How to treat a minor concussion at home: Concussion testing – Mayo Clinic


Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments, Prevention


Let’s Talk Concussion.

What is a concussion?

A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury that results from a bump, violent jolt or blow to your head that disrupts normal brain function. A concussion can also be caused by a hit to your body that is strong enough to cause your head to forcefully jerk backwards, forwards or to the side.

Concussions stretch and bruise nerves and blood vessels and cause chemical changes in your brain that result in a temporary loss of normal brain function. A single concussion usually doesn’t cause permanent damage to your brain. Multiple concussions over a lifetime may result in structural changes in your brain.

Concussions are not usually life-threatening. However, the effects from a concussion can be serious and last for days, weeks or even longer.

Do you have to be knocked out to have a concussion?

No, you don’t have to lose consciousness to have a concussion. In fact, most people who have a concussion never lose consciousness.

Can you get a concussion from a hit to the chin or jaw?

Yes, sure. Although the jaw or chin can absorb some of the blow, if you are hit in the right place, it can definitely cause a concussion.

What’s the difference between a concussion and a traumatic brain injury?

Really there is no difference. Both are considered injuries to the brain. These are virtually the same terms.

Who is most at risk for a concussion?

People at greater risk for concussion include:

  • Older people and children ages 4 and under due to their risk of falls.
  • Adolescents due to bike accidents and sports-related head injuries.
  • Military personnel due to exposure to explosive devices.
  • Anyone involved in a car accident.
  • Victims of physical abuse.
  • Anyone who has had a previous concussion.

Adolescents are at higher risk of concussion than any other age group. Researchers think this is because their brains are still developing. The brain is still laying down its neural pathways and adolescents’ necks are typically weaker at this age than in young adults and older people.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes a concussion?

Brain tissue is soft and squishy. It’s surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, which acts as a cushion between it and the hard protective exterior, the skull. A concussion occurs when your brain bounces or twists inside your skull or experiences rapid, whiplash-type back and forth movement that causes it to collide with the inside of your skull. This brain movement stretches and damages brain cells and leads to chemical changes in the brain.

These injuries cause your brain not to function normally for a brief period of time and result in the signs and symptoms of concussion.

Motor vehicle accidents, falls, and sports injuries are common causes of concussions. Any sport that involves contact can result in a concussion.

Among children, most concussions happen on the playground, while bike riding, or when playing sports such as football, basketball, ice hockey, wrestling, or soccer.

What are the symptoms of a concussion?

The most common symptoms of concussion include:

  • Headache. (This is the most common symptom.)
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Confusion.
  • Temporary loss of consciousness.
  • Balance problems/dizziness/lightheadedness.
  • Double or blurry vision.
  • Ringing in the ears.
  • Sensitivity to light and noise.
  • Feeling tired or drowsy.
  • Changes in sleep patterns (sleeping much more or less than usual or can’t sleep).
  • Trouble understanding and/or concentrating.
  • Depression or sadness.
  • Being irritable, nervous, and anxious.
  • Feelings of being “just not right” or in a “fog.”
  • Difficulty paying attention, forgetful, memory loss.

It’s very common for infants and toddlers to hit their head. Concussions in these little ones can be difficult to diagnose because they can’t say how they feel. Look for these signs of concussion in children:

  • Bumps on the head.
  • Vomiting.
  • Being irritable, cranky.
  • Will not eat or nurse.
  • Change in sleep pattern, sleepy at unusual times.
  • More fussy than usual, won’t stop crying despite being comforted.
  • Blank stare.

It’s always best to call your pediatrician if your child experiences a bump to their head. In fact, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends you call your doctor for anything more than a mild head bump.

How soon do concussion symptoms appear?

Concussion symptoms usually appear within minutes of the head injury. However, some symptoms may take several hours to appear. Symptoms can change days later; others can develop when the brain is stressed with use.

What signs and symptoms of a concussion are of greatest concern? When should a person go to an emergency room?

If a child or adult experiences any of the following symptoms in the hours or days after the head injury, get them to the hospital or call 911:

  • Severe headache or a headache that continues to get worse over time.
  • Seizures or convulsions.
  • Loss of consciousness (greater than 1 minute).
  • Severe dizziness, loss of balance or problems with walking.
  • Repeated vomiting (more than once).
  • Increasing confusion, such as difficulty recognizing people or places.
  • Clear, watery discharge from the nose or ears
  • Bloody discharge from the ears.
  • Numbness, weakness or tingling in arms or legs.
  • Unusual, bizarre or irritable behavior.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Pupils that are bigger than normal or unequal in size.
  • Extreme drowsiness, difficulty waking from sleep, or fainting.

Seek emergency care if your infant has any of these symptoms:

  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Vomiting.
  • Seizures.
  • Discharge or blood coming out of the nose or ears.
  • Unable to open eyes on their own.
  • Difficulty waking from sleep.
  • Swelling of the soft spot; bruising, especially around the eyes or behind the ears; swelling of the head; skull fracture.

Does a concussion occur exactly where the blow to the head occurs? Are there worse areas of the brain to have a concussion?

The force of a hit can cause a concussion on the part of the brain that was directly hit or on the opposite side of the brain (as the brain tissue itself moves from the force of the blow and hits the opposite side of the skull).

Different areas of the brain control different functions, so blows to your head can predict your symptoms. A concussion to the back of the brain causes balance issues, fogginess, neck pain and difficulty concentrating. These symptoms usually predict a longer recovery from a concussion.

Are there certain criteria that I could see in my child, adolescent athlete or my elderly parent that would indicate that immediate medical care is needed?

