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Dead Man’s Finger Control – What Do Dead Man’s Fingers Look Like

If you have black, club-shaped mushrooms at or near the base of a tree, you may have dead man’s finger fungus. This fungus may indicate a serious condition that needs your immediate attention. Read this article for dead man’s finger facts and tips for handling the problem.

What is Dead Man’s Finger?

Xylaria polymorpha, the fungus that causes dead man’s finger, is a saprotrophic fungus, which means that it only invades dead or dying wood. Think of saprotrophic fungi as natural sanitation engineers that clean up dead organic matter by breaking it down into a form that plants can absorb as nutrients.

The fungus shows a preference for apple, maple, beech, locust, and elm trees, but it can also invade a variety of ornamental trees and shrubs used in home landscapes. The fungus is the result of a problem rather than the cause because it never invades healthy wood. On trees, it often begins in bark lesions. It can also invade damaged roots, which later develop root rot.

What Do Dead Man’s Fingers Look Like?

A dead man’s finger “plant” is actually a mushroom. Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies (reproductive stage) of fungi. It is shaped like a human finger, each about 1.5 to 4 inches (3.8-10 cm.) tall. A clump of the mushrooms looks like a human hand.

The mushroom arises in spring. It may be pale or bluish with a white tip at first. The fungus matures to dark gray and then black. Trees infected with the disease show a gradual decline. Apple trees may produce a large number of small fruit before they die.

Dead Man’s Finger Control

When you find dead man’s finger, the first thing you want to do is determine the source of the growth. Is it growing from the trunk of the tree or the roots? Or is it growing on the mulch at the base of the tree?

Dead man’s finger growing on the trunk or roots of a tree is very bad news. The fungus breaks down the structure of the tree quickly, causing a condition known as soft rot. There is no cure, and you should remove the tree before it becomes a hazard. Infected trees can collapse and fall without warning.

If the fungus is growing in hardwood mulch and is not connected to the tree, removing the mulch solves the problem.

Diseases and Pests, Description, Uses, Propagation

Category : Insects

Aphids (Green peach aphid, Potato aphid, etc.)

Myzus persicae
Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Small soft bodied insects on underside of leaves and/or stems of plant; usually green or yellow in color, but may be pink, brown, red or black depending on species and host plant; if aphid infestation is heavy it may cause leaves to yellow and/or distorted, necrotic spots on leaves and/or stunted shoots; aphids secrete a sticky, sugary substance called honeydew which encourages the growth of sooty mold on the plants





If aphid population is limited to just a few leaves or shoots then the infestation can be pruned out to provide control; check transplants for aphids before planting; use tolerant varieties if available; reflective mulches such as silver colored plastic can deter aphids from feeding on plants; sturdy plants can be sprayed with a strong jet of water to knock aphids from leaves; insecticides are generally only required to treat aphids if the infestation is very high – plants generally tolerate low and medium level infestation; insecticidal soaps or oils such as neem or canola oil are usually the best method of control; always check the labels of the products for specific usage guidelines prior to use

Armyworms (Beet armyworm, Western striped armyworm)

Spodoptera exigua
Spodoptera praefica


Singular, or closely grouped circular to irregularly shaped holes in foliage; heavy feeding by young larvae leads to skeletonized leaves; shallow, dry wounds on fruit; egg clusters of 50-150 eggs may be present on the leaves; egg clusters are covered in a whitish scale which gives the cluster a cottony or fuzzy appearance; young larvae are pale green to yellow in color while older larvae are generally darker green with a dark and light line running along the side of their body and a pink or yellow underside





Organic methods of controlling armyworms include biological control by natural enemies which parasitize the larvae and the application of Bacillus thuringiensis; there are chemicals available for commercial control but many that are available for the home garden do not provide adequate control of the larvae

Corn earworm

Helicoverpa zea


Larvae damage leaves, buds, flowers and pods; young caterpillars are cream-white in color with a black head and black hairs; older larvae may be yellow-green to almost black in color with fine white lines along their body and black spots at the base of hairs; eggs are laid singly on both upper and lower leaf surfaces and are initially creamy white but develop a brown-red ring after 24 hours and darken prior to hatching





Monitor plants for eggs and young larvae and also natural enemies that could be damaged by chemicals; Bacillus thuringiensis or Entrust SC may be applied to control insects on organically grown plants; appropriate chemical treatment may be required for control in commercial plantations

Cucumber beetles (Western striped cucumber beetle, Western spotted cucumber beetle, Banded cucumber beetle)

Acalymma vittata
Diabrotica undecimpunctata
Diabrotica balteata


Stunted seedling; damaged leaves, stems and/or petioles; reduced plant stand; plants may exhibit symptoms of bacterial wilt; scars on fruit caused by beetle feeding damage; adult beetles are brightly colored with either a green-yellow background and black spots or alternating black and yellow stripes





Monitor new planting regularly for signs of beetle; floating row covers can be used to protect the plants from damage but will need to be removed at bloom to allow bees to pollinate plants; applications of kaolin clay can be effective for management of small beetle populations; application of appropriate insecticides may be necessary

Loopers (Cabbage looper)

Trichoplusia ni


Large or small holes in leaves; damage often extensive; caterpillars are pale green with a white lines running down either side of their body; caterpillars are easily distinguished by the way they arch their body when moving; eggs are laid singly, usually on the lower leaf surface close to the leaf margin, and are white or pale green in color





Looper populations are usually held in check by natural enemies; if they do become problematic larvae can be hand-picked from the plants; an organically acceptable control method is the application of Bacillus thuringiensis which effectively kills younger larvae; chemical sprays may damage populations of natural enemies and should and should be selected carefully

Thrips (Melon thrips)

Thrips palmi


If population is high leaves may be distorted; leaves are covered in coarse stippling and may appear silvery; leaves speckled with black feces; insect is small (1. 5 mm) and slender and best viewed using a hand lens; adult thrips are pale yellow to light brown and the nymphs are smaller and lighter in color





Avoid planting next to onions, garlic or cereals where very large numbers of thrips can build up; use reflective mulches early in growing season to deter thrips; apply appropriate insecticide if thrips become problematic

Category : Mites

Spider mites (Two-spotted spider mite)

Tetranychus urticae


Leaves stippled with yellow; leaves may appear bronzed; webbing covering leaves; mites may be visible as tiny moving dots on the webs or underside of leaves, best viewed using a hand lens; usually not spotted until there are visible symptoms on the plant; leaves turn yellow and may drop from plant





In the home garden, spraying plants with a strong jet of water can help reduce buildup of spider mite populations; if mites become problematic apply insecticidal soap to plants; certain chemical insecticides may actually increase mite populations by killing off natural enemies and promoting mite reproduction

COVID-19 in India: Patients hit by rare ′black fungus′ | Science | In-depth reporting on science and technology | DW

The images of patients with “black fungus” are truly shocking. An infection will often start in the sinuses or lungs and spread to bones and other tissue in the body. In the worst cases, a black fungus infection can attack the eyes and brain. It can be fatal. 

After an operation to stop an infection, patients’ faces often appear as if mutilated or totally disfigured. DW has decided not to publish such images as they can be distressing.

But the fact is that doctors in India are diagnosing the black fungus — known medically as mucormycosis — more and more in COVID-19 patients.

Patients with a weakened immune system are at higher risk of contracting mucormycosis. That includes patients who have just recovered from a COVID-19 infection.

Mucormycosis is a rare infection. People contract it when they come into contact with mucormycetes, a type of mold.

As India battles an intense wave of SARS-CoV-2 , patients are having to suffer this as well.

The infection has also been seen in COVID patients in Nepal, the AFP news agency reported, and in Chile and Uruguay, The Times newspaper quoted the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases as saying.

The situation is very serious, said Oliver Cornely, a professor for translational research at the European Excellence Center for Invasive Fungal Infections in Cologne, Germany.

“Doctors in India are reporting that the number of cases of mucormycosis has risen sharply and that the larger hospitals are diagnosing it in patients every second day,” said Cornely.

It’s especially those patients who have had a COVID-19 infection, even those who have recovered, who are contracting the fungus. The exact number of cases is, however, currently unclear.

Like a horror movie

The mold mostly infects surface areas of the body, such as the skin. But it also infects inner parts of the body that come into contact with air. When people inhale the fungal spores, the spores enter the sinuses and spread to airways deeper in the body.

Worldwide, about 1.5 million people die from fungal infections every year

“The fungus starts in the sinuses and spreads through mucous membrane into the bones,” explained Cornely. “It can also proceed through the bones to the eyes, eye socket, muscles and nerves.”   

