Swollen knuckle finger: 15 Causes of Swollen Fingers


One swollen finger: Causes and treatment

A single swollen finger is most often the result of injury or minor infection. It may also be a sign of arthritis, gout, or a benign growth.

This article discusses possible causes of one swollen finger. It also looks at treatment options and when to contact a doctor.

Breaking, dislocating, or spraining a finger can result in swelling.

If a person has sprained their finger, they will experience pain and stiffness alongside the swelling.

If a person has dislocated their finger, the finger may appear crooked. A dislocated finger may cause the following symptoms:

  • pain
  • swelling
  • numbness
  • difficulty moving the finger
  • bruising and skin discoloration

It can be difficult for a person to know if the finger is sprained, broken, or dislocated. However, a person should see a medical professional as soon as possible if they notice the following symptoms:

  • the finger points at an odd angle
  • the finger appears blue or numb
  • there is a cut and bone is visible
  • there is a cut and bone is poking out of the finger

If a finger appears to be broken or dislocated, it is important to get medical attention as soon as possible.

People should not try to move a dislocated finger back into the joint themselves, as this can cause further damage. A health professional can put the bone back in the joint and fit a splint or cast to keep it in position.

For complicated breaks, surgery may be the best option. A surgeon may insert small pins, screws, or rods into the finger to hold the fractured bones together while they heal.

For a mild sprain, rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) techniques can help to reduce swelling and inflammation.

A person may also strap the finger to the one next to it to prevent bending and further injury. If the finger has swollen a lot, wait until the swelling subsides before taping it up.

Mallet finger, also known as baseball finger, describes an injury to the tendon at the end of the finger.

This tendon usually helps the finger to straighten. An injury to the top of the finger can cause the tendon to rupture, resulting in swelling, pain, and bruising.

A doctor will order X-rays to check the damage to the finger and use a splint to straighten the finger until it heals.

A range of infections can cause the finger to become swollen, painful, and hot.

An infection near the nail bed can cause swelling and tenderness. This is called paronychia.

The following may cause paronychia:

Insect bites or stings directly to the finger can cause swelling, pain, and inflammation around the site.

Occasionally stings or bites can develop into an infection if bacteria gets in.

Symptoms include tenderness, heat, and discharge or pus from the bite.

Erythema also occurs around the site of infection. On lighter skin, this appears as red. On darker skin, the surrounding area may look purple or burgundy.


Bacterial infections typically require antibiotics.

A healthcare professional may also need to drain pus from the infected area with a small incision. Soaking the affected finger in warm, salted water may also help, along with pain relief medication, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen.

It is best to get medical attention if swelling and erythema develop quickly after an insect bite or sting, as this can be a sign of an allergy rather than an infection.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), up to 90 people in the United States died because of allergic reactions to insect stings between 2000–2017.

There are a few benign, or noncancerous, hand tumors that can appear in the hands and fingers, causing swelling.

These include:


This is a bone tumor that begins in the cartilage. It typically affects the long, small bones of the hands and feet.

It is the most common type of hand tumor. Enchondroma is most common in people between 10-20 years, though it can occur at any age.

Symptoms include:

  • hand pain if the tumor is large
  • enlargement of the finger
  • slow bone growth

Ganglion cyst

This is a fluid-filled cyst that forms next to a joint or tendon. Although ganglion cysts typically appear on the back of the wrist, they can also develop at the base of the finger.

They can change in size, and although harmless, can cause pain or a dull ache.

If the cyst ruptures, the area may become swollen and sore for a few days.

Epidermal inclusion cyst

Epidermal inclusion cysts are fibrous cysts formed from keratin and dead skin cells. They present as flesh-colored, firm nodules.

They can occur anywhere on the body, including the fingers.

Giant cell tumor

This is a solid mass that typically forms next to a tendon.

According to a 2019 article, giant cell tumors in the hand are rare, making up only 2% of all hand tumors.

A giant cell tumor can resemble an enchondroma, which means doctors sometimes find it challenging to make a correct diagnosis.

The article notes that giant cell tumors on the hand grow quickly and have a high recurrence rate.

These tumors do not always cause swelling and inflammation but can cause localized pain and limited movement.


Treatment will depend on the type of growth.

Enchondromas may require surgery or bone grafting. If there is no sign of growth or weakening of the bone, a healthcare professional may recommend watchful waiting.

Ganglion cysts do not typically require treatment. However, if it is large or causing discomfort, a healthcare professional may drain the cyst or surgically remove it.

Epidermal inclusion cysts and giant cell tumors require surgical intervention.

If a person notices a growth appearing, they should see a medical professional to get a correct diagnosis.

Gout is a common type of inflammatory arthritis that can cause pain and swelling in one joint at a time.

People with gout have high uric acid levels, causing crystals to build up in the body’s joints and tissues.

Symptoms include:

  • intense pain
  • swelling
  • heat
  • erythema

A person can treat gout with a combination of medication and self-management strategies, such as:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune system disorder that attacks the joints, causing inflammation, swelling, and pain. It typically affects the hands, wrists, and feet.

Stiffness, tenderness, pain, or swelling in one or two fingers, often around the middle and the base of the fingers, can be early symptoms of RA.

Inflammation from RA can also cause an increase in joint fluid, making swelling worse.


There is no cure for RA, but treatment can help reduce symptoms and prevent flare-ups.

Medication may include:

  • disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
  • biological response modifiers (biologicals)
  • self-management strategies that help reduce pain and increase mobility.

Septic arthritis is an infection in the fluid and tissues around the joint that causes arthritis-like symptoms. It can occur due to injury, surgery, or bacteria traveling from another area of infection to the joints, such as a finger.

As well as joint pain and swelling, symptoms may also include a fever, erythema around the joint, and warmth.

According to Johns Hopkins, septic arthritis is more common in children than adults. It is also more common in people with other forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis and RA.

Without treatment, septic arthritis can result in permanent joint damage, so it is essential to get a diagnosis as soon as possible.


A person’s age and general health may affect what treatment is available for septic arthritis. The severity of the infection may also affect treatment options.