Yes. Call an ambulance if your child or elderly loved one has lost consciousness for longer than one minute, is not arousable, has a possible neck injury, shows a worsening of symptoms, has numbness that lasts or has weakness on one side of their body (can’t raise arm or leg or has unequal smile). If you have any doubt, it’s always safest to not move your loved one, call your local emergency department and closely monitor your loved one until help arrives.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is a concussion diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask about the event leading to your head injury, your symptoms and perform a neurological exam. The neurological exam will check your:

  • Neurological function and reflexes.
  • Vision, eye movement, reaction to light.
  • Balance and coordination.
  • Hearing.
  • Strength.
  • Neck muscles for their motion and for tenderness

Verbal, written or computerized tests may be used to check your:

  • Thinking ability.
  • Problem-solving skills.
  • Memory and concentration.

You will also be asked if you’ve experienced mood changes, sleeping changes or any changes in behavior.

Imaging with CT scan or MRI isn’t always needed in the early evaluation of concussion. This is because most of the effects of a concussion aren’t seen on imaging. However, these imaging tests might be ordered if more serious effects of a concussion are suspected – like bleeding inside the skull, brain swelling or spinal cord or cervical spine injury – or if symptoms are worsening.

What tests can be used to assess my athlete’s brain to see if they are ready to go back to school or sport?

After the hands on neurological examination is complete, other neuropsychological tests can be used to assess a student-athlete’s ability to go back to school and sport.

ImPACT neuropsychological test

The immediate post-concussion assessment and cognitive test (ImPACT) is a concussion management tool used to help diagnose and evaluate student athletes. This computerized test measures a student athlete’s visual and verbal memory, reaction time, and processing speed.

The 30-minute test is ideally performed before the start of a sport season (a baseline test) and after a head injury (at various time points). Evaluating the test results and comparing with the baseline test helps care providers (healthcare, educational or sports organizations) document brain function and see if it has returned back to a student athlete’s healthy normal. It can assist with treatment decisions and help determine when it’s safe for a student athlete to return to their activity.

Hospital or Organization Concussion App

Some sports health centers within hospital systems have developed their own concussion app. These tablet-based, mobile tools are used to report and assess concussion and symptoms.

After baseline data are collected, the app can be used to document the athlete’s description of injury, track symptoms over time, detect loss of brain and memory function, and to help guide the athlete to a return to physical activity in order to get back to sport. The app compares assessments of balance, reaction time, information processing, coordination, memory, and vision after an injury to the athlete’s baseline and normative data. The app-based assessment can show the areas of most concern and help guide treatment and therapies over time.

Management and Treatment

How is a concussion treated?

You need physical and mental rest to recover from a concussion. Although you’ll need more rest and sleep than normal, you don’t need 100% complete rest. In fact, research has shown that too much mental rest can actually lengthen the recovery period and make you more sensitive to activities when you return to them.

Instead of stopping activities entirely, learn to recognize the triggers that bring on concussion symptoms. Start back slowly, in small amounts. When symptoms occur, back off and rest. It’s okay to do some of the activities that don’t make you feel worse. Limit any activities that worsen your symptoms.

For example, activities that may bring on symptoms include:

  • Texting/spending time looking at your smartphone screen.
  • Reading.
  • Watching television.
  • Playing video games.
  • Listening to loud music.
  • Doing any physical activity.

As your symptoms improve, you can continue to add more of your activities back into your day.

Can pain medications be taken for the headache symptom of concussion?

Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as naproxen (Aleve®) and ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®) should not be taken soon after a suspected concussion has occurred. These medications mask symptoms and thin the blood, which may increase the risk of bleeding. This is of special concern in elderly who fall and hit their head, as it’s not uncommon for these people to already be taking these drugs. After a concussion is diagnosed, if pain medication is needed, acetaminophen (Tylenol®) is a safer option. Symptoms need to be monitored closely.

Does diet play any role in recovery from a concussion?

There’s not much information about concussion and diet in the medical literature. There is some on nutrition and general brain health and well-being in the elderly. Some of the more researched supplements on diet include fish oils, turmeric, green tea extract and resveratrol. Any supplements taken should be in addition to a well-balanced diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in saturated fat and processed foods.

One thing to consider is that a concussed person may not feel as hungry or thirsty as before. Make sure to encourage eating throughout the day to keep blood sugar up and to try and drink six 8 oz. glasses of fluid (water, juice, Gatorade®) throughout the day. The brain is sensitive to low blood sugar and dehydration and these conditions can mimic or worsen concussion symptoms like headache, dizziness, fogginess, stomachache and irritability.

What’s a typical recovery plan for students who have experienced a concussion?

It’s important to know that recovery plans need to be individualized for each person. Your concussion specialist or family doctor can assist in creating this individualized plan and providing it to the student so they can share with the school.

At first students may need to miss several days of school for symptoms to calm down. Once the student can manage their symptoms at home in a controlled environment, they should gradually add some mental work like reading or writing in journal. If they can perform an hour of mental activity at home without worsening symptoms, they can try to return to school.

Students should not return to school for half days. Rather, they should try to complete as many classes as concussion symptoms allow each day. This may require getting more rest each day. Students should not set an alarm clock but wake when their body and brain are ready and then, if symptoms allow it, go to school. If the student gets symptoms during the school day, they should go to an agreed upon location, such as the nurse’s office or counselor’s office, and rest before returning to class. Should the student’s symptoms result in them spending more time in the space designated for rest and recovery than in class, the student should consider going home.

Parents should work with teachers, school nurses, counselors or psychologists to make other adjustments in their school day. For example, students may:

  • Need more time to do assignments or take a test.
  • Need to have a reduced amount of schoolwork.
  • Need to take extra breaks in and out of class.
  • Need to have another student take notes for them.
  • Need to use an electronic device to record lectures for review later.
  • Need to leave the classroom early to avoid crowded hallways if they have a balance problems.