When that happens, surgeons often have to remove an entire eye to save a patient’s life. It’s a radical operation, but seen as the only way for doctors to remove infected tissue.

“The fungus can also infect the brain,” said Cornely.

When that happens, it’s almost always fatal. It depends on how fast and how well the patient receives treatment. The death rate lies between 50-90%.

Almost unstoppable

Initial symptoms are often quite common-looking: Red eyes or a reddened nose.

Later, patients may have bloody or black nasal discharge, perhaps also a fever and may experience difficulty breathing.

It’s important to treat a mucormycosis as early as possible. But doctors are often slow to recognize the symptoms and infection, and take appropriate measures.

“There’s no doubt that the doctors in India are experienced enough to spot a mucormycosis, but even they wouldn’t normally see such infections that frequently, like every day or every other day,” said Cornely. But that is precisely the situation they face now, he added.  

Doctors in India are diagnosing more and more cases of mucormycosis

In most cases, the only way to stop an infection is through a surgical procedure. Some patients come out the other side looking disfigured.

“If the infection has spread from the sinuses into the eyes, surgeons may have to remove parts of the face,” said Cornely. “The mucor destroys all the tissue that it finds in its way. That includes blood vessels, and that means that any medication will not be transported to where it’s needed in the body.”

So, an operation is usually the only way to go.

High-risk group: People with diabetes

Diabetes patients are a risk group, and in India the number of people with diabetes is high. Diabetes is sometimes described as its own epidemic there, said Cornely.

“Particularly at risk are those people who have diabetes, but who have never been treated for it,” he said.

Their immune system is weakened. And among those diabetics, whose condition has never been treated, the mucous membrane can produce a molecule that even acts as a receptor for the fungal spores.

“That’s how the spores attach themselves to the body, and as soon as they have done that, they start to grow and build a threadlike fungus,” said Cornely.

First COVID, then a fungal infection

COVID-19 patients are at risk because their immune system is already weakened.

That may be contributing to the rise in cases of mucormycosis in India.

But at the same time, there is the effect of cortisone. Cortisone inhibits infections but it also restricts the immune system, making things easier again for mucor spores.

Once they are in the body and the fungus has started to spread, the prognosis for patients is bad. So, what’s good for the one infection, opens a door for the other.

The fungus spreads quickly in people with weakened immune systems

“A patient’s airways will often become sore through a corona infection,” said Cornely. “The epithelial tissues, which would normally form a defense, are destroyed.”

That’s an ideal situation for the black fungus. 

“These fungi don’t really belong in people. Their ecological duty, as it were, is to degrade wood, plants and other dead bodies,” said Cornely.

It usually lives in soil but can also be found in rotting food, such as fruit.

But why so many cases in India? 

“It’s possible,” speculated Cornely, “that it has something to do with the different climate in South Asia, that it’s different from Germany, where the fungus usually only affects one or two people in a million per year.”

He said it’s also possible that people in India are subject to a higher level of the pathogen. Hygiene standards may be lower, he said, and poverty and cramped living conditions may also play a role.

All such aspects can make it easier for disease to spread.

“It’s through COVID-19,” said Cornely, “that illnesses that are otherwise rare are coming more to the fore now, and mucormycosis is just one of them.

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    A foul smell

    Allow us to introduce the octopus stinkhorn, or devil’s fingers (Clathrus archeri). As with all mushrooms, it’s neither animal nor plant. Fungi are an independent group of organisms. This specimen’s superpower: It smells like carrion, or decaying flesh. Its color is reminiscent of rotting meat. That attracts flies and dung beetles, which spread the fungal spores. Very clever!

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    Not deadly, but not very tasty, either

    The octopus stinkhorn is native to Australia, New Zealand and the Malay Archipelago, but it’s not really that fussy about location: The mushroom is now much more widespread. In Germany, it was first discovered in 1934. It’s not poisonous. After its spore container and a gelatinous layer are removed, it can be eaten — but don’t expect a culinary delight.

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    Horrid little hand

    Xylaria polymorpha is also known as “dead man’s fingers. ” It prefers to grow on dead or dying deciduous trees. The club-shaped body, or stroma, ranges from dark-brown to blackish-brown on the outside, and it’s white and fibrous on the inside. Dead man’s fingers are inedible. In any case, you wouldn’t want to be a cannibal, would you?! 🙂

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    Young and gory

    Hydnellum peckii excretes a watery red liquid like blood when it is young. That’s why it is also known as “bleeding tooth fungus,” the “red-juice tooth” or the “devil’s tooth.” Spikes or thorns run down the underside of its hat and stem. These are deterrents and a good thing: We’re dealing with a highly inedible mushroom here.

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    Threatening and threatened

    Devil’s tooth mushrooms are common in Central Europe. There are about 15 species. They are a rarity among mushroom flora that deserves protection. However, Hydnellum peckii likes company. It is not uncommon to find it along with other endangered species, such as the “pig’s ear” mushroom.

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    Yummy pig’s ear!

    And this is that very mushroom — the pig’s ear (Gomphus clavatus) was the German mushroom of the year in 1998 and often looks like — you guessed it — a pig’s ear. The good news is, even for vegetarians, is that this mushroom is delicious — and can be eaten with a clear conscience to boot! Its flesh is white and tender, and has a mild flavor.

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    Forgotten bird’s nest

    Cyathus striatus is commonly known as the fluted bird’s nest fungus. The species occurs almost worldwide, but it is only beautiful to look at and not at all good to eat.

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    Excuse me?!

    This one’s a little embarrassing: The common stinkhorn. The Latin name “phallus impudicus” means “shameless penis,” which did not come about by chance, as you can see. Its tip is covered with a stinking, sticky substance. There’s a good reason for this: That attracts flies, which then transport the spores of the obscene fungus.

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    The veiled lady

    This one also hails from the family of Phallaceae, or stinkhorns. But it is somewhat less offensive: At least the crinoline stinkhorn or veiled lady (Phallus indusiatus) wears a veil. Although the mushroom is also smelly, it is often used in sophisticated Chinese cuisine. It is rich in proteins, carbohydrates and fiber. Well then, enjoy!

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    From brain to intestine

    Ascocoryne sarcoides is colloquially known as jelly drops or the purple jellydisc. It loves company. The mushroom is particularly common on dead birch, willow or beech wood. It looks a bit like innards. But it comes in a variety of forms, such as a spinning top, a cushion or a mug, and as a gelatinous mass, flesh-colored, purply-pink or wine-red. It is technically edible, however…

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    Bad twin

    Ascocoryne sarcoides has a doppelgänger of sorts — Ascocoryne cylichnium. And this one is definitely inedible. To the naked eye it can be virtually indistinguishable from one of the life-cycle stages of Ascocoryne sarcoides. But hands off!

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    A carnivorous plant?

    Wrong, all wrong! This specimen is neither carnivore nor plant. Cookeina tricholoma belongs to the cup fungi family and is a rather harmless individual. However, it is striking for its shape and splendid hairdo. In parts of Mexico, Cookeina tricholoma is used in cooking. In Cameroon, it is used in medicine to relieve earaches.

  • Pretty creepy mushrooms

    What a lion’s mane!

    Hericium erinaceus is another hairy eye-catcher. It’s called lion’s mane or monkey head mushroom. It is edible, unlike most other mushrooms of the tooth fungus group. In Asia, monkey head mushroom is considered a delicacy. It is also popular in traditional Chinese medicine. But it’s on a Red List of endangered fungi and is rarely found in nature. So, if you spot it, look but do not touch!

    Author: Hannah Fuchs

This article was updated on June 4, 2021 with information about black fungus cases in countries other than India.

Managing Black Rot | Viticulture and Enology


Grapes 101 is a series of brief articles highlighting the fundamentals of cool climate grape and wine production.

By Tim Weigle

Figure 1. Various stages of black rot infection on berries.  Photo by Tim Weigle.

Black rot  (Guignardia bidwellii (Ellis)) is a potentially devastating fungal disease that can infect the leaves, shoots, berries and cluster stems of grapes. Susceptibility to black rot varies greatly by variety, but it can be a concern whether the grape is an American, French Hybrid or vinifera variety. Black rot is considered to be the bane of organic grape growers due to the limited materials that are available for its control as well as the devastating crop losses that can occur due to berry infections. Complete crop loss can occur in warm, humid climates like those of the eastern United States, but black rot is rarely found in arid growing regions.