It will usually include a combination of:

  • antibiotics
  • draining pus from the joint
  • medication to relieve pain and fever
  • a splint on the affected joint

Other very rare causes include:

  • Osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB): According to a 2015 article, osteoarticular TB represents 5% of all cases of TB. A swollen finger is a rare symptom of TB.
  • Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD): A rare nervous system disorder that can cause swelling and burning pain in one joint, often in the finger.
  • Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory condition that can cause a swollen finger.
  • Malignant tumors: Malignant tumors in the hands and wrists can also cause swelling in the finger, though these are rare.

A person can treat some of the causes of a swollen finger at home.

However, people should seek medical advice as soon as possible if they suspect that the finger is broken or dislocated or if there is any sign of infection.

Many causes and health conditions can cause a single finger to swell, but most are not serious.

RICE techniques can help treat a swollen finger at home, though it may be necessary to see a healthcare professional for further tests and treatment.

There may be a more serious underlying cause for a swollen finger, and some people may require further medical treatment.

Hand Rheumatoid Arthritis Signs and Symptoms

The first signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may appear in the small joints of the hands. The fingers, thumbs, and wrists may be painful and swollen, with no clear cause. If left untreated, RA symptoms may become more severe over time, and certain joint deformities may develop.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Overview Video


RA symptoms are often most significant in the body’s smallest joints, such as fingers and toes.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Overview Video

Hallmark Symptoms of RA in the Fingers, Thumbs, and Wrists

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of RA in the hands can help distinguish rheumatoid arthritis from other types of arthritis that affect the hand, such as osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Keep in mind that these symptoms may be accompanied by pain in other joints as well as fever, fatigue, and a general feeling of being unwell.

Swelling in the finger and wrist joints

RA triggers an inflammatory response that results in a buildup of synovial fluid as well as a thickening of joint tissue in fingers, thumbs, and wrists. The swollen joints may feel tender to the touch.

See How Do Synovial Joints Work?

Symmetrical inflammation

In contrast to osteoarthritis and many other forms of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis usually affects both sides of the body equally. For example, inflammation may occur in both the right and left wrists at the same time. Symmetrical inflammation can make mild hand swelling difficult to notice because there is no “normal” hand with which to make a comparison.

Difficulty making a fist

A decrease in the hand joint’s flexibility and strength may make it hard to squeeze the fingers and thumbs into a fist. The authors of one clinical study suggest that difficulty making a fist may be a predictor of developing rheumatoid arthritis.1


Pain and stiffness

People with rheumatoid arthritis often complain of localized pain in the wrists, large knuckles (metacarpophalangeal joints), and/or middle knuckles (proximal interphalangeal joints).

See How Arthritis Causes Joint Pain

Morning symptoms

Pain and stiffness are often worse in the morning or after periods of inactivity. Simple tasks, such as getting dressed, using a smartphone, or preparing food may become difficult. It may take an hour or so for joints to loosen up.

Flushing of the skin

The skin over the wrist(s) and knuckle(s) may become red and warm to the touch.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

People with rheumatoid arthritis may experience tingling and numbness in their hands and fingers. These symptoms are the result of swelling and inflammation in the carpal tunnel, a narrow channel between bones and ligaments within the wrist through which a major nerve passes.

This major nerve, called the median nerve, and its branches provide feeling to the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. When the space in the carpal tunnel decreases, the median nerve becomes squeezed, and a person may feel weakness, numbness, and/or tingling in the thumb, index, middle, and ring fingers.

Read more about Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on

In This Article:

Presence of rheumatoid nodules

Hard, rounded bumps made of inflammatory tissue may develop underneath the skin near the affected hand joints. These nodules are not usually painful and may shrink with the use of RA medications. Nodules can develop on fingers and wrists and frequently develop on forearms and elbows.

Malalignment of one or more finger joints

Over time, the destruction of bone and joint tissue may cause fingers and thumbs to become deformed. While the risk of hand deformities is significant, they are not inevitable.

A diagnosing physician will examine a patient’s hands, feet, and any other joints—large or small—that the patient reports as painful.

Read Are My Painful Joints Caused By Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) or Something Else?

Hand Deformities from Rheumatoid Arthritis

Evidence suggests that hand deformities commonly occur in the first year of rheumatoid arthritis if it goes untreated. 2 Moreover, people who experience hand deformities in the first year tend to have more severe cases of the disease. 3

In some cases, hand deformities can be treated. In addition, new rheumatoid arthritis medications have reduced the likelihood that rheumatoid arthritis will cause permanent deformities.

The most common finger and wrist deformities are described below.

Trigger finger

The flexor tendons of the hand allow fingers to bend. When a flexor tendon is inflamed it is called tenosynovitis. Tenosynovitis can cause the middle knuckle to become stuck in a bent position. This condition is called trigger finger.

See Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

Boutonniere deformity

This hand deformity, sometimes called buttonhole deformity, occurs when the middle knuckle (PIP joint) becomes stuck in a bent position while the large knuckle (MCP joint) and outermost knuckle (DIP joint) hyperextend.

Swan’s neck deformity

Swan’s neck deformity occurs when the outermost knuckle (DIP) abnormally flexes, while the middle knuckle (PIP joint) hyperextends. This results in the finger resembling a swan’s neck.


Hitchhiker’s thumb

Sometimes called duckbill or Z-thumb, hitchhiker’s thumb occurs when the thumb’s large knuckle (MCP joint) abnormally flexes while the top knuckle (IP joint) hyperextends. Some people think this abnormal bending resembles a Z-shape.

Ulnar deviation

Also called ulnar drift, ulnar deviation refers to when the fingers angle away from the thumb. This deformity occurs when the large knuckles (MCP joints) are so damaged that the fingers begin to dislocate and drift sideways, toward the ulna bone in the forearm.

More than one hand deformity can develop at the same time. For example, a swan’s neck deformity can develop in a middle finger and trigger finger deformity in an index finger.