If symptoms get worse or problems that had resolved come back, cut back again and rest. Let concussion symptoms be your guide to your own recovery timeline.

How long does it take for a person to recover from a concussion?

Each concussion in each person is somewhat unique and so is their recovery timetable. In general though, most concussion symptoms resolve within 14 to 21 days. However, undiagnosed, unrecognized or poorly treated concussions can delay your recovery – increasing it from the typical two weeks to months or even longer.

If you’ve been diagnosed with a concussion and concussion symptoms are still present after 14 days or symptoms worsen, see a healthcare professional who specializes in concussion management.

What is concussion protocol?

Concussion protocol is an organization’s set of policies and procedures for caring for someone who has had a head injury. Even though concussions aren’t limited to sports, concussion protocol is most often associated with sports-related head injury.

The people involved in making sure the concussion protocol is followed include trained healthcare providers with knowledge of concussion care, athletic trainers, school nurse/counselor/teachers, rehabilitation specialists and parents.

A concussion protocol includes such information as:

  • Education on concussion definition, signs and symptoms, and management.
  • Pre-season baseline brain function test (ImPACT test or equivalent) of reaction time, memory, speed of mental processing and other factors per individual player.
  • State law criteria for removing a player from activity.
  • Sideline assessment of the head injury (includes comparison to pre-season ImPACT test or equivalent baseline results).
  • School adjustments (shorter days, more breaks, extra time to finish assignments, etc.) during recovery.
  • Gradual return to activity via a gradual process of small increases in activity.


How can I prevent concussion?

To reduce the risk of concussions:

  • Always wear seatbelts in the car and buckle children in safety seats.
  • Wear a helmet that fits when biking, riding a motorcycle, skating, skiing, horseback riding, or playing contact sports. A helmet should be secure and not move when you shake your head, but not be uncomfortably tight.
  • Prevent falls on stairs by putting up handrails.
  • Install safety gates on stairs to protect young children.
  • Put grab bars in the bathroom, with nonslip mats in the tub and on floors.
  • Improve lighting and remove trip hazards.
  • Install safety guards by windows to keep children from falling out.
  • Strengthen your neck muscles. Strong neck muscles may be able to help absorb some of the impact of blows to the head and decrease the risk of concussion.

Outlook / Prognosis

When can a student athlete return to play after a concussion?

Student athletes are ready to return to play when they are:

  • 100% symptom free at rest.
  • 100% symptom free with normal mental activity.
  • 100% symptom free with exercise.
  • No longer taking any medications for concussion symptoms.
  • Fully back to school and able to tolerate school work.


  • Have a post-concussion neurocognitive test (ImPACT or other symptom and assessment tool) score that is at least as good as the pre-concussion score or pass certain criteria set by the school or athletic board.
  • Have a physical exam and balance test that are within normal limits.
  • Have been cleared for play by a healthcare provider trained in evaluating and managing concussions.

The thinking used to be that the student athlete needed to be symptom free for 24 hours before starting the multiphase process of physical activity toward the goal of returning to play. However, research has now shown that if the patient’s concussion symptoms are improving each day and they are able to attend a full school day with a few breaks for symptoms, they can begin to add very low level cardiovascular activities. These activities should consist of walking or biking on a stationary bike at an intensity that doesn’t make symptoms worse.

With the help of an athletic trainer or physical therapist, athletes can begin to increase their activity level each day, making sure they can tolerate increasing how hard they exercise over time without triggering symptoms before moving on. For example, start out slow with aerobic exercise, then move on to sport-specific drills, then contact activities and finally full participation. This step up in activity can take up to 10 days or longer, as each increase in activity may bring on symptoms and require rest and return to the previous step.

Following this approach, most student athletes are able to return to play within about three weeks after their symptoms began.

What can happen if an athlete who had a concussion returns to competition too soon?

Returning to competition too soon could put you at risk for a second concussion. A repeat concussion that occurs before your brain has recovered from a first one is called second impact syndrome.

Second impact syndrome can:

  • Make your symptoms last longer than they would have if you rested and fully recovered.
  • Slow your overall recovery.
  • Increase the chances for long-lasting or permanent problems.

Long-lasting problems include difficulties with concentration and memory, headaches, and sometimes physical skills like maintaining your balance. Although this is rare, returning to competition without being fully recovered and getting hit again could result in a brain hemorrhage or even death. Never return to competition until ALL your symptoms are gone and you feel you are 100% back to your normal self.

If an athlete has a concussion, how likely are they to have another one?

Once you’ve had a concussion, you are three to five times more likely to have another concussion. The highest risk is for those who return to competition before their symptoms have completely gone away. No one should return to active play if they are still having symptoms from a concussion.

What are the long-term complications of concussion?

Long term complications of concussion include:

  • Post-concussion syndrome. This is a condition in which you experience concussion symptoms for weeks or even months (instead of days) after experiencing a concussion. Such symptoms may include ongoing dizziness/spinning, headache, memory and concentration problems, mood swings, depression, anxiety, irritability, personality changes, insomnia (can’t sleep) and excessive drowsiness.
  • Higher risk of anxiety and depression (especially if there’s been multiple concussions).
  • Structural brain injuries from multiple concussions. People who have had several head injuries in their life are at higher risk of long-lasting impairment. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is one example of a brain condition linked to repeated blows to the head.
  • Problems with memory, naming and word-finding.
  • Dementia.

Anyone who has symptoms that won’t go away or that are worsening seen be seen by their healthcare provider.