Impact on clusters. Grape growers often find black rot to be an insidious disease: the grape clusters will appear to be developing normally until suddenly —as late as mid-summer — the fruit will start to turn brown, then black, with numerous round, black spheres called pycnidia on the surface. The grape berry will eventually shrivel up into a hard, raisin-like mass called a mummy. The pycnidia on the mummy’s surface contain inoculum, or spores, that will overwinter and be available to infect the grape crop the following year.

Overwintering inoculum and weather and the disease cycle. The amount of overwintering inoculum and the current season’s weather conditions are the key factors affecting the level of black rot found in a vineyard. Black rot inoculum can overwinter within cane lesions and the mummified fruit. In the spring, when the combination of temperature, precipitation and leaf wetness are favorable, the pycnidia on the mummies explosively propel their spores into the air, where they can land on susceptible grape tissue. No infection by black rot occurs when temperatures are below 45°F. At 50°F it takes 24 hours of leaf wetness to provide the conditions necessary for a black rot spore to germinate and infect the green tissue of grapes.

Figure 2. Black rot Leaf lesion with black spore-containing pycnidia,  Photo by Tim Weigle.

Leaf lesions. The earliest, most recognizable indicator of black rot infections are the leaf lesions. These appear as circular, tan lesions that have a darker margin. Within these lesions are small black spheres, or pycnidia, which are containers for spores that can continue to infect the current year’s crop. While there can be many causes of tan lesions on grape leaves, only black rot lesions will have the black pycnidia within the tan field.

Timing and environmental conditions for infections. The ideal conditions for black rot infection are temperatures between 70°F to 80°F, when it takes only six to seven hours of leaf wetness for infection to occur. The availability of primary inoculum peaks around bloom and drops off dramatically post bloom. It is at this time that spores from the present season’s leaf infections become important because they can mature and produce secondary infections. Over the growing season berries become resistant to black rot infections. Concord is one of the first to become resistant at about four to five weeks after bloom. V. vinifera varieties are the latest to obtain resistance, about five to six weeks after bloom.

Sanitation. While there are a number of fungicides available for management of black rot, the importance of sanitation cannot be overemphasized. Sanitation plays a huge part in limiting the amount of black rot inoculum found in a vineyard. Removal of infected canes through pruning during the dormant season will reduce the level of overwintering inoculum. However, the largest reservoir of inoculum is typically found in the mummies. Mummies can be found either on the vineyard floor or retained in the canopy attached to old cluster stems. Removal of mummies from the canopy is critical: research has shown that these mummies provide inoculum much later into the season than those that have fallen to the vineyard floor. If mummies cannot be removed from the vineyard, the next best option is to make sure that all mummies are dropped to the vineyard floor to reduce the length of time spores will be available in the coming year. In a small planting, removal of infected fruit as it is discovered during the growing season is an excellent way to limit the amount of inoculum. Any mummies not removed from the vineyard during the dormant season should be, at a minimum, dropped to the ground where they can be covered with a dirt berm or cultivation, which effectively buries many of the mummies and limits the number of spores available for infection.

Spray timing. Even the best sanitation practices will leave low levels of inoculum in the vineyard, and this is all it takes for black rot to get a foothold. Using fungicides that are effective in managing black rot is critical, as is the correct timing of the applications. The most effective spray programs will target the overwintered inoculum to limit the number of primary infections in the beginning of the year. If primary infections occur, they can produce and release spores about two weeks after the initial infection, resulting in the continued spread of black rot through secondary infections. As spore production peaks just prior to the bloom period, it has been shown that the period just before bloom through two weeks after bloom is the most important time period to protect against black rot. However, the threat will change yearly depending on the level of black rot in the vineyard the previous year and the current season’s weather conditions, as these factors can result in the need to add an earlier season spray or an additional fungicide application after bloom. The Spots chart, a model for determining the weather conditions necessary for black rot infection periods to occur, can be found on the Network for Environment and Weather Applications (NEWA) website at by using the grape forecast models in the Pest Forecasts drop down menu.

For more information on black rot, see Integrated Pest Management Disease Identification Sheet #102 : Black Rot , by Cornell’s grape pathologist Wayne Wilcox.

Tim Weigle is senior extension associate with the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program and team leader for the Lake Erie Regional Grape Extension Program, housed at the Cornell Lake Erie Research and Extension Laboratory in Portland, NY. 

Why the ‘Devil’s Fingers’ Have to Smell So Bad

You can’t blame home gardeners for freaking out when they see the Devil’s Fingers, sprouting from the mulch like a literal red right hand slick with putrid black goo. Recently, a photo of the frightening fungus, technically called Clathrus archeri, made it to the top of Reddit’s r/WTF page, where users gawked at its Alien-like appearance.

But not everyone reacts to the fungus with such disdain. To mycologist Andrew N. Miller, Ph.D. of the Illinois Natural History Survey, the fungus is a paradigm of smart evolution.

“Some people like flowers. Some like fungi,” he tells Inverse. C. archeri, known also as the “octopus stinkhorn,” is no rose, but its bright red arms, which burst through its white “egg” with an alarming pop, have a certain grotesque beauty to them. Even the black slime on its tentacles, home to all of its spores, has the same shimmering slickness as an oil spill. Its eye-watering odor, likened to the sharp smell of rotting meat, is a harder sell, but Miller says even its nostril-singeing stench plays an important evolutionary purpose.

C. archeri looks like alien tentacles sprouting from an egg. It smells even worse than it looks.Reddit/GarlicoinAccount

The fungus, which has spread along America’s coasts since arriving here around the ‘80s, is a saprophyte — an organism that lives off dead or decaying matter — and is part of a family of bad-smelling funguses known as the stinkhorns. These are so named because they reek of death, which, to some flies, is the smell of dinner.

“What it does is attract insects, especially flies,” he says. “Flies come to the top of the stinkhorn and they eat that mucus. They’re basically not only eating spores — they’re getting spores all over their wings and feet, then the fly flies off and disperses the spores for the fungus.”

“The fungus,” he says, “is pretty smart.”

C. archeri, then, comes from a family of geniuses. The other stinkhorns, says Miller, generally all use the same strategy to spread its spores.

“It’s a really cool relationship, when you think about it,” he explains. “These things germinate from a little egg-like structure, then they pop up within a day or two. But they have all of their spores at the top of these tentacles.”

While. C. archeri is a bit of an intruder — it’s usually found in South Africa, Madagascar, New Zealand, and parts of Europe and Latin America — it’s got stinkhorn relatives here. Miller, who lives in Illinois, commonly runs into C. archeri’s crudely nicknamed cousin.

“It’s called the ‘dog dick stinkhorn’,” he says. “I’ll just let your imagination figure out what it looks like. Basically it looks like a dog penis, and at the very top, it’s got a brown gel all over it.” Suddenly, it makes sense that the Latin name for the stinkhorn family is Phallaceae.

The ‘dog dick stinkhorn’: Better looks, worse nickname.Wikimedia

Miller makes a convincing case for why C. archeri and its phallic cousins should be revered, not reviled, but not everyone can be convinced. Some removal guides suggest kicking them; others smashing them with a shovel. They are, admittedly, frightening things to see and smell among the roses, but if you ever see their long scarlet fingers beckoning to you from the rot and the mulch, give them a closer look, and maybe you’ll see what Miller sees.

“It’s better than a flower,” he laughs.

Department of Surgery – Raynaud’s Syndrome

UCSF Vascular surgeons have extensive expertise and experience in the care of patients with Raynaud’s Syndrome, from common forms to the most complex and challenging cases, such as severe Reynaud’s phenomenon that involves pronounced digital ischemia and the risk of losing one or more fingers or toes, a hand, foot or limb.  Learn more about the care provided by the UCSF Center for Limb Preservation and Wound Care to prevent a leg amputation in a Raynaud’s patient.  Read the full story …

Raynaud’s is a rare disorder that affects the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to different parts of your body.

Raynaud’s is sometimes called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. The disorder is marked by brief episodes of vasospasm (VA-so-spazm), which is a narrowing of the blood vessels.

Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. In people who have Raynaud’s, the disorder usually affects the fingers. In about 40 percent of people who have Raynaud’s, it affects the toes. Rarely, the disorder affects the nose, ears, nipples, and lips.


There are two main types of Raynaud’s—primary and secondary.

If you have primary or secondary Raynaud’s, cold temperatures or stress can trigger “Raynaud’s attacks. ” During an attack, little or no blood flows to affected body parts.

As a result, the skin may turn white and then blue for a short time. As blood flow returns, the affected areas may turn red and throb, tingle, burn, or feel numb.

In both types of Raynaud’s, even mild or brief changes in temperature can cause Raynaud’s attacks. For example, taking something out of the freezer or being exposed to temperatures below 60 degrees Fahrenheit can cause your fingers to turn blue.