  • 1.Burgers LE, Siljehult F, Ten Brinck RM, et al. Validation of the EULAR definition of arthralgia suspicious for progression to rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017;56(12):2123‐2128. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kex324
  • 2.Johnsson PM, Eberhardt K. Hand deformities are important signs of disease severity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48(11):1398‐1401. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kep253
  • 3.Tubiana R, Toth B. Rheumatoid arthritis: clinical types of deformities and management. In: Wynn Parry CB, ed. Clinics in rheumatic diseases Vol. 5. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1984:21–47. As cited in Johnsson PM, Eberhardt K. Hand deformities are important signs of disease severity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48(11):1398‐1401. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kep253

Swollen Fingers: Causes and Treatment

Swollen fingers and general swelling occurs mostly because of the buildup of fluid in spaces within the hand and wrist. This fluid typically collects in areas that cannot be “pumped” out by the blood vessels. Because of this, keeping the hand and arm down results in gravity keeping the fluid in its place and even allowing for more fluid to enter into the hand. Therefore, keeping the hand and arm elevated, ideally above the level of your heart, will help gravity take the fluid out of the hand and arm. Think of it like water flowing downhill; keeping the hand down makes the water go into the hand and keeping the hand up makes the water go back into the body. Keeping the hand elevated, potentially for extended periods of time, is critical. This is especially true after an injury or surgery, as it takes much longer for the swelling to come out of the hand than it does to get into it.

Other things you can do to help swelling include:

  • Applying ice to the affected area or over the bandage, which can also help reduce pain
  • Splinting/immobilizing, which can help stop more swelling from coming into the hand or arm
  • Taking anti-inflammatory medications (e.g. NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen), which can reduce swelling, especially when swelling is caused by arthritis
  • Moving the fingers, wrist, and arm regularly, if allowed with your condition, which can help pump the fluid back to the body. This is especially important for people with fractures of the wrist; anything that is not splinted or casted should move regularly (as approved by your hand surgeon).
  • Wearing compressive wraps such as ACE™ wraps or isotoner gloves, which can be very helpful in massaging fluid back to the body. Do not apply too tightly.

If you’re experience swelling that was caused by an infection, address it immediately by calling your hand surgeon or going to the emergency room for an evaluation. You may need antibiotics or even surgery to remove the infection. If you develop numbness or tingling with any kind of swelling, especially after a traumatic injury, please go to an emergency room immediately.

© 2019American Society for Surgery of the Hand
This content is written, edited and updated by hand surgeon members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand.Find a hand surgeon near you.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Signs & Treatment


To diagnose rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor will examine your joints. He/she will do a full physical exam to look for other signs, symptoms or problems. There may be joints that don’t currently hurt but could be starting to be affected. Your doctor will assess the impact of the arthritis on your life and activities. The appearance of the hands and fingers helps to diagnose this type of arthritis.

X-rays will show certain characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis. These include narrowing of the joint space or erosions of the bone. If your doctor suspects rheumatoid arthritis, he or she may obtain blood tests to suggest the diagnosis. Some common labs that are ordered include erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These tests measure for any inflammation in the body. Some other tests include rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibody. These are more specific to rheumatoid arthritis. Other tests such as antinuclear antigen (ANA) or Lyme’s disease tests may be ordered to ensure something else is not causing the joint swelling or pain.


Rheumatoid arthritis is usually treated with medication. Typically, medications for this condition are prescribed by your primary care provider or a rheumatologist. There may be both oral and injectable medications. Some are considered disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Many of these medications are powerful in reducing inflammation and protecting the joints against irreversible injury. However, since they often act on the immune system, they have side effects that may put you at risk of infection. They must be monitored carefully by your health care provider. They are used when symptoms are severe and multiple joints are affected.

Steroid injections (also known as a cortisone shot) are sometimes helpful to manage a “flare” of rheumatoid arthritis when the new pain is limited to one or a few joints.

Surgery may be needed to relieve pain or improve function, but it is not needed in all cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Surgery is often used when medications have failed and the joint is chronically painful, stiff, deformed, or a tendon has ruptured. Less patients require surgery for rheumatoid arthritis now that better medications exist. By using medications prescribed by your doctor and treating this condition early, it often helps reduce the chance you will need surgery. Your rheumatologist and hand surgeon will work together to determine if and when surgery is needed. Surgery can be very effective to fuse or replace a joint or repair a tendon.

© 2020 American Society for Surgery of the Hand

This content is written, edited and updated by hand surgeon members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Find a hand surgeon near you.

What Is Dactylitis? Understanding Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Most types of arthritis cause swelling, but the swelling of dactylitis is something else all together. “My fingers feel like they are going to burst,” psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patient Emily Terbrock told us on Facebook. This incredibly painful, red, and hot swelling can cause fingers to look like sausages, giving dactylitis the nickname “sausage fingers.

Dactylitis, though, can be distinguished from regular joint swelling. “Dactylitis is the swelling of an entire digit — finger or toe — rather than just a knuckle within the finger or toe,” says rheumatologist Arthur M. Mandelin II, MD, PhD, associate professor of medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. “Usually, the affected digit is most swollen in the middle and less swollen at the ends, taking on a cigar-shaped appearance.”

Which Types of Arthritis Does Dactylitis Occur With?

Dactylitis is associated with spondyloarthritis, which is an umbrella category of arthritis that notably causes symptoms in the spine, as well as other joints.

“Dactylitis can be associated with all of the spondyloarthropathies, including IBD-related inflammatory polyarthritis and reactive arthritis, but it’s most commonly with psoriatic arthritis,” says Mona Indrees, MD, a rheumatologist at AnMed Health in South Carolina. “Dactylitis can also be seen in other conditions such as sickle cell disease, gout, sarcoidosis, TB, and syphilis.

These conditions can be differentiated by other clinical features and laboratory tests, says rheumatologist and researcher Dafna Gladman, MD, professor of medicine at the University of Toronto.

Because of the close connection between dactylitis and psoriatic arthritis, its presence can be used to diagnose psoriatic arthritis and distinguish it from other forms of arthritis.

“I have PsA and my first symptom was pain in my finger, which was misdiagnosed as tendinitis for months. It got to the point where my finger couldn’t bend at all, swelled twice its size, and was extremely hot,” Erin Jean Wheller told us on Facebook. “My rheumatologist took one look at me and immediately knew it was [psoriatic] arthritis.”

Other patients also told us dactylitis was one of their first PsA symptoms as well; its presence can be helpful in leading to a quick and accurate diagnosis.

What Causes Dactylitis?

“Dactylitis is caused by uncontrolled inflammation that results from spondyloarthropathies, and can be associated with flaring of the underlying joint disease,” Dr. Idrees says. “The swelling is diffuse and continuous throughout the tissue, affecting tendons, ligaments, synovium — the space that contains the joints and joint capsule — and adjacent soft tissue.” (Here’s more information about synovitis.)