Are mild concussions serious?

Even if you’ve been told that you’ve only experienced a “mild concussion,” all concussions should be considered serious events. In most cases it’s true that a single concussion is unlikely to cause permanent brain damage. However, even having a mild concussion puts you at an increased risk of another concussion. In addition, if you were to experience another concussion before your concussion symptoms have fully gone away, you could be at greater risk of permanent damage or even death if you have another concussion.

Are concussions fatal?

It’s rare, but a concussion can lead to bleeding in the brain or brain swelling that can be fatal. This is one of the reasons why it’s so important to carefully watch a concussed person in the first 24 to 48 hours after the concussion and to seek immediate care if symptoms worsen.

Are there any cures for concussion besides rest?

There is no doubt that rest helps a brain recover from a concussion. There is research going on to determine how much rest is needed, but each concussion is treated individually. Typically, mental and physical rest is advocated. There is also research going on looking at medications that may be useful to prevent the progression of concussion, based on the physiology of what happens when the brain is initially concussed, and to help the brain “heal” more quickly.

Living With

Can a concussion cause jaw pain?

Yes. Head injuries and concussion can cause pain in your jaw as well as in the bones and muscles of your head, neck and shoulders. Temporomandibular joint disorder (injury to the jaw joint and jaw muscles) is a specific condition that can sometimes happen after hitting your head. Also, the main symptom of concussion – headache – can be the result of spasms and inflammation in your jaw muscles following a blow to the jaw.

What is a “sub-concussive” blow? How many times does a person have to be hit before showing signs of an injury?

First, every person is different. Many people can take a blow to the head without feeling or showing signs of sustaining a concussion. This is called a sub-concussive blow. In theory, one would think that taking several blows to the head would potentially “add up” to the point that the blows would cause concussion or brain injury. However, this has not been shown to be true.

There is no set number of blows and no exact or collected degree of force from blows over time that has been shown to result in a concussive injury. However we do know if you experience a blow and have shown or felt symptoms of concussion or have been diagnosed with a concussion and you continue to participate, you are at increased risk of permanent brain injury if you were to experience another concussion before you have fully healed and are 100% symptom-free.

How is whiplash, which sometimes happens along with concussion, treated?

Ongoing neck pain is a common complaint in both auto accidents and concussions. The head is bent back and forth on the cervical spine, which results in neck muscle injury and irritation. Useful treatments for whiplash include:

  • Taking anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®), aspirin, or naproxen (Aleve®).
  • Learning proper head/neck posture, especially when working on the computer or watching television.
  • Physical therapy with a PT trained in either concussion or cervical spine.
  • Massage.
  • Temporarily keeping the neck still by using a soft foam neck brace (“immobilization”).
  • Applying ice and/or heat (sessions of 20 minutes on, 20 minutes off).
  • Injections of steroids and lidocaine into the nerve at the base of the skull to relieve pain.

Your healthcare provider can give you more specific information on these treatments or where to turn for more help.

Should someone with a concussion be woken from sleep at regular intervals?

This is a myth. This is outdated information that may even slow the recovery process. Rest helps the brain recover from a concussion. However, it’s reasonable to check on the concussed person while they sleep to make sure their breathing pattern hasn’t changed or to briefly wake them up to make sure their symptoms are not getting worse. The concussed person should be immediately seen by doctors if they fall asleep shortly after receiving a concussion or can’t be woken up.

How many concussions are too many? When should an athlete retire from their sport?

There is no general agreement on when to retire from sports due to head injuries. There are many factors to consider including:

  • Number of head injuries/concussions.
  • How long it took to fully recover from each concussion.
  • How close together, in time, each concussion occurred.

Each concussion ups the odds of having another concussion. Each concussion is different. Each person’s reaction and ability to recover is different. You and your healthcare provider should discuss your history of concussions and be able to decide what is in you or your loved one’s best interest.

What type of healthcare provider treats concussion?

If you, your son or daughter or your older parent has experienced a mild blow to the head, you can see your family medical doctor or your pediatrician first for an initial exam. If a concussion is suspected, you may be referred to other doctors and healthcare providers who specialize in the evaluation and management of concussions. These clinicians include:

  • Neurologists, neurosurgeons and neuropsychologists.
  • Sports medicine specialists, exercise medicine physicians, athletic trainers.
  • Neuro-ophthalmologists, vestibular therapists (therapists who specialize in dizziness symptoms ad cervical pain).

A Note from Cleveland Clinic

  • Consider all head injuries as a potentially serious event. If you have a “gut instinct” that something more might be wrong or worry that a fall on the head or blow to the head needs to be checked out, do it. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room.
  • Rest. Rest is one of the most important treatments for a concussion because it helps the brain to heal. Rest nearly completely for the first few days after a head injury, then slowly begin to “exercise your brain.” The unused, “stagnant” brain remains stagnant if not used and lengthens recovery. But too much use overstimulates the brain and can cause symptoms to return or worsen. Take a slow approach. Identify and avoid or limit your time doing things that cause symptoms. For example, if symptoms increase with the bright light of a computer or smartphone, adjust the brightness setting, wear sunglasses or strictly limit your time on these devices. Ease into normal activities slowly, not all at once.
  • Don’t drink alcohol without your doctor’s okay. Alcohol and other drugs may slow recovery and increase the chance for further injury.
  • Don’t drive until cleared by your doctor. Your reaction time could be slower until you fully recover.

Concussion – Injuries & first aid

Concussion is the sudden but short-lived loss of mental function that occurs after a blow or other injury to the head. It is the most common but least serious type of brain injury.

The medical term for concussion is minor traumatic brain injury.