Figure A shows arteries in the fingers (digital arteries) with normal blood flow. The inset image shows a cross-section of a digital artery. Figure B shows fingertips that have turned white due to blocked blood flow. Figure C shows narrowed digital arteries, causing blocked blood flow and blue fingertips. The inset image shows a cross-section of a narrowed digital artery.

Most people who have Raynaud’s have no long-term tissue damage or disability. However, people who have severe Raynaud’s can develop skin sores or gangrene from prolonged or repeated Raynaud’s attacks. “Gangrene” refers to the death or decay of body tissues.


About 5 percent of the U.S. population has Raynaud’s. For most people who have primary Raynaud’s, the disorder is more of a bother than a serious illness. They can usually manage the condition with minor lifestyle changes.

Secondary Raynaud’s may be harder to manage. However, several treatments are available to help prevent or relieve symptoms. With secondary Raynaud’s, it’s important to treat the underlying disease or condition that’s causing it.

Researchers continue to look for better ways to diagnose and treat Raynaud’s.


In primary Raynaud’s (also called Raynaud’s disease), the cause isn’t known. Primary Raynaud’s is more common and tends to be less severe than secondary Raynaud’s. 

Secondary Raynaud’s is caused by an underlying disease, condition, or other factor. This type of Raynaud’s is often called Raynaud’s phenomenon.

Causes of Secondary Raynaud’s

Many things can cause secondary Raynaud’s. Examples include:

  • Diseases and conditions that directly damage the arteries or damage the nerves that control the arteries in the hands and feet
  • Repetitive actions that damage the nerves that control the arteries in the hands and feet
  • Injuries to the hands and feet
  • Exposure to certain chemicals
  • Medicines that narrow the arteries or affect blood pressure
Diseases and Conditions

Secondary Raynaud’s is linked to diseases and conditions that directly damage the arteries. The disorder is also linked to diseases and conditions that damage the nerves that control the arteries in the hands and feet.

For example, Raynaud’s occurs in most people who have scleroderma (skler-o-DER-ma). It also is a common problem for people with lupus.

Other examples of diseases and conditions that can cause Raynaud’s include:

  • Rheumatoid (RU-ma-toyd) arthritis
  • Atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis)
  • Blood disorders such as cryoglobulinemia (KRI-o-GLOB-yu-li-NE-me-ah) and polycythemia (POL-e-si-THE-me-ah)
  • Sjögren’s (SHOW-gren’s) syndrome, dermatomyositis (DER-ma-to-mi-o-SI-tis), and polymyositis (POL-e-mi-o-SI-tis)
  • Buerger’s disease

Thyroid problems and pulmonary hypertension may also cause Raynaud’s.

Repetitive Actions

Repetitive actions that damage the arteries or the nerves that control the arteries in the hands and feet may lead to Raynaud’s.

Typing, playing the piano, or doing other similar movements repeatedly over long periods may lead to secondary Raynaud’s. Using vibrating tools, such as jackhammers and drills, may also raise your risk of developing Raynaud’s.

Hand or Foot Injuries

Injuries to the hands or feet from accidents, frostbite, surgery, or other causes can lead to Raynaud’s.


Exposure to certain workplace chemicals can cause a scleroderma-like illness that’s linked to Raynaud’s. An example of this type of chemical is vinyl chloride, which is used in the plastics industry.

The nicotine in cigarettes can also raise your risk of developing Raynaud’s.


Certain medicines can cause secondary Raynaud’s, including:

  • Migraine headache medicines that contain ergotamine. This substance causes the arteries to narrow.
  • Certain cancer medicines, such as cisplatin and vinblastine.
  • Some over-the-counter cold and allergy medicines and diet aids. Some of these medicines can narrow your arteries.
  • Beta blockers. These medicines slow your heart rate and lower your blood pressure.
  • Birth control pills. These medicines can affect blood flow.

Risk Factors

The risk factors for primary Raynaud’s (Raynaud’s disease) and secondary Raynaud’s (Raynaud’s phenomenon) are different.

The risk factors for primary Raynaud’s include:

  • Gender. Women are more likely to have primary Raynaud’s than men.
  • Age. Primary Raynaud’s usually develops before the age of 30.
  • Family history. Primary Raynaud’s may occur in members of the same family.
  • Living in a cold climate. Cold temperatures can trigger Raynaud’s attacks.

The risk factors for secondary Raynaud’s include:

  • Age. Secondary Raynaud’s usually develops after the age of 30.
  • Certain diseases and conditions. For example, diseases that directly damage the arteries or damage the nerves that control the arteries in the hands and feet may cause secondary Raynaud’s. (For more information, go to “What Causes Raynaud’s?”)
  • Injuries to the hands or feet.
  • Exposure to certain workplace chemicals, such as vinyl chloride (used in the plastics industry).
  • Repetitive actions with the hands, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
  • Certain medicines, such as migraine, cancer, cold/allergy, or blood pressure medicines.
  • Smoking.
  • Living in a cold climate.

Signs and Symptoms

People who have primary Raynaud’s (Raynaud’s disease) or secondary Raynaud’s (Raynaud’s phenomenon) can have attacks in response to cold temperatures or emotional stress.

Raynaud’s attacks usually affect the fingers and toes. Rarely, the attacks affect the nose, ears, nipples, or lips.

During a Raynaud’s attack, the arteries become very narrow for a brief period. As a result, little or no blood flows to affected body parts. This may cause these areas to:

  • Turn pale or white and then blue
  • Feel numb, cold, or painful
  • Turn red, throb, tingle, burn, or feel numb as blood flow returns to the affected areas

Raynaud’s attacks can last less than a minute or as long as several hours. Attacks can occur daily or weekly.

Attacks often begin in one finger or toe and move to other fingers or toes. Sometimes only one or two fingers or toes are affected. Different areas may be affected at different times.

Severe secondary Raynaud’s can cause skin sores or gangrene. “Gangrene” refers to the death or decay of body tissues. Fortunately, severe Raynaud’s is rare.


Your doctor will diagnose primary Raynaud’s (Raynaud’s disease) or secondary Raynaud’s (Raynaud’s phenomenon) based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results.

Specialists Involved

Primary care doctors and internists often diagnose and treat Raynaud’s.

If you have the disorder, you also may see a rheumatologist. This is a doctor who specializes in treating disorders of the joints, bones, and muscles.

Rheumatologists diagnose and treat many of the diseases that are linked to secondary Raynaud’s, such as scleroderma and lupus.

Medical History

Your doctor may ask about your risk factors for Raynaud’s. He or she also may ask about your signs and symptoms when you’re exposed to cold temperatures or stress.

For example, your doctor may ask whether your fingers or toes:

  • Feel numb or painful when they’re exposed to cold temperatures
  • Turn white or blue, or both, when they’re exposed to cold temperatures
Physical Exam

Your doctor will look at your fingers and toes to check the health of your skin and nails and to check blood flow to these areas.

Your doctor also may do a more complete physical exam to check for signs of diseases and conditions that are linked to secondary Raynaud’s.

Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

Your doctor may recommend the following tests to check for Raynaud’s and related conditions:

Cold Stimulation Test

A cold stimulation test can be used to trigger Raynaud’s symptoms. For this test, a small device that measures temperature is taped to your fingers. Your hands are then exposed to cold—they’re usually briefly put into ice water.

Your hands are then removed from the cold, and the device measures how quickly your fingers return to their normal temperature. If you have Raynaud’s, it may take more than 20 minutes for your fingers to return to their normal temperature.

Because results of this type of test are not always consistent, your doctor may do other tests to check for Raynaud’s.

Nailfold Capillaroscopy

You may have a test called nailfold capillaroscopy (KAP-ih-lar-OS-ko-pe). For this test, your doctor puts a drop of oil at the base of your fingernail. He or she then looks at your fingernail under a microscope.

If your doctor sees abnormal arteries, it may mean you have a disease linked to Raynaud’s, such as scleroderma.

Other Tests

Your doctor may order blood tests to look for conditions that are linked to secondary Raynaud’s. Examples include antinuclear antibody (ANA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or “sed rate”), and C-reactive protein (CRP) blood tests.


Primary Raynaud’s (Raynaud’s disease) and secondary Raynaud’s (Raynaud’s phenomenon) have no cure. However, treatments can reduce the number and severity of Raynaud’s attacks. Treatments include lifestyle changes, medicines, and rarely, surgery.

Most people who have primary Raynaud’s can manage the condition with lifestyle changes. People who have secondary Raynaud’s may need medicines in addition to lifestyle changes. Rarely, they may need surgery or shots.

