves high estrogen levels, which is why we see a link between birth control pill use and an overabundance of candida.

Stress . By disrupting the balance of beneficial bacteria in the body’s microflora, high levels of stress can also cause candida to grow.

Symptoms of an overabundance of candida

When the body produces too much yeast, the intestinal wall breaks down, causing the intestine to permeate and release toxic substances.Increased intestinal permeability interferes with the body’s ability to digest and absorb nutrients. This can lead to serious problems not only with digestion, but also autoimmune diseases and thyroid dysfunction.

Another big problem with candida is suppression of the immune system. It’s no secret that 60 to 80% of our immune system “lives” in the intestines. An overabundance of yeast suppresses the production of immunoglobulin A, which is vital to our immunity and health.

Symptoms of yeast overgrowth:

  • Blurred consciousness, poor memory, distracted attention and hyperactivity
  • Mood swings, anxiety, depression: 95% of serotonin is produced in the intestines. Growing up, yeast prevents its formation.
  • Fatigue and / or fibromyalgia
  • Autoimmune diseases associated with increased intestinal permeability
  • Digestive problems, bloating
  • Skin problems including eczema, urticaria, rosacea and various types of rashes
  • Seasonal allergies / chronic sinusitis
  • Dandruff
  • Fungus on the skin and nails
  • Special cravings for sweets and starchy foods: sugar is food for yeast
  • High body mercury: Some alternative medicine experts believe that yeast can trap mercury in the body.

Can I diagnose myself on my own?

There are tests for self-diagnosis, you can simply search for them on Google. I have no scientific data on its accuracy, but I know that many of my patients used this test before they came to me. But laboratory tests are, of course, much more reliable.

Candida Suppression Plan

Treatment for candida involves three stages:

1. To deprive yeast of nutrition

Eliminate from your diet foods that contain yeast and those foods that are especially fond of yeast.These include vinegar, beer, wine, mushrooms, sugar, refined carbohydrates, and processed foods. It is also recommended to reduce the amount of legumes, grains and starchy vegetables to one glass a day, and the amount of sugary fruits to one serving a day – unfortunately, even healthy carbohydrates can stimulate yeast overgrowth.

I also advise you to temporarily refrain from fermented foods — sauerkraut, pickles, kimchi (not all experts agree with this).On the one hand, these foods are good for the good bacteria in our microflora, but on the other hand, yeast tastes them too (therefore, these foods will not be beneficial in the case of an overabundance of candida).

2. Defeat yeast

Some patients require antifungal drugs or antifungal supplements. Caprylic acid (found in coconut oil, for example) and Candisol (contains enzymes that destroy the cell walls of parasites and fungi). Some people take oregano oil, which targets a wide variety of bacteria, but that means it will kill both good and bad bacteria in the microflora.Therefore, I choose more targeted supplements that only have a detrimental effect on yeast.

3. Replenish the supply of good bacteria

During treatment, it is necessary to take high quality probiotics, which help to protect the body from future infections. If there is already a problem with yeast oversupply, probiotics can stimulate yeast development as well. Therefore, you can include them, along with the fermented foods discussed above, after the candida overgrowth is under control.

Are there ways to get rid of candida without dietary restrictions? What foods should you add to your diet to combat excess yeast?

Getting rid of candida without a restrictive diet is very difficult. Even if you are taking medications, it is necessary to exclude foods that provoke the growth of yeast from the diet.
If we talk about healthy foods that need to be added to your diet in order to better fight Candida, here they are:

  • Coconut oil: Contains caprylic acid, which inhibits yeast growth.
  • Olive Oil: The antioxidants in olive oil help the body get rid of candida.
  • Garlic: Contains allicin, a sulfur-containing compound with antifungal properties.
  • Cinnamon: Has antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Apple Cider Vinegar: This is the only vinegar I recommend using during treatment.
  • Lemons: have antifungal properties and help detoxify the liver.
  • Ginger: Has anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties, supports your liver.
  • Cloves: Very effective anti-bending agent. Clove oil can also be used as a topical relief for infections.
  • Cruciferous vegetables: broccoli, radishes, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, etc. They contain sulfur and nitrogen-containing compounds that attack Candida.
  • Wild Salmon: Thanks to Omega-3 fatty acids, it is useful in the fight against fungal infections.

How long does it take to get rid of candida overgrowth?