Symptoms of concussion include brief:

  • loss of consciousness after the head injury
  • periods of memory loss
  • disturbances in vision, such as “seeing stars” or blurry vision
  • a period of confusion, a blank expression, or a delay in answering questions immediately after the head injury

If a brain scan is carried out, concussion is only diagnosed if the scan is normal – for example, there is no bleeding or swelling of the brain.

When to seek medical help

Concussion should only be diagnosed by a health professional trained in assessing patients with head injury. They will be able to rule out serious brain injury that needs a brain scan or surgery.

You should visit your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department if you or someone in your care has a head injury and develops the following signs and symptoms:

  • loss of consciousness, however brief
  • memory loss, such as not being able to remember what happened before or after the injury
  • persistent headaches since the injury
  • changes in behaviour, such as irritability, being easily distracted or having no interest in the outside world – this is a particularly common sign in children under five
  • confusion
  • drowsiness that occurs when you would normally be awake
  • loss of balance or problems walking
  • difficulties with understanding what people say
  • difficulty speaking, such as slurred speech
  • problems with reading or writing
  • vomiting since the injury
  • problems with vision, such as double vision
  • loss of power in part of the body, such as weakness in an arm or leg
  • clear fluid leaving the nose or ears (this could be cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds the brain)
  • sudden deafness in one or both ears
  • any wound to the head or face

Anyone drunk or high on recreational drugs should go to A&E if they have a head injury as it’s easy for others around them to miss the signs of a more severe injury.

Phone 999 for an ambulance immediately if the person:

  • remains unconscious after the initial injury
  • is having a seizure or fit
  • is bleeding from one or both ears
  • has been vomiting since the injury
  • is having difficulty staying awake, speaking, or understanding what people are saying

Certain things make you more vulnerable to the effects of a head injury. These include:

  • being aged 65 or older
  • having previously had brain surgery
  • having a condition that makes you bleed more easily, such as haemophilia
  • having a condition that makes your blood more prone to clotting, such as thrombophilia
  • taking anticoagulant medication, such as warfarin or aspirin, to prevent blood clots

There are things you can do at home to help relieve concussion symptoms, including:

  • apply a cold compress to the injury to reduce swelling – a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a towel will do
  • take paracetamol to control any pain – do not use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or aspirin, as these can cause bleeding
  • avoid drinking alcohol or taking recreational drugs

Read more about how concussion is treated, including information on self care tips and when you can return to playing sport.


After experiencing concussion, careful monitoring is needed. This is usually for 48 hours.

This is because the symptoms of concussion could also be symptoms of a more serious condition, such as:

  • subdural haematoma – bleeding between the skull and the brain
  • subarachnoid haemorrhage – bleeding on the surface of the brain


While the medical term “minor traumatic brain injury” can sound serious, the actual extent of damage to the brain is usually minimal and does not cause long-term problems or complications.

There is evidence that repeated episodes of concussion could cause long-term problems with mental abilities and trigger dementia. This type of dementia is known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).

However, this seems to only be a significant risk for professional athletes who experience repeated episodes of severe concussion, such as boxers – CTE is sometime nicknamed “boxer’s brain”.

Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is a poorly understood condition where symptoms of concussion can last for weeks or months afterwards.

Read more information about PCS as a complication of concussion.

Who’s at risk?

Most cases of concussion occur in children and teenagers aged 5 to 14, with the two most common causes being sporting and cycling accidents.

Falls and motor vehicle accidents are a more common cause of concussion in older adults.

People who regularly play competitive team sports such as football and rugby have a higher risk of concussion.

Read more information about the causes of concussion and tips on preventing concussion.

Mayfield Brain & Spine, Cincinnati, Ohio


A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury caused by a blow or “ding” to the head. Common in falls, sports, and car crashes, concussions temporarily affect the brain causing confusion and problems with memory, speech, vision, or balance. The person may appear fine at first but may show symptoms hours or days later. If untreated, repeated concussions can have severe outcomes. The best treatment is time to allow the brain to heal.

What is a concussion?

During the impact of an accident, the brain bounces back and forth inside the skull. This can cause bruising, bleeding, and tearing (Fig. 1). Immediately after the accident, the person may be confused, not remember what happened or have nausea, blurry vision, or dizziness. The person may appear fine at first but show symptoms hours or days later. One does not have to lose consciousness to suffer a concussion.

Figure 1. During impact to the head, the soft brain crashes back and forth against the inside of the hard skull causing bruising, bleeding, and tearing of nerve fibers.

Concussions are graded by severity:

Grade I: no loss of consciousness; amnesia is absent or present for less than 30 minutes.

Grade II: loss of consciousness for less than five minutes or amnesia for between 30 minutes and 24 hours.

Grade III: loss of consciousness for more than five minutes or amnesia for more than 24 hours.

Go to an emergency room if you or someone with you has suffered a head injury and has lost consciousness, is vomiting, having seizures, or having obvious difficulty with mental function or physical coordination.

If left undiagnosed, a concussion may place a person at risk of developing second-impact syndrome, a potentially fatal injury that occurs when an athlete sustains a second head injury before a previous head injury has healed.

What are the

The symptoms of a brain injury can be subtle or may not be noticed until you return to normal activities. Symptoms can last up to 4 weeks, can fluctuate in intensity, but overall should improve with time. They include:

  • Headaches
  • Sleep
    • Trouble falling asleep
    • Sleeping too much or too little
    • Feelings of fatigue or exhaustion
  • Memory
    • Trouble remembering new information
    • Trouble concentrating or thinking
    • Feelings of confusion
  • Mood
    • Irritability
    • Feelings of sadness
    • Feelings of nervousness or anxiety
  • Other physical symptoms
    • Blurry vision
    • Dizziness
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Sensitivity to light or noise

Most people make a full recovery. Call your primary care doctor if your symptoms worsen or you see no improvement in 2 to 3 weeks.