If you have Raynaud’s and develop sores on your fingers, toes, or other parts of your body, see your doctor right away. Timely treatment can help prevent permanent damage to these areas.

Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle changes can help you avoid things that may trigger a Raynaud’s attack. Examples of such triggers include cold temperatures, emotional stress, workplace or recreational factors, and contact with certain chemicals or medicines.

Protect Yourself From Cold Temperatures

To protect yourself from cold temperatures:

  • Wear a hat, mittens (rather than gloves), scarf, coat with snug cuffs, and warm socks and shoes during cold weather. Layer your clothing for extra warmth.
  • Put hand and foot warmers in your mittens, boots, socks, or pockets. Some warmers are small heat packs, and others are battery-operated. These warmers are often available at sporting goods stores.
  • Turn down air conditioning, or dress warmly while in an air-conditioned space.
  • Warm up your car before driving in cold weather.
  • Wear gloves or mittens when taking food out of the refrigerator or freezer (if cold temperatures severely affect you).
Avoid Other Triggers

Try to avoid things that make you upset or stressed. Learn ways to handle stress that you can’t avoid. Physical activity helps some people cope with stress. Other people listen to music or focus on something calm or peaceful to reduce stress. Some people learn yoga, tai chi, or meditation.

Try to avoid workplace and recreational triggers. For example, limit the use of vibrating tools, such as drills. Wear proper protective gear if you work with industrial chemicals. Also, try to limit repetitive hand actions, such as typing or playing the piano.

Some medicines can trigger Raynaud’s attacks. Examples include:

  • Migraine headache medicines that contain ergotamine. This substance causes your arteries to narrow.
  • Certain cancer medicines, such as cisplatin and vinblastine.
  • Over-the-counter cold or allergy medicines or diet aids. Some of these medicines can narrow your arteries.
  • Beta blockers. These medicines slow your heart rate and lower your blood pressure.
  • Birth control pills. These medicines can affect blood flow.

Talk with your doctor about whether your medicines are safe for you.

Other Lifestyle Changes

Other lifestyle changes also can help you avoid Raynaud’s attacks. For example, include physical activity as part of your healthy lifestyle. Physical activity can increase your blood flow and help keep you warm.

Limit your use of caffeine and alcohol. These substances can trigger Raynaud’s attacks. If you smoke, quit. Smoking makes Raynaud’s worse. Ask your doctor about programs and products that can help you quit. Also, try to avoid secondhand smoke.

You also can take steps to help stop Raynaud’s attacks when they occur. For example:

  • Move to a warmer spot, such as indoors, during cold weather.
  • Warm your hands or feet. Place your hands under your armpits. Soak your feet or hands in warm water.
  • Wiggle or massage your fingers and toes.
  • Move your arms in circles or shake your arms or feet.
  • Get out of stressful situations and try relaxation techniques.

If you have Raynaud’s, be sure to take care of your hands and feet. Protect them from cuts, bruises, and other injuries. For example, wear properly fitted shoes and don’t walk barefoot. Use lotion to prevent your skin from drying and cracking. Also, avoid tight wristbands and rings.

Medicines and Surgery

If lifestyle changes don’t control Raynaud’s, you may need medicines or surgery. Medicines are used to improve blood flow to the fingers and toes.

Examples of medicines used to treat Raynaud’s include calcium channel blockers, alpha blockers, prescription skin creams, and ACE inhibitors (used less often).

Rarely, people who have severe Raynaud’s may develop skin sores or gangrene. “Gangrene” refers to the death or decay of body tissues. If this happens, antibiotics or surgery to cut out the damaged tissue may be needed. In very serious cases, the affected toe or finger may need to be removed.

Another treatment for severe Raynaud’s is to block the nerves in the hands or feet that control the arteries. This can help prevent Raynaud’s attacks. This treatment is done using surgery or shots.

The surgery often relieves symptoms, but sometimes for only a few years. Shots may need to be repeated if symptoms persist or come back.

The Fungi That Looks Like a Zombie’s Hand


Nature is beautiful, yes, but it can also be very bizarre. We’ve seen trees with rainbow bark, jellyfish succulents, goldfish plants, and now Xylaria polymorpha, otherwise known as… dead man’s fingers.

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According to Penn State University, Xylaria polymorpha is a type of fungus commonly found throughout the deciduous forests of North America and Europe.

It tends to grow in numbers, or rather colonize on dead or decaying wood, such as a tree that may be under stress due to disease or water deficit. So basically, it feeds on death. Over time, the growth of this fungi will cause the tree to “soft rot.” It can either grow from the tree’s trunk, its roots, or sprout up from the soil or mulch at the base of the tree.

As each fungus grows, it takes on a shape that looks eerily familiar to a finger. To make matters worse, these “fingers” often clump up to form what looks a lot like a zombie’s hand, or what I would imagine a zombie’s hand looks like.

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As it begins to grow, it typically takes on a pale or bluish tone, with a white tip. This white tip is a spore, although if you ask me, it looks like the fingernail of a monster. The fungi will later transition to a dark gray and then black, according to Gardening Know How (though spore production can last for several months or even years).

Bottom line: if you ever spot some spooky looking digits sprouting out of the soil, it’s probably not a zombie buried underground and trying to break free. It’s just a very peculiar fungus doing its thing. Regardless, we’re spooked.

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Kelly Corbett
News Writer
Kelly is the News Writer at House Beautiful where she covers a little bit of everything ranging from decorating trends and must-have products, to anything that includes doughnuts or glitter. 

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90,000 US Visa Application | Photos and fingerprints

Photos and fingerprints

On this page:


As part of the DS-160 application filling and submission process. on the issuance of a nonimmigrant visa is the transfer of a photograph of the applicant to the website. The photo must be taken no earlier than 6 months before the date of filling out the application. You must also take a printed copy of the photo with you to the US Embassy or Consulate for your interview.Fingerprints are taken during an interview at the US Embassy or Consulate.

Removing fingerprints

Part of your visa interview is to have your fingerprints taken at the US Embassy or Consulate. During the visa application process, usually during an interview, a quick digital fingerprint scan is performed without the use of ink. Certain applicants, including the individuals listed below, are not required to be fingerprinted:

  • Applicants entering the United States on behalf of government authorities.
  • Applicants under the age of 14 and over the age of 79.
Photo requirements

A photograph for a visa must meet certain requirements regarding the size and nature of the image. Submitting a photo that does not meet these requirements may slow down the process of processing your visa application. Photo must have been taken within the last 6 months. If you are applying for a new visa to replace the expired one, then you need to take a picture again and provide a new photo.
Even if an inappropriate photo is accepted by the electronic application system, a new photo must be submitted to apply for a visa.

Head size
The photo should show your entire head, from the top, including your hair, to the bottom of your chin. In order for a photograph to be taken, the height of the head in the image must be 25-35 mm (1-1-3 / 8 inches), or 50% -70% of the photograph, as in the picture:

Photo dimensions
Photo must be square (length is equal to width), 5x5cm.Minimum image resolution: 600×600 pixels (height x width). Maximum image resolution: 1200 x 1200 pixels (height x width).

Head position
The head position in the photograph is very important. The entire face must be shown in the photograph. When taking pictures, look directly into the camera and do not close your eyes.
For best results, the background of the photo should be white or close to white.
Your photograph or digital image must meet the following requirements:

  • Color image.
  • Made in the last six months and matches what you look like at the moment.
  • Expression should be neutral, eyes open.
  • The clothes that appear in the frame must be casual:
    • Photos of applicants in the form are not accepted. An exception is clothing worn every day for religious reasons.
    • Photos of applicants wearing a headdress that obscures their hair or hairline will not be accepted.The exception is headgear, which is worn every day for religious reasons. The face must be fully visible, the headdress must not obscure the face.
    • Photos showing the applicant with headphones, wireless headsets and similar devices will not be accepted.
    • If you constantly wear hearing aids or similar devices, you can take pictures with them.
    • Do not take pictures with glasses. From 1st November 2016, such photos will not be accepted.More information on photography requirements can be found here
Additional information

For more information on visa photography requirements, visit the Department of State’s website.

The Department of State has posted answers to frequently asked questions about photographs on this page.

On which finger do men wear the signet and how to wear rings for women correctly

A ring is a complex accessory. It doesn’t matter if the man chooses it for himself, or the girl wants to make a gift to her lover. Men’s rings are at their peak right now – look at the hands of Johnny Depp, Brad Pitt or Usher? We are in a hurry to tell you how to choose a ring, what you need to consider and how to stay in trend so as not to look ridiculous.