In terms of why there’s such a strong association between dactylitis and psoriatic arthritis, there’s still no definitive answer, but Dr. Mandelin has some ideas. “It isn’t clear why dactylitis happens, but it is likely that its origin is related to the fact that patients with psoriatic arthritis have a tendency to develop inflammation of tendons and the surrounding tendon sheaths in addition to inflammation of the actual joints,” he says.

What Does Dactylitis Feel Like?

Dr. Idrees says the condition is often painful and can also severely limit functionality. The patients we heard from bore this out, describing incredible pain from their hands touching anything at all; a heavy, hot feeling; and not being able to bend or use their fingers.

“When it happens it starts out as a tightness, and eventually gets to the point where the skin is stretched so tight that it becomes itchy,” Lyin Despres described on Facebook. “Each movement of the affected finger is excruciating. It feels as though the nerves are being compressed by the swelling and if you move you will be tortured. You can’t get dressed or undressed, eat, use the bathroom, or do much of anything unassisted when this happens to both hands at the same time.”

Does Dactylitis Signal Worsening Disease?

Unfortunately, the presence of dactylitis often denotes more severe disease, Dr. Gladman says. “Digits with dactylitis are more likely to have damage than those without dactylitis,” she says. Dr. Mandelin says it’s important to note, though, that this is just an increased risk, and not a guaranteed outcome. “The take-away message is that patients with dactylitis should probably be watched more closely and have their disease controlled more tightly in order to try to counteract this risk,” he says.

How Is Dactylitis Medically Treated?

Many patients we heard from said once they were diagnosed and found the right medicines for them, their dactylitis subsided. “I have had dactylitis in my fingers and a toe,” Joan Wzontek Alba told us on Facebook. “Now I’m on biologics and haven’t had a sausage finger since I found one that works.”

All three doctors we talked with agreed that biologics are more effective in treating dactylitis than conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).

“Even if joint disease responds to traditional DMARDS, dactylitis can be resistant, and at that point we may add a biologic,” Dr. Idrees says. “Research so far shows the most effective control of dactylitis comes from the use of biologics, including TNF inhibitors and some of the newer agents like ustekinumab and secukinumab, but one has to weigh the risks versus benefits.”

In addition to biologics, Dr. Mandelin advises patients with dactylitis to strongly consider “the new small-molecule JAK inhibitor agents, as these are clearly more effective against dactylitis than traditional DMARDs such as methotrexate.

Here are a few more medical tips on treating dactylitis:

  • Talk with your doctor to see which medication is right for your symptoms—and make sure you adhere to your medication regimen, Dr. Idrees says.
  • If you have psoriatic arthritis, Dr. Mandelin advises to make sure you’re seeing a rheumatologist and a dermatologist, as the disease is complicated and needs to be addressed from all sides. “Psoriatic arthritis is more complex than many other forms of arthritis, and can affect the body in several unusual ways that aren’t always a concern with other forms of arthritis — dactylitis is only one such example,” he says.
  • Let your doctor know right away if you experience dactylitis. “It is important to treat dactylitis immediately so that it does not become a chronic problem,” Dr. Gladman advises.

Home Remedies for Dactylitis

In addition to medical treatments, some patients we heard from had suggestions for treating dactylitis at home. Talk to your doctor before trying home remedies.

  • Use cold packs or soak hands in cold water.
  • Wear compression gloves, or finger sleeves like volleyball and basketball players use.
  • Try warm paraffin wax, icy hot, or other warming treatments.
  • Keep fingers moving with crochet or knitting, a stress ball, or even just flex and release.
  • Do regular range-of-motion exercises for fingers and toes.

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Pain in and Around a Single Joint – Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

A complete physical examination is done. All major organ systems (eg, skin and nails, eyes, genitals, mucosal surfaces, heart, lungs, abdomen, nose, neck, lymph nodes, neurologic system) should be examined, as well as the musculoskeletal system. Vital signs are reviewed for fever. Examination of the head, neck, and skin should note any signs of conjunctivitis, psoriatic plaques, tophi, or ecchymoses. Genital examination should note any discharge or other findings suggesting sexually transmitted diseases.

Because involvement of other joints can be clues to a polyarthritis and a systemic disorder, all joints should be inspected for tenderness, deformities, erythema, and swelling.

Palpation helps determine the location of tenderness. Palpation also helps detect joint effusion, warmth, and bony hypertrophy. The joint can also be compressed without flexing or extending it. Range of motion is assessed actively and passively, with attention to the presence of crepitus and whether pain is triggered by joint motion (passive as well as active). For injuries, the joint is stressed with various maneuvers (as tolerated) to identify disruption of cartilage or ligaments (eg, in the knee, valgus and varus tests, anterior and posterior drawer tests, Lachman test, McMurray test). Findings should be compared with those in the contralateral unaffected joint to help detect more subtle changes. Noting whether the tenderness is directly over the joint line or adjacent to it or elsewhere is particularly helpful in determining whether pain (particularly when the knee is involved) is articular or periarticular.

Large effusions in the knee are typically readily apparent. The examiner can check for minor effusions by pushing the suprapatellar pouch inferiorly and then pressing medially on the lateral side of the patella on an extended knee. This maneuver causes swelling to appear (or be palpable) on the medial side. Large knee effusions in obese patients are best detected with ballottement of the patella. In this technique, the examiner uses both hands to push in toward the center of the knee from all four quadrants and then uses 2 or 3 fingers to push the patella down into the trochlear groove and releases it. Clicking or a feeling that the patella is floating suggests an effusion.

Periarticular structures also should be examined for point tenderness, such as at the insertion of a tendon (enthesitis), over a tendon (tendinitis), or over a bursa (bursitis). With some types of bursitis (eg, olecranon, prepatellar), swelling and sometimes erythema may be localized at the bursa.

When Hand or Wrist Pain May Mean Arthritis

Many forms of arthritis and related conditions that affect different parts of the hands. Common symptoms include pain, stiffness, swelling or numbness in the wrist and fingers. Pitted nails, painful ulcers or thickened skin that makes bending the fingers difficult may also occur. Here are some diseases that affect the hands.


Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. Also known as “wear and tear” arthritis,  OA is a chronic condition caused by the breakdown of the cartilage, which cushions the ends of the bones where they meet to form joints. This breakdown causes the bones to rub together, causing stiffness, pain and loss of joint movement.