This largely depends on what caused the Candida overgrowth.Let’s say it was a one-off scenario: bronchitis, two courses of antibiotics, and as a result, Candida. By following the instructions and diet provided, you will get rid of yeast overgrowth in a few weeks. If the situation is not one-time, then most likely it will not work out quickly. However, this does not mean that you will never again be able to afford a glass of wine or a slice of cake. If the condition improves, the diet can be adjusted.

Amy Myers is MD, Founder and Medical Director of the Austin Ultra Health Clinic in Austin, Texas.Dr. Myers specializes in women’s health, gut health, thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune diseases. Amy Myers is also the author of the New York Times bestselling books The Autoimmune Solution and The Thyroid Connection.

* Translation of an interview from Goop.com. The opinion of the author is published here for informational purposes and does not purport to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

⭐︎ A description of Natalia Rose’s system, also aimed at combating excess yeast, is in this post.A detailed diet for a week is available in our online detox program, which also aims to tame yeast in the body.

Vaginitis | Polyclinic Otradnoe

Vaginitis (colpitis) is an inflammatory disease of the vaginal mucosa.

Acute vaginitis gives a woman a lot of unpleasant sensations, accompanied by itching, pain and profuse vaginal discharge. This disease worsens the quality of life and makes healthy sex impossible.Chronic vaginitis can cause miscarriage or serious postpartum complications, infect the urinary tract, and even cause bacteremia (blood poisoning).

Throughout her life, every woman suffers this disease. Vaginitis is the most common reason why patients visit a gynecologist.

Inflammation can develop under the influence of various reasons, but in most cases, the disease is preceded by a decrease in immunity or a violation of the vaginal microflora.Often, vaginitis occurs against the background of changes in hormonal levels.

Why does the disease develop

When a woman is healthy, her body independently maintains the balance of flora in the vagina. Lactobacilli, which are located on its mucous membrane, produce lactic acid, it suppresses the excessive activity of opportunistic microflora. The situation changes when the body’s defenses weaken.

Vaginitis can be caused by:

  • infectious diseases;
  • 90,091 sexually transmitted infections;

  • microtrauma of the vaginal mucosa.Including – during childbirth;
  • 90,091 abortions, aggressive sexual intercourse, surgical procedures;

  • endocrine pathologies. Among them are pregnancy, abortion, menopause, ovarian dysfunction;
  • Incorrect genital hygiene. Excessive cleanliness, abuse of aggressive detergents and rare irregular hygiene procedures are equally dangerous;
  • 90 091 uncontrolled intake of antibiotics;

    90,091 unprotected sex, intercourse with casual sexual partners;

  • metabolic disorders;
  • allergic reactions to hygienic tampons, contraceptives, intimate lubricating gels;
  • stress, tense psycho-emotional state;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • immunodeficiency.

How does the disease arise

Anatomically, the vagina is a muscle tube, protected from the inside by the epithelium – several layers of cells that are firmly connected to each other. The upper layer of the epithelium contains a supply of glycogen, a polymer of glucose, which forms the body’s energy supply. The beneficial microflora of the vagina – lactic acid bacteria feeds on glycogen carbohydrates.

Breaking down glycogen, bacteria secrete lactic acid, which creates an environment that is detrimental to pathogenic microflora.In addition, in a healthy woman, a layer of lactic acid bacteria lines the vaginal cavity so tightly that other microorganisms simply have nowhere to create their own colony.

The mucous membrane of the vagina constantly produces a little secretion, which flows down the walls and carries with it the epithelium that has served its life, dead bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms.

The content of glycogen in the vagina depends on the amount and composition of sex hormones in the blood.An increased level of estrogen is a guarantee that there will be a lot of glucose polymer on the mucous membrane. Some steroid female sex hormones reduce the glycogen content in the epithelium.

The concentration of such hormones rises before menstruation, so many women on the eve of menstruation feel itching in the vagina. This is how chronic vaginitis worsens or the acute stage of the disease manifests itself.

Disease-causing bacteria can enter the vagina in two ways:

  1. Ascending – when the infection rises from the anus or perineal area, from the labia, urinary tract or the vestibule of the vagina.
  2. Descending — The causative agents of vaginitis enter the vaginal mucosa with the flow of lymph or blood from foci of chronic infection. Diseased kidneys, untreated dental caries and chronic tonsillitis can become a “supplier”.