In general, there are no clear indications on which hand a man should wear a ring on.Previously, it was believed that Christians wear jewelry on their right hand, and Catholics on their left, but fortunately, everyone has forgotten about these ancient prejudices.

On which fingers are men wearing seals and rings

Although there are no special rules on this topic, there are still recommendations. For example, in the business world, you can wear a gold ring on the ring finger of your left hand – this will highlight the wealth of the owner and his position. But it is better not to wear an accessory on the index finger, this is bad manners and can be perceived as a tendency to aggressive behavior.We advise a man to wear a signet on the middle finger, this option is considered the most versatile.

Photo of a man’s signet on the middle finger

Wearing a ring on a man’s thumb is not recommended, unless, of course, he is an artist. It’s just that such a choice immediately attracts attention and rarely fits into everyday style. In addition, a ring that is too large and catchy would rather hint at the lack of taste in its owner. But then again – if you like it and you are ready for increased attention, nothing should stop you.

Men’s signet on the little finger of the right hand is a fairly common occurrence. This tradition goes back to ancient times, when rings were worn with a certain meaning.

Marlene Dietrich, Johnny Depp, Prince Charles. Elvis Presley and many other famous and influential personalities prefer to wear rings and large seals on the right little finger. Such people show their fortitude, intelligence and desire to achieve their goals.

Photo of a man’s ring on the little finger

The meaning of the rings on a man’s fingers:

  1. Thumb.Psychological research suggests that a man’s thumb ring does not have a very positive meaning. The owner of the ring wants to stand out in all possible ways, assert himself and show his significance. Sometimes such a choice indicates excessive aggressiveness.
  2. Indicative. According to the observations of esotericists, born leaders put the ring on the index finger. Men who prefer a ring on the index finger are proud, domineering, and this jewelry only enhances these qualities.The ring of the stronger sex on the left hand symbolized megalomania, and on the right – prudence.
  3. The middle finger is best suited for rings and signet rings of all sizes. As a rule, prudent, responsible and calm men wear rings on this hand. Esotericists believe that the ring on the middle finger helps to develop calmness and wisdom.
  4. Nameless. Wedding rings are traditionally worn on this finger of the right hand. Seals or rings on this finger are worn by connoisseurs of beauty and art.
  5. Little finger. The ring on the little finger of a man’s right hand speaks of a creative personality who wants to stand out from the crowd. It was believed that conquerors of women’s hearts and gamblers wear jewelry this way.

On which finger should a woman wear a ring

Women at all times loved jewelry and simply beautiful jewelry, especially rings and rings. Indeed, according to them, it was possible to determine the marital status and material condition of the owner.

Photo of women’s rings

The meaning of rings on a woman’s fingers:

  1. The ring on the thumb is most often chosen by adventurers who do their best to stand out from the crowd, they love fun and adventure.Purposeful or assertive individuals dare to wear a ring on this finger.
  2. The ring on the index finger is much more common. He is chosen by powerful and freedom-loving women, accustomed to command.
  3. If a girl wears jewelry on her middle finger, then most likely she is a dreamy person, somewhat romantic and vulnerable. Those who choose this way to wear a ring are accommodating, kind and non-conflicting.
  4. Ring finger. We are accustomed to the fact that the ring on this right finger speaks of marriage.
  5. A domestic girl who dreams of getting married and living happily ever after is given a ring on her left hand on her ring finger. As a rule, such girls are non-contentious, gentle and have a good sense of humor.
  6. The ring on the little finger indicates creativity.

What is the difference between a ring and a signet

A ring is a massive ring with a precious stone and minerals, often refers to status jewelry and it is correct to wear rings for a man with a stone up.

The difference between a ring and a seal

A signet is a kind of ring without a stone, but with inscriptions or images applied. Often it is symbolic and worn face down, looks rather large and is a masculine adornment. The seal is worn on the little or ring finger.

How to choose the right ring

First you need to decide on the metal and design. Beautiful rings for men are usually:

  • Ceramic rings.This is a very light material, it is hardly felt on the hand. Well suited for a gift to a young man.
  • Tungsten carbide rings. It is very hard and material, it cannot be broken or scratched.
  • Titanium seals have a beautiful matt silver finish.
  • Precious metals. This includes items made of silver, gold and platinum.

If your chosen one loves wrist watches or other rings, then the color of the metal of his new jewelry should be in harmony with those that already exist.As an example, if the watch bracelet is made of silver, then the ring should be chosen from the same material.

Photo of a man’s ring

A large expensive ring should not be given to a very young guy, it will not look quite appropriate on his hand. Take a closer look at other, easier options.

It is important that the ring matches the style. For example, a ring with a skull would be appropriate for a goth or rocker, but not for a lover of the classical style.

Article author: Yulia Guseva

What children draw: the first bells when a child needs a psychologist

Almost all children draw with pleasure.A drawing is both a child’s fantasy and a reflection of what the child saw, learned or experienced. The drawing reflects the inner world of a small person, through the drawing the child, as it were, “talks” about how he perceives himself and feels his place in the world. How to learn to understand the inner world of your children through drawings – tells the psychologist of the family center “Family” Veronika Alexandrova.

Emotions are hidden in scribbles

We do not analyze the drawings of children under 5 years old, since up to three or four years old children are just learning to hold and use pencils, felt-tip pens, brushes and paints.They learn to distinguish colors, get acquainted with a palette of different shades. The task of parents at an early stage of a child’s development (from one to four years) is to enrich the environment with a variety of artistic means and create conditions for artistic creative experiments, constantly encouraging and cheering the baby , ”the specialist says.

The first drawings of all children are “cephalopods” (circles with sticks). But the drawings of five-year-old children are already more informative. They can be used to understand what the child thinks about, how and what he imagines, what he feels, and where there may be hidden internal problems.Which pictures are the most informative?

  • Family drawing. Will talk about relationships within the family. Ask your child to draw his family.
    What should you pay attention to: who is part of the family, whom is the child drawing, or who has the child “forgotten” to draw? It’s good if the whole family is together. But it happens that a child, instead of a family, simply draws a house, where not a single person is visible. This means that communication with family does not give him the necessary understanding. Moreover, the situation in the family is so tense that the baby considers it to be hostile towards himself.
    The second point – what is the mood of the family members? Are they friends, swear, argue?
    The height and size of family members is a very interesting indicator. He can be real (for example, dad is in reality higher than mom), or he can talk about who is in charge of the family.
    How are the shapes on the sheet arranged? The figures can be located far away, each “on its own”. It is good if the whole family is “assembled”. Here we can see the emotional ties of the child with family members, close or disconnected. The need for communication and attention on the part of those who were drawn “at a distance.”
  • Human drawing. Ask your child to draw a person who looks like himself.
    This product of creativity will show how a child perceives himself: what he dreams about, what he wants to be. Pay attention to how he portrays himself, how drawn parts of the body, clothes.
    How a child places himself in a group of people: if he is smaller than others and is on the sidelines, then this may indicate difficulties in communication. You should also pay attention to the mood of the person in the picture.
  • Pictures-situations: “I’m in kindergarten”, “I’m visiting”, “I’m at the doctor’s appointment” or “I’m at school” and so on.
    Drawing a situation is a great occasion to find out how your child feels in kindergarten, at a visit, at school, at the doctor, and what happens to him at that moment. Children cannot always tell about it directly, but through the drawing you will learn many interesting details. Ask the child where he is in the picture, how he feels, how happy or sad he is, and why? What are other people doing and saying in the drawing (friends, caregivers, teachers, doctors)?

When you need specialist help

Sometimes a drawing can become a signal that the child is not all right and that the parents should consult a psychologist or doctor.We in no way call to make a diagnosis and draw any conclusions only on the basis of the figures, but we would like to pay special attention to some points. Here are some warning signs that you shouldn’t ignore.