In hand OA, the joints most commonly affected by OA are the wrists, the joints at the base of the thumb, the middle finger joints and the joints closest to fingernails. In the finger joints, OA can lead to the formation of nodes (bony knots). 

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by a faulty immune system that primarily attacks joints (but possibly internal organs as well). The result can be joint pain, swelling, inflammation and loss of function. RA commonly affects the wrist and finger joints. RA usually affects the same joint on both sides of the body (both wrists or both hands). If untreated, the disease can cause joint deformities that make it difficult to use the hands.

Juvenile Arthritis

Juvenile arthritis (JA) is the term used to describe arthritis that affects children ages 16 and younger. Different types of juvenile arthritis can cause pain and swelling in the wrist and joints of the hands.   


Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the immune system creates antibodies that attack healthy tissues, including the skin and joints. The wrist and small joints of the hands are among those most commonly affected, along with other joints farthest from the body, including the elbows, knees, ankles and toes. Joint symptoms will likely occur with red rashes.

Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a form of arthritis that usually affects the joints and the skin (psoriasis) as wells as the finger and toe nails. The entire finger can become swollen (dactylitis), giving it a sausage-like appearance. About 80% of people with psoriatic arthritis have nail changes, pitting, thickening and/or separation from the nail bed. PsA can also cause a skin rash on the hands that looks like red or a silvery white patches.

Getting a Proper Diagnosis

Other common sources of hand and wrist pain include stress fractures, nerve pain, carpal tunnel syndrome. Less common causes of hand and wrist pain include:

  • Dupuytren’s contracture, which causes fingers to bend toward the palms.
  • Ganglion cysts, or lumps next to the joints of the hands or wrists.
  • Skin and muscle conditions such as dermatomyositis and scleroderma.
  • Stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger), which occurs when the tissue at the base of the fingers thickens.

Arthritis is difficult to self-diagnose. Talk with your primary care doctor as soon as possible about your symptoms. You may be referred to a rheumatologist or orthopedist to get an accurate diagnosis so you can get the medical care you need. Left undiagnosed and untreated, your condition may worsen and cause disability.  


90,000 Broke a knuckle on his fist. It no longer hurts, but increased. | Sport. Medicine. Travels.


My knuckle of the middle finger of my right hand has increased.
Somehow 2 months ago I hit a concrete wall with all my might …

Then she was swollen and hurt, then after a week everything went away.

But anyway, the knuckle has increased …

Now I wanted to ask how you can reduce it a little with the help of baths or ointments and massages?
Now it doesn’t hurt, and everything is fine, only it stands out a little more from the rest.

If there is any good advice please answer.

Thanks in advance.


I want to disappoint you a little.

Most likely, the knuckle will not become smaller, and if it does, it will be insignificant.

The way you describe the current symptomatology indicates that at the moment all regeneration processes have already been completed.

If you were to be treated in the acute phase, when there was swelling, pain, etc.symptomatology, then there would be a high probability that it could still be reversed.

I am telling this as an orthopedic doctor. However, I can say that the “shoemaker without boots” himself, i.e. a doctor with problems in his specialty …

Not having at the dawn of my athletic youth the knowledge that I have now, I myself had exactly the same problems, which, however, I do not consider as problems now, except for a certain dubious cosmetic defect.
For a man, this is not critical at all.

Look at my right fist. The knuckle of the index finger is “flattened” and flattened, the knuckle of the middle finger is enlarged, the little finger is the same.
Only the unnamed one without changes “lived to old age”.
Although it looks especially awkward against the background of his fellows.

This, of course, could have been avoided. Which is what I recommend everyone to do.I got these defects from excessive fanatical zeal, multiplied by my own ignorance.

Now there is knowledge and experience, but it’s too late for the bones to edit.

For comparison. The left fist is about the “correct shape”.

And for the future …

Broken knuckle:

  • cold
  • hunger
  • doctor
  • physiotherapy 9000

And everything will be Ok

© Mikhail Shilov (malleus maximus)
Master of Sports of Russia, 5 DAN Karate WFF
MMA coach
Doctor: orthopedic traumatologist,
surgeon, manual therapist

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Swollen Arm or Leg from Impact

There are no people who are not insured against bruises , which lead to swelling and swelling of the arms or legs, and injured area and internal hemorrhage.
If you think your injury is serious, you should first see a doctor in order to consult with him and take a X-ray of the bruise .

If injury is not serious, you can help yourself at home.

To slow down swelling of the arm or leg of the damaged skin area and eliminate internal hemorrhage , apply ice to injury and keep it for at least an hour. After that, anoint the bruise with gruel gruel, which is usually sold in the pharmacy in the form of a powder or ointment. Bodyaga will relieve swelling, reduce pain, and also prevent internal hemorrhage .

If severe pain from bruising bothers you, you can buy various ointments at the pharmacy: long, dolobene gel, febrofid and fastum gel. Such ointments eliminate pain, relieve swelling and slow down inflammation. Remember that applying the ointment to the damaged area of ​​the skin should be done according to the instructions.

A few days after you have a bruise and a swollen leg or arm, it is allowed to use warm compresses. You can use a compress made from vodka root and horseradish.Mix the juice of this root with vodka in a one-to-one ratio. Then apply the prepared compress to the bruise .

Perennial aloe is considered a good assistant in eliminating edema, which also helps with bruises and decay of wounds resulting from this injury. Mix the gruel of aloe leaves with honey and apply to the damaged area.

Fresh cabbage leaves can help bruises . In order to make a remedy out of them, beat off the cabbage leaves until the juice is released.When applied to a bruise, change cabbage leaves approximately every 30 minutes.

Handles bruises well regular bow. Grate a large onion on a coarse grater, and use the resulting gruel as a compress.

Slow down inflammation and relieve edema can fresh potatoes. It should also be grated on a grater (already on a small one), after which the resulting mass should be applied to the damaged area.
When a leg or arm is swollen from a bruise, you should definitely contact the doctor of the trauma center ( traumatologist ) in order to consult with him and make a X-ray X-ray of the bruise .

In the Network of Multidisciplinary Medical Centers “Profmedosmotr Plus”, you can take an X-ray picture of a bruise, consult an experienced traumatologist

90,000 Hand injury – treatment in Moscow on Aviamotornaya (Lefortovo)

Hand contusion and treatment

Injuries such as bruises are the most common. In this case, the soft tissues of the hand swell, there is an extensive hemorrhage of the soft tissues, and sometimes the temperature may rise locally.