What are the causes?

Common causes include falls, car or motorcycle crashes, sports injuries, and rapid back-and-forth forces such as shaken baby syndrome or nearby battlefield explosions.

How is a diagnosis made?

When a concussion is suspected during a sporting event, a coach, athletic trainer, or team physician should immediately perform a “sideline” evaluation. These tests including alertness, short-term memory recall (such as opponent, score), long-term recall (such as name, birth date), and athlete’s ability to stay attentive to a complex task (such as reciting the months backwards).

When a person is brought to the emergency room with a head injury, doctors will do an exam, ask about his or her symptoms, and ask how the injury occurred. A CT scan of the head may be done if needed. Patients with moderate or severe brain injury are admitted to the hospital for treatment.

Patients with mild brain injury are usually released home after a few hours of observation in the ER. A family member or caregiver must closely monitor and watch for changes in the patient’s behavior for the next 24 to 48 hours.

Return to the ER if any of these existing symptoms get worse or new ones occur:

  • Excessive sleepiness; can’t stay awake or can’t be woken from sleep
  • Headache that gets worse and is not relieved with typical medications
  • Increased nausea and vomiting
  • More confusion, agitation, or restlessness
  • Trouble talking, walking, or changes in vision
  • Seizure or convulsion

What treatments are available?

No person should return to sports or vigorous activity while signs or symptoms of a concussion are present. Treatment for a mild brain injury is usually rest and medication. The best treatment is time to allow the brain to heal.

Get plenty of sleep. Avoid physical exertion as well as activities that require mental concentration, such as playing video games, watching TV, texting or using a computer. School workloads should also be temporarily reduced.

For headaches, use acetaminophen (Tylenol). Avoid other pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and aspirin, as there is a possibility these medications may increase the risk of bleeding.

Common questions & answers:

Q: When can I restart my blood thinners, such as aspirin, Plavix, or Coumadin?
A: You should consult your neurosurgeon, neurologist, or cardiologist to see when it is safe to resume taking these medications.

Q: Will my work and/or school schedule need to be adjusted? For how long?
A: Yes, you will need to rest while recovering from your injury. You can return to work when your symptoms are controlled or when a healthcare provider clears you. Recovery time varies.

Q: Can I drive?
A: You should not drive while taking narcotic pain medication or drugs that can make you sleepy. Please check with your healthcare provider when it is safe to resume driving.

Q: When can I resume normal activity?
A: Gradually over 1 to 2 weeks you can increase your physical activity level, but listen to your body and rest when needed.

Q: When is it okay to resume sports?
A: It is important not to resume sports until you are symptom free or cleared by a healthcare provider. A second concussion that happens before the first one is healed can have dangerous long-term effects.

Recovery & prevention

You can expect the symptoms of a head injury to gradually improve over 1 to 4 weeks. During that time, your symptoms can fluctuate in intensity:

Headaches are common and can be relieved with acetaminophen (Tylenol). Patients with migraines may notice worsening.

Fatigue and sleep problems go hand-in-hand and tend to worsen each other. Fatigue tends to be worse in the evening and makes symptoms more noticeable. Listen to your body and rest when needed.

Memory problems such as organizing tasks or remembering names or the grocery list, may occur.

Concentration and difficulty learning new information may occur.

Mood swings and irritability are common.

Blurry vision or loss of smell may occur.

Seizures are rare, but may occur in the first week after a brain injury. Medication may be taken for 3 to 7 days to prevent seizures.

Prevention of a second injury during recovery is important because having a concussion increases the risk of a second concussion by 5 times, and a second concussion soon after the first increases the risk of dangerous brain swelling. In more severe cases of postconcussion syndrome, cognitive behavioral therapy may be helpful.

Tips to reduce the risk for a head injury:

  • Wear your helmet when riding a bicycle, motorcycle, skateboard, or ATV.
  • Do not drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
  • Wear your seat belt and ensure that children are secured in child safety seats.
  • Avoid falls in the home by keeping loose items off the floor and installing safety features such as non-slip mats in the bathtub and handrails on stairways.
  • Avoid falls by exercising to increase strength, balance, and coordination.
  • Store firearms in a locked cabinet with bullets in a separate location.
  • Wear protective headgear during sports.

Sources & links

If you have questions, please contact Mayfield Brain & Spine at 800-325-7787 or 513-221-1100.



concussion: a mild brain injury that can cause a brief loss of consciousness, confusion, or memory loss of the event.

contusion: a bruise in the brain.

hematoma: a blood clot in the brain.

subarachnoid hemorrhage: bleeding into the space around the brain.

updated > 7.2018
reviewed by > Michael Kachmann, MD, Mayfield Clinic, Cincinnati, Ohio

Limiting screen time for young adults after concussion results in shorter duration of symptoms

A clinical trial of 125 young adults shows that those who limited screen time for 48 hours immediately after suffering a concussion had a significantly shorter duration of symptoms than those who were permitted screen time. These findings, published in JAMA Pediatrics, offer the first clinical evidence that restricting time spent at a computer, television or phone screen in the acute period following a concussion can reduce the duration of symptoms. The study supports preliminary clinical recommendations to limit screen time.

Theodore E. Macnow, MD

An estimated 2.5 million people go to the emergency department annually because of concussions. Many of these patients are children aged 10 to 19 years old. In 2017, 15 percent of high schoolers had reported being diagnosed at least once with a concussion.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the International Concussion in Sports Group recommend a period of complete cognitive and physical rest for 24 to 48 hours following a concussion diagnosis. Yet, there are no clear guidelines regarding what constitutes cognitive rest during this period.