As soon as pathogens hit the weakened tissues of the vagina, inflammation develops as follows:

  1. Infection destroys epithelial cells, the body releases biologically active substances at the site of injury.
  2. The blood vessels of the vagina dilate, this causes stagnation of blood in its cells. Through the walls of the vessels, immune cells – leukocytes and blood plasma – penetrate into the tissue. The vaginal mucosa swells, and in more severe cases, the muscles, vulva, and labia are involved.
  3. The affected cells disintegrate, the decay products irritate the nerve endings in the mucous membrane and this causes itching. The situation is aggravated by edematous tissues, which every day compress the vagina more strongly.
  4. To remove infection and dead cells from the surface, the epithelium actively produces mucus. Profuse vaginal discharge appears. If many leukocytes have died during inflammation, purulent inflammation develops and the mucus contains pus. When the small blood vessels of the mucous membrane are destroyed, the discharge is bloody. With sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal discharge has a characteristic unpleasant odor.

Forms of vaginitis

The disease is distinguished by a set of symptoms.

By its duration, vaginitis can be:

  • Sharp. Lasts 1.5-2 months.
  • Subacute. This is a transitional phase from acute to chronic form. It is characterized by edema of the walls of the vagina, profuse discharge from the genital tract. The cycle and nature of menstruation changes (they may become more painful). After sexual intercourse, bloody discharge is noticeable on the linen. The duration of the phase is from 2 to 6 months.
  • Chronic.The inflammation resumes after a short remission, then the clinical signs disappear again. The only symptom can be considered itching, which intensifies before menstruation, after sexual intercourse, playing sports or physical exertion. Vaginitis is considered chronic if it cannot be cured for more than six months.

Depending on the cause of the inflammation, vaginitis is:

  • Bacterial (non-specific). Its causative agents are opportunistic streptococci, staphylococci, bacilli.
  • Trichomonas. Occurs when infected with the causative agent of trichomoniasis.
  • Mycoplasma. Develops when attacked by an intracellular parasite of mycoplasma. This infection is sexually transmitted.
  • Yeast. The cause of its occurrence is the multiplication of the candida fungus, the causative agent of thrush.
  • Atrophic. Appears during a period of a decrease in the level of estrogen in a woman’s blood.For example, with the onset of menopause, with dysfunction of the ovaries or if they are removed.
  • Pregnancy vaginitis. During gestation, a woman’s immunity is weakened, because her body is exposed to serious stress. The occurrence of vaginitis is also facilitated by a change in the hormonal background in the body of the expectant mother. Therefore, lactobacilli in the vagina weaken, and conditionally pathogenic bacteria develop successfully.
  • Allergic. It is provoked by allergens trapped on the vaginal mucosa.Irritants can be: lubrication of condoms, fragrances in intimate hygiene products, local contraceptives, vaginal rings, tampons and sanitary pads with a fragrance, vaginal suppositories. In this case, vaginitis is a reaction to allergens of immune cells.

By the nature of the inflammation, vaginitis is:

  • Serous – its development is accompanied by transparent, liquid discharge;
  • Mucous – thick and viscous discharge appears from the vagina.They are opaque, have a dull gray tint;
  • Purulent – The vagina secretes a cloudy mucus-like content that has a yellow, yellow-green color. The discharge has an unpleasant odor.

Vaginitis can develop not only in adults, but in children and adolescents. This is dangerous, because the child cannot understand what is happening to him, and sometimes he is simply embarrassed to complain about pain and burning sensation in an intimate place. If untreated, the disease becomes chronic.In girls, the vaginal mucosa is very thin, therefore, with inflammation, scars, polyps and even synechiae (fusion of the labia) are formed on it. At the slightest suspicion of colpitis in a girl, immediately consult a gynecologist.

How vaginitis manifests itself

With vaginitis, a woman most often does not experience a fever, she does not have a high temperature and general weakness. However, the feeling of general discomfort in the perineum and itching does not stop throughout the course of the disease.

If the temperature still rises, symptoms of general intoxication and severe pain in the vagina appear, then the inflammatory process has gone far. And we are talking about an acute inflammatory process along the entire height of the vagina and adipose tissue surrounding the uterus.


Bacterial vaginitis is a purulent inflammation, accompanied by copious yellow-green discharge.

Bacterial vaginitis can be caused by:

  • unbalanced nutrition;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • 90 091 frequent colds;

    90,091 genital trauma;

  • frequent change of sexual partners;
  • 90,091 long-term use of antibiotics;

  • chronic urinary tract infection.