  • Very light pressure on the pencil. Fuzzy lines. In children over 5-6 years old – the inability to paint over the area inside the closed line (the hatching goes far beyond the contour area or does not significantly reach the contour).
    What can this talk about? These manifestations may indicate neurological disorders, pathology of vision or the musculoskeletal system, insufficient development of fine motor skills.It is worth contacting a pediatrician and a neurologist.
  • The picture contains images of internal organs . Here we do not take into account the images of “hearts” for the princess or doctor Aibolit.
    However, if the child often and in detail draws internal organs, it is worth consulting a psychiatrist.
  • Disconnection of body parts in Figure . The arms and legs are not attached to the body, the body parts seem to be not connected to each other. A child cannot draw a complete picture of a person.This may indicate personal disorganization or mental disorders.
  • Many repetitions of of the same pattern with the same position, color and the same elements. This could be a sign of trauma. For a child, something is very important, he is trying to live through some alarming and incomprehensible situation for him. In these repeated sketches, his psyche is so protected.
  • People and animals are completely absent from the figures. .The child draws only inanimate objects or abstract drawings. This can be both a sign of difficulties in communication and building relationships, and a sign of neurological disorders, for example, the autism spectrum.
  • Strong focus on aggression . Large teeth in animals, shooting weapons in the hands of people, images of explosions, suffering people and animals, destroyed buildings, sharp arrows aimed at humans. A large amount of red and black in the pictures.This can mean both strong fear and latent (or open) aggression in the child, the violence he has experienced and a trace of a situation or news that has greatly impressed him. Talk to your child calmly, ask what is depicted and how the characters feel, what happened there and why. And how he feels after drawing. What scares him or makes him angry. And, of course, consult a child psychologist.
  • Human injuries . It may be an actual physical pain that he is afraid to talk about.Look carefully where the injuries in people or animals are located, where the plaster was applied in the drawings. Ask the child or look around this place, maybe he got hurt or he has an abrasion, etc.
  • Complete refusal to draw . The reason for the complete refusal to draw can be both underdeveloped fine motor skills and latent psychological problems. Perhaps the child is afraid to make a mistake, is afraid to express himself, or maybe he has gone through a traumatic situation and is afraid to show his feelings.In this case, it is also worth contacting a child psychologist.

Overall impression

Look at the figures in general. What emotions do they convey, what general impression is formed. Try to imagine what emotions the child experienced while drawing: happy, sad, angry or regretful about something. It is best to look at multiple drawings rather than just one. A separate picture can only speak of a fleeting state, the impression of a child.

“Children’s drawing is a good reason for a warm conversation.Talk to your child more often about his feelings and experiences, thoughts and emotions, dreams and inspiration. So the child learns not only to build sentences and develops speech, but also learns to be in contact with himself, to be aware of his own emotions and to control them. Children in the drawings try to understand their inner experiences. And it depends only on us, dear parents, whether the child will be able to accept and correctly comprehend life situations and himself in this world ”, – says the specialist.


Press Service of the Department of Labor and Social Protection of the City of Moscow

Samsung Galaxy A52 Smartphone Black 128 GB

Please note that this website and its contents are for informational purposes only and under no circumstances are a public offer determined by the provisions of Article 437 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.For detailed information on the availability and cost of these goods, you can contact the official partner Samsung stores.

All images are for illustration purposes only, all accessories are sold separately.

All features and specifications of the device are current at the time of the start of sales, but in the future they may change without prior notice.

The amount of internal memory available to the user is less than the total memory of the device, since part of the memory is occupied by the operating system and applications that ensure the functioning of the device.Actual user memory may vary by carrier and after firmware update.

Network: Supported frequency bands may vary by region and network provider.

The 6.5-inch screen is the diagonal of the rectangle around the screen. The actual effective screen area is slightly smaller due to the rounded corners and the camera lens hole.

Typical values ​​obtained in third party laboratories. Typical value is an average value that accounts for the variance in the capacity measurements of multiple battery samples according to IEC 61960 methodology.The minimum capacity value is 4370 mAh. Actual battery life may vary depending on network environment, usage and other factors.

¹ AI – abbr. by artificial intelligence – artificial intelligence

² OIS (Optical Image Stabilization) – Image stabilization

³ 30x digital space zoom and 3x optical zoom

⁴ Thin bezels

⁵ Less actual viewable area due to rounded corners

⁶ The smartphone has a certificate of compliance with the IP67 standard (dust and moisture protection)

How to protect a smartphone and data on it in case it is stolen

If your smartphone is stolen, the losses may not be limited to the device itself.The thief will do much more damage if he gets to banking applications, important documents, personal photos and videos. To prevent this from happening, it is better to take care of reliable protection in advance, so that the thief has only a useless “brick” in his hands, from which it is impossible to get your personal information. We will tell you how to do it correctly.

What a thief can do with a phone

First, let’s figure out what can happen to a stolen phone and why it’s worth taking any additional actions at all.

Sell for parts

The most common scenario is that a smartphone is simply sold for spare parts, especially if it is blocked by a thief. If the purpose of the attacker was precisely to steal the phone, and not harm a specific person, then there is a fairly high chance that he will not deliberately engage in hacking. Any manipulation with the switched on device increases the risk of getting caught and going to court.

Withdraw money from a bank card

However, there are situations in which the temptation to gain additional benefit to the pickpocket outweighs caution.First of all, this applies to phones that came to the criminal unlocked, for example, snatched from the hands or left unattended. If a banking application is also open on them, a thief can hit the jackpot and withdraw all available money from your accounts in a few minutes, or even take a loan in your name.

Some banks allow transferring funds via SMS with commands to a short number. In this case, it is even easier to steal money, because the confirmation code will be sent to the same stolen device.

Format and resell

If a thief in one way or another – usually with the help of social engineering – manages to log into a Google account or Apple ID and change the password, you will lose the ability to remotely lock the device, and the thief will be able to reset to factory settings and get a working smartphone that can be sold in whole – it is much more profitable than selling for spare parts.

Use personal information for blackmail and extortion – or just leak it to the Internet

If important documents are stored on your smartphone, a criminal may threaten to delete them or, conversely, send them to the list of contacts and demand a ransom from you.The same goes for personal files that can compromise you or someone else. A thief can copy and analyze information from the application Files on the iPhone (first of all, these are all iCloud content), all the memory of an Android smartphone or cloud drives that are open on your device.

Another thief can look for something interesting in your correspondence – primarily in instant messengers. Or try to hack your Facebook or Instagram accounts and go begging for money from friends and acquaintances.Also, in theory, he may try to link your bank account to another device, but this is already unlikely. In addition, he will have to keep the phone on, that is, expose himself to the risk of being caught.

Our tips will help you make sure that a thief could hand over your phone for spare parts as much as possible, and everything else would not work for him.

How to securely lock your smartphone in case of theft

How to make sure that in the event of a theft, the criminal does not have access to important information, and you can restore your data on a new smartphone and not worry about anything?

Set up a screen lock

First, make sure your phone locks the screen by itself.On Android devices, this can be done in Settings under Security . However, it should be borne in mind that manufacturers of Android devices like to customize the interfaces of their products, so the settings may differ slightly from phone to phone. We in this post focus on Android 11 in the version for the Google Pixel as the most standard implementation of it. Well, in the iPhone, this parameter is in the section FaceID and passcode (or TouchID and passcode for iPhone 8 and older versions).

You can lock the screen in different ways, and not all of them are equally reliable. For example, in the case of Android, you should not seriously rely on face recognition – it can often be fooled by a simple photo, while on the iPhone it is much more reliable. The graphic key is too easy to peek over the shoulder, and besides, people often draw very predictable trajectories, so it is also easy to pick it up. The safest are long passwords and a fingerprint reader. Faking a finger drawing is also possible, but this technique is not available to ordinary thieves.However, the most important thing is to block the phone in any way, so use the method that is convenient for you.

Set PIN-code for SIM-card

Yes, you will have to enter it every time you turn on the phone or change the device, but this does not happen very often, and the security is worth it: without a PIN code, a criminal will only need to insert your SIM card into any smartphone and call himself from it to find out her number. Knowing it, the thief will be able to log in to some services, pass two-factor identification and transfer money from bank cards via SMS.And of course, the PIN code from the SIM card must be different from the one you use to unlock the phone.

How to set PIN-code for SIM-card on Android:

  • Go to phone settings, select section Security .
  • Press SIM card lock , and then activate the switch opposite the item of the same name.
  • Enter your PIN and confirm it.

How to set PIN-code for SIM-card on iOS:

  • Go to Settings , open section Cellular .
  • Select the section SIM-PIN and activate the switch.
  • Enter your PIN and confirm it.

Encrypt your data

Full disk encryption (FDE) is another feature that can help protect information. If it is enabled, then all files stored in the smartphone are encrypted by default and cannot be read without unlocking the smartphone. Data encryption is enabled by default on iPhones and smartphones with Android 5 and above.For earlier versions of Android, it must be manually activated.

How to enable full disk encryption on Android:

  • Go to phone settings, select section Security .
  • Go to section Encryption and credentials and press Encrypt data . Then follow the instructions.