“It’s one thing parents and children always ask in the emergency department,” said lead author Theodore E. Macnow, MD, assistant professor of pediatrics. “Is screen time allowed?”

The average American teen spends as much as seven hours a day in front of a screen, not including time spent doing schoolwork, and many clinicians caution against screen time following a concussion, said Dr. Macnow. Other clinicians, however, believe limited screen time, so long as it doesn’t induce symptoms, is permittable as one of the few forms of safe distraction during this time.

“We’re still learning how to treat concussions and there are no clear recommendations regarding screen time,” said Macnow. “Nobody has yet looked at this question in a rigorous way. We wanted to get a better handle on this question, so we conducted a randomized clinical trial.”

From June of 2018 to February of 2020, Macnow and colleagues assessed 125 patients age 12 to 25 who presented with a concussion to the Emergency Department at UMass Memorial Medical Center, the clinical partner of UMass Chan Medical School in Worcester. Patients were assessed and randomly placed in one of two cohorts. The first cohort was instructed to abstain from any electronic screens for 48 hours, while the second group was allowed any form of screen so long as it didn’t induce symptoms. Both groups were advised to avoid work and schoolwork for the first 48 hours.

Patients completed a Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at the time of diagnosis and every day for the 10-day study. The PCSS is a 22-symptom scale, which grades each symptom from 0 (not present) to 6 (severe) and reliably detects change over time in concussed patients. In the absence of a head injury, a baseline score of less than 3 on the PCSS survey is considered normal. Additionally, patients completed a screen time survey on days one to three and an activity survey from days four to 10.

An analysis of the data showed that the group permitted screen time during the initial 48 hours after a concussion experienced a significantly longer time to recover, measured by a PCSS score of less than three. On average, this group experienced a median time of eight days until symptom resolution compared to 3.5 days for the group that abstained from screen time. During this time, the cohort permitted screen time logged a median of 630 minutes over the 48-hour period while the cohort abstaining from screen time logged a median of 130 minutes.

“These findings support the conclusion that brief screen time abstinence following a concussion is associated with a faster recovery,” said Macnow. “Given this data, preliminary clinical recommendations should be to limit screen time.”

Macnow added, “It’s not clear why screen time exacerbated concussion symptoms but there are a lot of reasons to suspect it’s not good.” Macnow said. It’s possible that electronic photons, which are known to triggers migraines, could play a role. Or that screen use may detract from sleep and resumption of normal activities, both of which are felt to be beneficial to concussion recovery.

“These findings suggest that a larger, more diverse, multicenter study is warranted to see if the results are consistent,” said Macnow. “What’s more, we only looked at the first 48 hours after diagnosis. It would be worthwhile to see if abstaining from screen time longer had more of an impact or if specific screen time activities—video games vs. television—have a more pronounced effect on recovery time.”

Concussion in children – discharge: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

As long as your child has symptoms, your child should avoid sports, hard play at recess, being overly active, and physical education class. Ask the provider when your child can return to their normal activities.

Make sure your child’s teacher, physical education teacher, coaches, and school nurse are aware of the recent injury.

Talk to teachers about helping your child catch up on school work. Also ask about timing of tests or major projects. Teachers should also understand that your child may be more tired, withdrawn, easily upset, or confused. Your child may also have a hard time with tasks that require remembering or concentrating. Your child may have mild headaches and be less tolerant of noise. If your child has symptoms in school, have your child stay home until feeling better.

Talk with teachers about:

  • Not having your child make up all of their missed work right away
  • Reducing the amount of homework or class work your child does for a while
  • Allowing rest times during the day
  • Allowing your child to turn assignments in late
  • Giving your child extra time to study and complete tests
  • Being patient with your child’s behaviors as they recover

Based on how bad the head injury was, your child may need to wait 1 to 3 months before doing the following activities. Ask your child’s provider about:

  • Playing contact sports, such as football, hockey, and soccer
  • Riding a bicycle, motorcycle, or off-road vehicle
  • Driving a car (if they are old enough and licensed)
  • Skiing, snowboarding, skating, skateboarding, gymnastics, or martial arts
  • Participating in any activity where there is a risk of hitting the head or of a jolt to the head

Some organizations recommend that your child stay away from sports activities that could produce a similar head injury, for the rest of the season.

How Long Does it Take to Recover from a Concussion?

After a concussion, it is extremely important to take the time to recover properly. This is because concussions are classified as traumatic brain injuries. They occur as a result of the brain hitting the inside of the skull due to a sudden, strong impact. Concussions can range from mild to severe, however even mild concussions require a recovery period. 

On average, it takes approximately 7-10 days to recover from a concussion. However, this can vary from individual to individual and you may continue to experience concussion symptoms for longer than 7-10 days. Some concussions may take longer to heal and symptoms can last for 2-4 weeks. In some cases, post-concussion syndrome may also develop. 

Post-concussion syndrome is the occurrence of lingering concussion symptoms for weeks or months after a concussion. Generally speaking, three or more of the following symptoms must be present to diagnose post-concussion syndrome: 

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Vertigo
  • Fatigue
  • Sleeping problems
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Memory problems
  • Restlessness
  • Personality changes
  • Depression 
  • Anxiety
  • Sensitivity to light or sound

Here is what you should do while recovering from a concussion:

Days 1 & 2

During the first couple of days following a concussion, it is important to rest and take it easy. You should also avoid things like caffeine, screens (computer, laptop, tablet, phone), anything that requires mental focus, bright lights, loud sounds, physically demanding activities, and alcohol. It is advised to get 8-10 hours of sleep, stay hydrated, eat light, and have someone check on you periodically. If you need to take a mild pain reliever, it is recommended that you use acetaminophen and avoid ibuprofen or aspirin because they can cause bleeding. 