For treatment, drugs are used to relieve inflammation, pain and swelling.It is necessary to immobilize the limb. If at the same time the skin was damaged, antiseptics or antibacterial agents should be used. In the recovery period, it is advisable to use methods of physiotherapeutic treatment and a complex of exercise therapy.

In 70% of cases, bruises do not require hospitalization and serious therapy, but sometimes injuries can be very severe, followed by impaired mobility and innervation.

Damage to ligaments, tendons and their treatment

The tendons of the hand are very easy to injure, as they are superficial and more accessible for injury.Such injuries can be of a traumatic nature (due to injury with a sharp object, heavy load, etc.) or pathological (due to a number of diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis).

Ligament rupture can be partial or complete.

As a result of a tendon injury, the shape of the hand changes, and mobility is lost in the area of ​​damage.

The peculiarity of tendon damage is that they do not recover on their own, they must be sutured surgically.If the extensor tendons are damaged, the procedure can be performed under local anesthesia and does not require hospitalization. Flexor tendon injuries require hospital treatment.

After a tendon injury, it is important to undergo a full-fledged rehabilitation, which includes physiotherapy exercises. If you do not develop the finger from the first days, the tendon can be fixed to the surrounding tissues with impaired functional ability. It takes 3-5 weeks for the tendon to heal, after which the bandage is removed.The rehabilitation period takes 1.5-2.5 months.

Dislocations of fingers and treatment

Sprained fingers are one of the most common injuries and most often occur after direct exposure.

The following symptoms indicate the presence of dislocation:

  • Severe pain that increases on palpation;
  • Deformation of the finger;
  • Complete lack of movement in the damaged finger joint.

It is not always possible to professionally establish the presence of a dislocation on your own. The doctor diagnoses the dislocation after examination, as well as based on the results of radiography.

When confirming the diagnosis, the traumatologist sets and fixes the finger in the correct position. If necessary, the procedure can be performed under anesthesia. Subsequently, it is necessary to properly undergo rehabilitation treatment in order to fully restore the functionality of the hand.The duration of treatment and rehabilitation is 3-5 weeks.

Finger fractures and treatment

Fractures of the bones of the fingers are:

  • open or closed;
  • intra-articular or extra-articular;
  • without displacement and with displacement of fragments;
  • traumatic and pathological.

As a result of the fracture, the mobility of the finger of the hand is significantly limited, the ability to take or hold the object is lost, any load causes sharp pain.

The following signs indicate the presence of a fracture:

  • edema and hemorrhage;
  • deformation of the damaged segment;
  • pain on palpation and any movement;
  • limitation of mobility.

To clarify the diagnosis, an examination by a traumatologist and radiography is carried out. In case of fractures of the wrist bones, a computer study is necessary for diagnosis.

The fracture zone is fixed conservatively or surgically.If the fracture is displaced, surgery is performed. Plates, pins or screws can be used as bone anchors.

Types of surgical treatment of hand injuries

Sometimes surgery is the only possible treatment.

Surgical interventions for severe injuries include:

  • Primary or secondary debridement of wounds;
  • Osteosynthesis for fractures and unstable dislocations;
  • Primary suture of injured tendons;
  • Staged tendon plasty;
  • Surgical treatment of false joints;
  • Treatment of post-traumatic contractures.

Our Center uses both conservative and surgical methods of treatment for injuries and diseases of the hand. Professional traumatologists of the Scandinavian Health Center will provide qualified medical care for any type of injury. In the Center for Rehabilitation Medicine, you can undergo the entire course of rehabilitation treatment using modern techniques (shock wave therapy using a Duolit device (Switzerland), cryotherapy, laser therapy, hydraulic massage of the damaged area).90,064 90,000 symptoms and treatment by specialists of the Center for Research and Development in Moscow

Description of the disease:
  • Constant preoccupation with food and an irresistible craving for food; the patient periodically cannot refrain from overeating when a large amount of food is taken in a short time.
  • The patient tries to counteract the effects of obesity from the food they eat with one or more of the following:
  • Inducing vomiting;
  • Abuse of laxatives;
  • Alternative periods of fasting;
  • Use of drugs, in particular appetite suppressants.
  • If diabetic patients develop bulimia, they may neglect insulin therapy.
  • The patient develops a morbid fear of obesity and sets a well-defined limit for body weight, which is much lower, which is optimal or normal weight in the eyes of the doctor.

Previous episodes of anorexia nervosa are common, but not always, with remission between the two disorders ranging from several months to several years. The previous episode may be completely expressed or proceed in a mild latent form with moderate weight loss and / or a transient period of amenorrhea (menstrual irregularities).
Bulimia nervosa, usually a stage or variant of anorexia nervosa, but may be a syndrome associated with several other mental illnesses.
Inadequate compensatory behavior, with the help of which the patient tries to avoid weight gain after an attack of overeating, leads to various complications: heart rhythm disturbance (due to potassium loss), disruption of the kidneys and intestines, inflammation of the esophagus, destruction of tooth enamel, enlargement of the salivary glands.

  • Complex of measures for psychodiagnostics / somatodiagnostics
  • Drug treatment
  • Diet
  • Psychotherapy

Symptoms and signs:

Emotional and behavioral signs of bulimia:

  1. The person becomes very preoccupied with the problem of weight loss, diets and in general what he eats.
  2. The sudden disappearance of a large amount of food, a lot of empty packages and containers – a formal sign that a person is constantly overeating.
  3. Frequent trips to the toilet or bathroom after meals, odor of vomiting, empty laxatives or diuretic packs.
  4. A person is embarrassed to eat in public.
  5. The emergence of peculiar food rituals: for example, a person eats only one dish or eats food that belongs to only one food group (for example, seasonings), chews food for a long time, does not allow others to touch what he eats, and so on …
  6. A person may skip meals or eat less than usual.
  7. A person can go to the toilet all the time after eating.
  8. The transition to all kinds of radical diets, including those where whole food groups are excluded from the diet (refusal of sugar, carbohydrates, dairy products, vegetarianism, veganism).
  9. The emergence of a fear of eating with other people.
  10. A person may steal food or hide it in unexpected places.
  11. Excessive consumption of water or other non-nutritive liquids.
  12. Very frequent use of mouthwash, mints or gum.
  13. Wearing baggy clothing to hide your body.
  14. Excessively frequent sports, which a person does not refuse, regardless of the weather, fatigue or even injury.
  15. Swelling of the cheeks and jaws may occur.
  16. Cuts or hardening of the skin on the fingertips (from frequent calls to vomit).
  17. Discoloration of teeth, the appearance of plaque.
  18. A person deliberately changes his regime so as to free up time for a long and abundant consumption of food and subsequent attempts to “cleanse” the body of food.
  19. Removal from the usual affairs and the usual circle of communication.
  20. Swollen appearance from excessive fluid intake.
  21. Frequent diets.
  22. Excessive preoccupation with weight and shape.
  23. A person constantly looks in the mirror to check if there are any flaws in his appearance.
  24. A person has already secretly exposed himself to compulsive overeating several times (that is, he ate much more in a certain period of time than other people eat under the same conditions). At the same time, a person does not have enough control over himself to stop eating.
  25. Frequent episodes of consuming large amounts of food, followed by attempts to “cleanse” the body of food (induction of vomiting, use of laxatives, diuretics, various dietary drugs or through exhausting sports, fasting, etc.).etc.)
  26. The weight of a person remains within the normal range (but sometimes it can be more than normal).

Physical symptoms:

  1. Noticeable changes in weight, both weight loss and weight gain.
  2. Cramps in the stomach and other problems with the gastrointestinal tract (constipation, acid reflux, etc.).
  3. Violation of the menstrual cycle – the absence of menstruation or menstruation only when taking hormonal contraceptives (such menstruation is not considered “real”).
  4. Difficulty concentrating.
  5. Noticeable deviations from the norm in the results of laboratory tests (anemia, low amount of thyroid hormones, potassium, lowered red blood cells, hemoglobin, etc., lowered heart rate).
  6. Vertigo.
  7. Fainting.
  8. A person is constantly cold.
  9. Sleep disturbance.
  10. Cuts or hardening of the skin on the knuckles (from frequent vomiting).
  11. Dry skin.
  12. Dry and brittle nails.
  13. Swelling of the salivary glands.
  14. The appearance of a fluffy hairline in various places on the body (lanugo).
  15. Thinning scalp, dry and brittle hair.
  16. Caries, discoloration of teeth due to vomiting.
  17. Muscle weakness.
  18. Yellow skin tone (when eating a lot of carrots).
  19. Cold, blotchy hands or feet, also swollen feet.
  20. Wounds heal worse than usual.
  21. Impaired immune system function.

The sooner bulimia is noticed, the higher the chance of recovery. Therefore, it is very important to know what are the signs that a person is suffering from this disorder. Not all of the signs below will necessarily be in the life of one person, because the disorder manifests itself in different ways, so our list should be considered an overview – we want to show what changes in behavior are in people with bulimia. If you have complaints about your own health or if you are worried about someone close to you, then seek professional medical help.

Sources used in the text:

90,000 The bone on the side of the leg hurts – what to do? | Med-magazin. ua


Date of publication: 03.03.2020

A bump on the side of the leg is a common problem, but not everyone knows what it appears from, how it is dangerous and whether it is possible to get rid of it. It can grow with a hallux valgus called hallux valgus. It is characterized by a displacement of the phalanges in relation to each other. Due to the fact that the 1st metatarsal bone is displaced inward, and the thumb is outward, a tubercle forms on its head.The constant pressure exerted by the shoes causes pain in the bone in the leg, which provokes inflammation of the bursa called bursitis. If an unpleasant sensation arises not in the area of ​​the foot, but on the ankle, then the problem is more often associated with a change in the position of the bone.

In this article, you will learn:

1. Reasons for the appearance of a lump on a bone

2. What causes ankle bone pain

3. Methods of treatment

Causes of bumps on the bone

There are various factors leading to the deflection of the first toe and the bump to the bone.In order to prevent and stop the progression of pathology, one should know about the main causes and exclude them. The most common of these is transverse flat feet associated with wearing the wrong shoes, namely:

  • High heels – in the feet in a position where the back of them is raised, there is an uneven distribution of the load of body weight over their surface. The greatest load falls on the forefoot, because of this, it flattens out. At the same time, in a fairly short period of time, a woman sees how a finger is bent and a bone on the side of the leg is swollen;
  • Narrow toe – because of this, the fingers are constantly squeezed, are in a physiologically abnormal position, which gradually leads to deformation in the metatarsophalangeal joint of 1 toe;
  • Small size – if the shoes are shorter than necessary, then the unnatural position of the toes leads to bursitis.

Heredity, hormonal disorders, trauma, and overweight can accelerate the development of hallux valgus of the finger and bumps on the joint. All this provokes a weakening of the ligamentous apparatus of the feet. Also, malnutrition can play a role, in which the body does not receive enough vitamins and other essential substances (calcium, magnesium, etc.) required for the strength of bone tissues.


What causes ankle bone pain

Displacement of the talus can provoke pain in the ankle bone, which creates not only discomfort, but also causes the development of joint diseases.Also, the cause of pain can be:

  • Wrong shoes with a bootleg, crushing and constantly injuring the bone;
  • Ligament damage, while in addition to soreness, swelling appears, and the heel can be turned inside;
  • Fracture – if the calcaneus is damaged, it is difficult to stand on it. With a fracture of the metatarsal bones, there is a sharp swelling and extensive hematoma, extending to the inside of the ankle. The foot in both cases is swollen;
  • Dislocation – in addition to pain, a swollen bone on the ankle is noticeable;
  • Joint diseases – gout, arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis.

Treatment methods

What to do if the bone on the side of the leg hurts? To do this, you can use pharmacy ointments or gels. Also on the Internet there are many recipes for all kinds of herbal infusions and compresses. This allows you to slightly reduce pain, but still the main task is to prevent the progression of the disease.Regardless of why the bone hurts on the side of the ankle or on the joint of the first toe, the first thing to do is to fix the problem with the shoes. It should not press on the problem area. To ensure the correct position of the feet and even distribution of the load over their surface, it is necessary to purchase instep support insoles that support the longitudinal and transverse arches. It is impossible to return the bones to the correct position with lotions and ointments; orthopedic devices are required here – various bandages and splints. Complete or partial immobilization with orthoses may be required. With a bump on the bone and curvature of the finger, a valgus bandage with abduction of the finger is necessary. In case of severe pain, an X-ray is taken, after which the doctor, based on the diagnosis and the degree of deformation, prescribes a particular product.