Password protect individual apps and their notifications

Set a separate password or pattern for critical applications: banking and system (Google Play or App Store, payment services and SMS).Then turn off the display of notifications for them. Now it will be a little more difficult for you to read notifications and SMS, but for outsiders it is almost impossible to catch your one-time authorization code or transfer your money to your account: applications and messages with confirmation codes will remain inaccessible to him.

Privacy settings may vary for different Android smartphones. You can find instructions for yours on the manufacturer’s website, and we will give it in general form:

  • Open Settings and go to Security or Privacy .
  • Press Application lock .
  • Mark the applications you want to block – now, when you try to open these applications, the device will ask for a PIN code.

There is no app lock feature on iOS, but you can protect it by setting a screen time limit. For this:

  • Open Settings and go to Screen Time .
  • Press Use passcode and set the passcode.
  • Go to Application limits and select the desired application category.
  • Set the limit by selecting the option Add limit .
  • Enter the time of use, for example 2 minutes . Confirm the selection with the button Add .

After the time of using the application has expired, it will be blocked, and it will be possible to continue working only if the person with the smartphone knows the password.

However, while this feature allows you to restrict access, it has a drawback: if you use the application for a long time, the constant requests for a code and limit notifications can be annoying.Alternatively, you can install specialized utilities from the App Store to protect applications – it’s easier than figuring out the settings yourself.

Configure data backup

This way you will not lose contacts and other information, even if the smartphone cannot be returned. After purchasing a new device, you simply load the data from the backup into it and get a clone of the lost phone.

How to set up a backup on Android:

  • Find the item System in the settings.
  • Select Backup and Restore .
  • Enable Google Drive backup. Some smartphones also offer copying to a computer or other external media – you can use that.

There are two ways to set up iPhone backups. An easier option is to use the automatic iCloud backup : .

  • Turn on the function iCloud Backup in the menu:
    • Open Settings -> [account name] -> iCloud .
    • Select Backup .
  • Put your phone on charge and connect it to unlimited Wi-Fi: the first upload consumes a lot of energy and traffic.
  • Check how much free storage space is left. All iCloud users have 5 GB available for free. If you need more, you’ll have to purchase a paid subscription from Apple. Alternatively, you can use one of the free alternative storage facilities.
  • Lock the screen to prevent accidental touchdown from disrupting the process.

If for some reason you do not want to use the cloud, then you can use backup using a computer – the Apple website has detailed instructions on how to do this.

Turn on Find My Device

The functions Find my iPhone (iOS) and Find my device (Android) allow you to track the location of a lost or stolen smartphone through your Google account or Apple ID. They can also be used to remotely lock the device and even completely erase all data from it.But there is an important condition: at the time of theft or loss, these functions must already be activated. Therefore, it is better to do this without shelving.

How to enable Find My Device on Android:

  • Open Settings and go to Security .
  • In the Find device tab, activate the switch.

How to enable Find my iPhone on iPhone:

  • Open Settings and click on your name.
  • Select Latitude and activate the switch Find iPhone .

Then go to Security in your Google Account or Find My on your iPhone or iPad and find your smartphone in the list of devices. You will see the “Lock” and “Erase Device” functions. They will come in handy if the phone was stolen in an unlocked state and contains confidential information.

Even if the thief turns off the device immediately after the theft, but then wants to try to hack it in a secluded place, the phone only needs to turn on and pick up the signal.The pending command to turn into a “brick” will be executed.

If you are not sure that the smartphone is stolen and not lost, then during remote blocking, you can specify a message and a backup number for communication, which will appear on the screen. True, in the future you will have to be more vigilant than usual: thieves often use it as an opportunity for phishing – for example, to send fake notifications from the support service. The goal of the scammers is to find out the password for your Google account or Apple ID and unlink the device from the account.So in this case, you need to keep your mind clear and not click on dubious links, and even more so not to enter confidential information there.

With these settings, stealing a smartphone will remain a nuisance, but it will not become a disaster: an intruder will not get to confidential files, and you can restore all the most expensive from a backup copy. We wish you that these measures will never be useful in practice, but it is wise to prepare in advance for the worst – just in case.

Russia – Spain Euro 2023 qualifying qualification youth teams photo review of the match Tyukavin Karpin

Team photo of the youth team of Russia

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Team photo of the youth team of Russia

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Valery Karpin and Nikolay Viktor Onopko

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Mikhail Galaktionov

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Danil Stepanov and Sergio Gomez

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Hamid Agalarov

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Yochem Kamphus and Hamid 9000 Agalarov Sport 9000 08

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Abel Ruiz, Jose Gradera and Hamid Agalarov

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Maxim Borisko

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Construction | ARTACADEMY Drawing courses Kiev

Academic hand drawing – building and understanding proportions

Our hands are extremely expressive.With an infinite number of gestures, we can convey fear, anger, sadness and happiness – no wonder that drawing hands can be very difficult.

I confess, when I was a novice student at the courses of academic drawing at the Art Academy, I very often “hid” the hands of the people I drew in my pockets or behind my back – whatever, just not to draw them! My hands were my biggest weakness – but that doesn’t mean they should be yours. Forget your fears for a while, grab a pencil and let’s try to figure out how to draw hands.

The first thing to do is to understand the proportions of the hand and the structure of the bones. In this tutorial we’ll focus on proportions and general construction, but if you’d like to familiarize yourself with the anatomy of the hand, click here:

Hand drawing step by step

Step 1. Draw the shape of the palm

Use the HB pencil to draw a rectangle that is slightly more elongated than a square. Draw an arc from above. Since we are painting the back surface of the right hand, the right corner of the arc will drop below the left.Now with a smooth line “cut” the right side of the rectangle so that it is already at the bottom.

Step 2. Draw five circles

Draw four knuckle circles on the top side of the rectangle, equally spaced apart. Place the fifth circle on the left, approximately 4/5 from the bottom – the thumb will be located there.

Step 3. Measure and Draw Fingers

To determine the length of your fingers, measure the length from the base of your hand to your knuckles – and duplicate it.Here in the figure, the dotted line indicates the maximum length of the fingers. Since the middle finger is the longest, we’ll use that as a starting point to find out the length of the rest. To do this, draw an arc that repeats the one with which we used to refine the shape of the palm – this way you will find where the tips of the remaining fingers will be.

Step 4. Find the location of the joints

Now that we have the length of four fingers, it’s time to figure out the location of the joints. Make two notches on the middle toe – on top, about ¼ and 2/4 of the total length.Using these serifs, draw two more arcs that will give us anchor points for the joints of the other fingers. Of course, this is a very simplified diagram, but it is quite convenient.

Step 5. Draw circles for each joint

On each toe, draw two more circles where we have determined the joints should be. Now there will be three circles on each of the fingers: the top one will be the smallest, the bottom one the largest.

Step 6.Draw a thumb

Draw a wavy line from the circle at the base of the palm. The height at which the tip of the thumb is in relation to the palm of the hand will vary depending on how far it is pressed or pulled back. Once you’ve decided on the length, draw a circle in the center, and another one in the middle between that circle and your fingertip.

Step 7. Contour the brush

Draw the outlines of the “muscles” around your existing structure.The joints will stand out more sharply on a thinner arm, but if you want it to look more plump, increase the distance between the reference lines and contours.

Do not forget that people have webbing between their toes, but do not lower them too low – they should be significantly higher than the knuckles that we drew in the second step.

Now that you have a basic understanding of hand proportions, you can practice drawing different gestures.

Use of references

You can download and use the photographs of the hands below for reference.There are many angles and gestures where trying to calculate the correct proportions can be too difficult or ineffective – then define them approximately.

Remember that the fingers are not rectangular, so do not draw them in straight lines. Once you get some experience, you can sketch out the proportions or even visualize and draw more complex gestures yourself.

Understanding how bones, muscles and tendons are positioned and work will add realism to your work.If you are already ready to move on to this stage, here you can familiarize yourself with the interactive anatomical model of the hand.

More information about academic drawing in the form of pencil drawing courses can be read below:

What is academic drawing as a classical art?

Summer enrollment for academic drawing courses

Courses of academic drawing – how to correctly build objects in perspective.

Teaching Academic Drawing – Theory of Light, Halftone and Shadow

Preliminary preparation for pencil drawing courses

Academic drawing exercises

Linear perspective rules and their application in pencil drawing courses

Ellipse and Circle Drawing Course – How to Draw Similar Shapes?

How to draw a circle in the courses of drawing with cranadash

Practical lesson on figure sketches in pencil drawing courses

Description of the academic drawing of a person’s lips with examples of sketches – a program for intermediate and higher levels of training.

Академический рисунок губ человека карандашом

Notes on Perspective in Japanese Art