This type of vaginitis is called aerobic, because inflammation is provoked by opportunistic microflora, where there are many aerobic bacteria. They need oxygen to thrive, which is why colonies are usually located on the surface of the skin of the perineum. When the body’s defenses weaken, representatives of aerobes penetrate into the vagina and multiply on the mucous membrane. Thus, bacterial vaginitis is not a bacterial lesion of the vaginal mucosa, but the death of its natural microflora.

When examining the vagina, the doctor will notice foci of redness on the vaginal mucosa. The organ itself is edematous and covered with pus. When analyzing vaginal smears, an acidic reaction will be detected, epithelial cells are attacked by a layer of aerobic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are few, and sometimes they cannot be detected at all.

This type of inflammation becomes more chronic than others, with moderate vaginal discharge but retaining its distinctive yellow-green color and foul odor.

This form of vaginitis is difficult to cure as a result of systemic treatment. In addition to local remedies, it will be necessary to take restorative drugs.


The disease is difficult. The inflammation develops after 3 – 12 (and sometimes up to 30) days from the moment of infection – unprotected sex with a carrier of the infection. This is a stage of infectious accumulation, and a woman is not worried about anything when acute vaginitis suddenly occurs.

Foamy discharge is separated from the vagina, which is accompanied by a pungent unpleasant odor. Most often they are cloudy white or have a yellow tint. A woman is tormented by itching of the perineum, discomfort is localized in the abdomen.

Trichomonas easily moves and from the vagina penetrates into the uterus, fallopian tubes, peritoneum and surrounding tissues. At this stage of the disease, a woman’s temperature rises to 39 degrees. The pain in the abdomen becomes worse, menstruation is irregular.

Examining the vagina, the doctor notes a uniform reddening of the walls of the vagina, swelling of the mucous membrane, the presence of foamy discharge.

However, there are cases when trichomoniasis colpitis is almost asymptomatic, apart from some redness of the vagina.

In a man, most often the disease does not manifest itself, but both partners must be treated, otherwise the entire genitourinary system will be involved in the painful process.


This infection is transmitted exclusively through sexual contact. Its signs appear after 3-4 days from the moment of infection, when a woman begins to experience discomfort, burning, pain and itching in the vagina. The discharge is mucous, purulent, sometimes white blotches can be seen in them – areas of dead cells of the mucous membrane.

The walls of the vagina are swollen and overfilled with stagnant blood, especially the swollen papillae of a red hue stand out.In an advanced stage, erosion forms in the vagina. At first, they are covered with a whitish layer of dead bacteria, then ulcers appear and begin to bleed. Blood appears in vaginal discharge.


Many women have had thrush or candidal vaginitis. In this case, the causative agent of the infection does not necessarily have to be brought by the sexual partner. Candida fungus inhabits the vagina of 25% of women. He is a representative of a conditionally pathogenic microflora, in his usual state he does not give a woman anxiety.

However, if the immunity of the carrier of the yeast-like fungus decreases, under stress or metabolic disorders, candida begins to multiply actively.

The fact that the process has begun to develop is evidenced by itching in the genitals. Then the woman feels dryness in the vagina. If swelling and severe soreness appears on the labia majora, then the course of the disease complicates vulvovaginitis.

After 1–2 days after the onset of itching from the vagina, white cheesy discharge with a sour odor appears.In rare cases, thrush may run without discharge.

Often, signs of a fungal infection appear before menstruation begins, during pregnancy, or when using intrauterine contraceptives. It provokes the appearance of thrush and an unbalanced intake of antibiotics.

This disease has a record number of relapses.

However, the treatment of yeast vaginitis is not difficult with the help of special creams. And although, due to the structure of the genitals, men do not have candidal colpitis, the woman’s sexual partner must also undergo treatment.


Most often occurs during the postmenopausal period (menopause), when the production of estrogen decreases. As a result, the vaginal epithelium becomes thinner, and there are fewer lactobacilli in the epidermal layer. This leads to a change in the acidity of the vagina, which triggers the inflammatory process.

With atrophic vaginitis, itching in the vagina is especially painful; it is difficult for women to tolerate both the dryness of the vagina and the violation of its elasticity. Another symptom of atrophic vaginitis is frequent urination.

With such inflammation, there is almost no discharge, they are not colored and odorless. Spotting sometimes appears.