90,000 What infections can affect fingers?

With the help of hands, a person interacts with the outside world, so they tend to come into contact with bacteria and viruses, which can lead to infection on the skin of the hands and fingers.There are different types of skin infections on the fingers, and serious complications can occur if not treated properly. Typically, these infections are caused by bacteria, but in some cases, viruses can also act as pathogens. The most common symptoms of infections affecting fingers are redness and thinning of the skin, but each infection also has symptoms specific to it.

Panaritium. Acute purulent inflammation of the tissues of the fingers and, more rarely, of the toes.The infection invades the pad of the finger and the soft tissue around it and is usually caused by a puncture wound. The causative agent of infection is often staphylococci and streptococci. A puncture wound allows these bacteria to penetrate deeper layers of the skin and multiply, creating typical symptoms – swelling and soreness of the affected area, and the formation of pus under the skin.

Phlegmon. Acute diffuse purulent inflammation of the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The bacteria that cause felon are also responsible for the development of phlegmon.They enter the lower layers of the skin through an open wound and can spread to other parts of the hands through the bloodstream. Symptoms of cellulitis include redness, tenderness, and flushing of the affected area of ​​the skin.

Nogtoed (paronychia). Inflammation of the periungual fold. The tissues around the edges of the nails are ideal places for bacteria to enter. The causative agent of nail eaters are also staphylococci and streptococci, in some cases – fungi. The infection can spread to surrounding tissue.Symptoms that accompany paronychia include redness and swelling near the nail that is painful to the touch and produces pus.

Herpetic felon . An infection caused by a virus that mainly affects the tip of the finger. It can also be accompanied by symptoms characteristic of paronychia, but does not respond to antibiotics during treatment. Herpes simplex virus type I or II is responsible for the development of this infection. People who work with human body fluids, such as dentists or other healthcare professionals, are at increased risk of contracting this infection.Symptoms accompanying herpetic felon are swelling and soreness of the affected area, the formation of pus under the skin. An open wound may form on the affected area of ​​the skin.

“Deep” infections. These infections affect the deeper layers of the skin as well as blood vessels, tendons, or muscles. One type of infection is infectious flexor tenosynovitis (an acute infection of the flexor tendon sheaths). These infections often enter the body through a puncture wound or deep cut.

Some people, such as those with weakened immune systems or those with diabetes mellitus, may be at increased risk of infection. Common symptoms and signs of deep infections include pain when moving (flexing, extending) certain parts of the hand, such as the finger. The affected area becomes red and very sensitive to touch. The center of infection may have a soft spot where pus forms. As the infection progresses, the affected toe will be in a slightly bent or partially bent position at rest.

Treatment of infections affecting fingers varies according to the severity of the course and requires a mandatory visit to the doctor. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics. In some cases, surgery may be required.

Based on materials from

90,000 Scientists have identified another atypical symptom of coronavirus

COVID-19 can lead to inflammation of the toes that lasts for months, American doctors warn.Symptoms are similar to frostbite and may indicate inflammation of the internal organs.

COVID-19 patients face frostbite-like inflammation of the toes that lasts for months, researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital have found. The results were presented at the 29th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology and are also reported on the EurekAlert portal.

For analysis, the researchers, in collaboration with the International League of Dermatological Societies and the American Academy of Dermatology, created an international COVID-19 skin lesion registry in April 2020.The team evaluated nearly 1,000 cases of these manifestations of the disease, including hives and rashes.

“Kovidnye toes” – a symptom identified by previously , in which patients with COVID-19 develop irritation and redness, and then blue toes.

Symptoms are similar to frostbite, they usually last one to four weeks and can lead to swollen feet. Such a manifestation of the virus occurs both in critically ill patients and in young patients with asymptomatic disease, including children.Presumably, it is associated with a local inflammatory response to infection, or the manifestation of vascular occlusion.

However, if patients had other skin symptoms for days to weeks, the inflammation of the fingers could persist for months.

“A number of patients with COVID-19 develop inflammation of the toes, they turn red and swell, then turn purple,” says dermatologist Esther Freeman. – In most cases, the symptoms go away on their own. They are relatively soft, lasting about 15 days on average.But we have seen people whose inflammation persisted for a month or two. In some of our patients, the symptom persisted for more than 150 days. ”

The new data is allowing doctors to learn more about the symptoms of COVID-19 affecting different parts of the body, Freeman said.

“We are seeing long-term symptoms of COVID-19 in different organ systems, but this is the first time we’ve found something on the skin,” she says. – I think this raises a lot of questions. What is this inflammation? Does it spread to the rest of the body? We have no answers yet.We can see inflammation on the skin – but it can also speak of inflammation anywhere else. ”

90,061 Researchers are concerned that one in six patients with this and other long-term symptoms of COVID-19 required hospital treatment.

“We urge physicians working with COVID-19 patients to pay attention to any skin symptoms. Healthcare professionals can enter information into our registry to deepen our understanding of the relationship between COVID-19 and skin symptoms, Freeman says. “I think what we’re reporting is just the tip of the iceberg. There are probably many more such cases. But the more we talk about it, the more people will learn about the symptoms. ”

Earlier, scientists discovered another non-obvious symptom of COVID-19 – against the background of a coronavirus infection, you can lose your hearing. One of these cases was described by British doctors – a 45-year-old patient, who had no illnesses other than COVID-19 and asthma, noticed ringing in his left ear, and then stopped hearing them.

Examination of the ear canals showed that he did not have any blockage or inflammation. But hearing tests revealed that the patient actually began to hear much worse with his left ear. He was treated with steroids in the form of pills and injections, after which his hearing partially recovered.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 interacts with a specific type of cell lining the lungs. But it has recently become known that it also binds to similar cells lining the middle ear, doctors explain.

SARS-CoV-2 also induces an inflammatory response that can lead to hearing loss.

“Hearing loss and tinnitus are symptoms that have been observed in patients with both COVID-19 and influenza, but they have not been given enough attention,” experts say.

Doctors should examine patients in intensive care to find out if they have lost their hearing, the authors advise. In case of hearing problems, it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible – this will help, if not completely restore the hearing, then preserve it at least partially.