The doctor, when examining the vagina, will find that the mucous membrane is pale yellow in color with hemorrhagic spots (bruises). With atrophic vaginitis, the vagina narrows, adhesions form on the posterior fornix.

This disease requires complex treatment, the use of hormonal drugs and local therapy.


Acute vaginitis can become chronic if a woman has not consulted a doctor for help or received insufficient treatment. Gradually, the symptoms of acute inflammation subside, from time to time vaginal discharge appears, but not as abundant as in the exacerbation stage. Women can live with confidence that they have recovered and find out about their diagnosis by chance.

Chronic inflammation reduces the elasticity of the vaginal walls, they thicken, become rough.During intercourse, unpleasant sensations may occur, the inflammatory process captures the uterus and ovaries, forming adhesions there. As a result, it is more difficult for a woman to get pregnant.

Further, the inflammation passes to the urinary system and the pelvic organs.

How to make a diagnosis

The gynecologist is engaged in the diagnosis of the disease.

The survey will take place as follows:

  1. Collection of primary data.The doctor receives the necessary information when talking with the patient. You need to remember when and in connection with what unpleasant sensations arose, whether something like this happened before. It is important to be aware of any endocrine diseases you have, your general health, and any medications you were taking shortly before symptoms began.
  2. Gynecological examination with special mirrors. So he will reveal swelling, hyperemia (redness), the condition of the walls of the vagina.
  3. Taking a smear for the composition of microflora.The sample is taken from the vagina, urethra, and cervix. An antibiotic susceptibility test is also taken. To determine genital infections, vaginal discharge is examined by the polymerase chain reaction method.

Refrain from sex for a day before visiting a gynecologist. You do not need to use hygienic tampons, douche – this way you will preserve the composition of the microflora. Stop using intimate lubricants two days before the examination, do not use vaginal suppositories and do not take antibiotics – unless this is contrary to your doctor’s recommendations.

How to cure vaginitis

Provided that the woman consulted a doctor on time and intends to follow all his recommendations, vaginitis is successfully treated on an outpatient basis. Neither hospitalization nor sick leave will be required.

If the cause of vaginitis is a sexually transmitted infection, the sexual partner should also be treated.

For the time set by the doctor, you will have to refrain from sexual intercourse. During sex, the mucous membrane can receive additional microtrauma, this will aggravate the course of the disease, and the causative agent of the disease will take even more reliable positions.

Treatment for each type of vaginitis is specific and depends on the type of pathogen. As a rule, antibiotics, antifungal and antimicrobial agents are used in therapy. After the end of the course, the use of vaginal suppositories with lactobacilli is shown.

To relieve itching, special vaginal suppositories should be used.

Additionally, douching with drugs is prescribed.

Sitting baths with a decoction of medicinal herbs can be recommended as supportive therapy.

There are drugs that do not interfere with the work of vaginal lactobacilli and are not absorbed into the bloodstream. It is their doctors who prescribe to pregnant women with vaginitis, for use in the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

During treatment it is necessary:

  • change your underwear every day, wash yourself after each visit to the toilet;
  • to follow a special diet, including fermented milk products with live bifido and lactobacilli, products with polyunsaturated acids, vitamins and minerals;
  • Use fragrance-free sanitary towels.

Chronic vaginitis is more difficult to cure. In addition to drug therapy, the doctor will connect physiotherapy – magnetotherapy, electrophoresis, UHF. It is necessary to strengthen the immune system, rest more, take immunomodulators and vitamin complexes.

It is important that a woman’s sexual partner also see a doctor. A man may be shown drugs that differ from those used by a woman. And self-prescribed treatment can only harm and postpone the recovery time of both partners.

Disease prevention

The main condition for successful prevention of vaginitis is sex with the use of barrier contraceptives or with a constant reliable partner.

In addition, to protect yourself from an unpleasant disease will help:

  • regular observation by a gynecologist and examination of smears for flora;
  • healthy food;
  • 90 091 rejection of bad habits and physical activity;

  • regular observance of intimate hygiene, especially during critical days – but using special means for intimate hygiene with a suitable pH level;
  • the habit of wearing underwear made from natural materials;
  • 90 091 timely replacement of hygienic (including daily) pads;

    90,091 taking antibiotics only as directed by a doctor;

  • absence of aggressive intercourse and alternation of anal and vaginal sex.