Days 3 & 4

If you are still feeling the effects of the concussion, then it is recommended to continue to take it easy, limit screen time, and minimize the amount of mental focus. However, if you are starting to feel better, then you can gradually work on adding activities to your day. When you notice symptoms coming back, you may need to take a break or try something less demanding. At this point you will still need to avoid activities that could reinjure your head, even if you are feeling better. 

1 Week

At the one week mark, you should be mostly feeling like your usual self. At this time, you can generally return to your normal routine, unless directed otherwise by your doctor. Most concussions are healed within a week. However, if you start to experience symptoms again or if you are still experiencing symptoms after 10 days, you should contact your doctor to determine the cause. You should also talk with your doctor about returning to sports or other activities that could cause another head injury. In some cases, you may need to wait about 2-4 weeks before resuming these activities to ensure you do not get a second head injury. 

Dr. Kashouty, a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN), practices general neurology with fellowship trained specialization in clinical neurophysiology. Dr. Kashouty finds the form and function of the nerves and muscles the most interesting part of neurology, which is what led him to specialize in neurophysiology with more emphasis on neuromuscular conditions. He treats all neurological diseases, but his main focus is to treat and manage headaches, movement disorders and neuromuscular diseases. 

Concussion | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is a concussion?

A blow or a jolt to the head can cause a concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI). The injury keeps the brain from working normally. Symptoms of a concussion may last less than a day or may linger for months, or longer.

Millions of mild traumatic brain injuries occur in the U.S. each year, but most don’t require a visit to the hospital.

What are the causes of concussions?

Many concussions that require emergency treatment are because of falls, motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and sports injuries. Children, young adults, and older adults are at especially high risk for concussions and may take longer to recover after a concussion. People who have had concussions before are more likely to have them again.

What are the symptoms of a concussion?

These are symptoms of a possible concussion:

  • Headache
  • Vomiting or nausea
  • Trouble thinking normally
  • Memory problems
  • Trouble walking
  • Dizziness
  • Vision problems
  • Fatigue
  • Mood changes
  • Changes in sleep patterns

These symptoms may occur right away. But some may not start for weeks or even months after the injury.

How are concussions diagnosed?

To diagnose a concussion, your doctor will probably ask you a variety of questions. Be sure to say if you lost consciousness and report any other symptoms. The doctor will also want to know how the injury occurred and where you hit your head.

You may also be asked questions to test your memory and asked to do certain tasks to show how well your brain is functioning. Your doctor may also ask your friends or family questions about your symptoms and the injury.

Images of your brain using CT or MRI scans may be taken and evaluated.

How are concussions treated?

An important part of treatment for a concussion is getting plenty of rest, both sleep at night and naps or rest breaks during the day if needed. Your doctor will probably tell you to avoid certain physical activities and sports while you recover and may suggest medicine to take if you have a headache.

If your symptoms don’t go away in a few days or if they get worse, you may need to see a doctor who specializes in concussions.

Can concussions be prevented?

You can take a number of steps to help reduce your risk for a concussion or prevent it in your children:

  • Wear a seat belt every time you’re in a motor vehicle.
  • Make sure your children use the proper safety seat, booster seat, or seat belt.
  • Never drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol. 
  • Wear a helmet for activities such as riding a bike or motorcycle, playing contact sports, skiing, horseback riding, and snowboarding.
  • Reduce your risk for falls by eliminating clutter in your home, removing slippery area rugs, and installing grab bars in the bathroom if needed, especially for older adults.
  • Never work on a ladder if you feel dizzy or lightheaded. Alcohol can make you dizzy. Some medicines also can make you dizzy or affect your balance.
  • Have your vision checked at least once a year. Poor vision can increase your risk for falls and other types of accidents.

Managing a concussion

After a concussion, your healthcare provider may decide to monitor you in the emergency room. When you’re released, the provider will want someone to stay with you at home for a day or 2 to keep track of your condition. Follow your healthcare provider’s directions about avoiding sports, physical education classes, and activities such as running and bicycling while you are recovering.

Limit activities that require you to concentrate heavily. This includes taking tests if you are in school or doing tasks at work that require intense focus. You may also need to take rest breaks during the day. As your symptoms go away, you may be able to go back to your normal activities. The time it takes to recover from a concussion can vary from weeks to months. In rare cases, symptoms can last for years.

If you have symptoms or problems that last more than 3 months, you may have a problem called postconcussion syndrome. Discuss this possibility with your doctor.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Call your healthcare provider right away or go to the emergency room if you or someone else loses consciousness after a blow to the head or if any of these occur:

  • Headache that gets worse and does not go away
  • Weakness, numbness or decreased coordination
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Slurred speech
  • Feeling very confused
  • Feeling very drowsy
  • Convulsions or seizures

These could be signs of a serious condition that needs treatment right away.

Key points about concussion

  • A blow or a jolt to the head can cause a concussion
  • Symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or trouble thinking can happen right away, or they may come on gradually over time.
  • Call a healthcare provider right away or go to the emergency room if a person loses consciousness after a blow to the head.
  • Getting plenty of rest is an important part of treating concussions.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.


Head injury can occur unexpectedly. With it, the functions of the organ are disrupted.

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Concussion: symptoms, diagnosis and first aid

A concussion is a small dysfunction of the brain as a result of trauma. In such cases, the brain hits the skull, which stretches the nerve cells.It is a common injury that does not harm basic bodily functions.

Brain cells remain intact, but some processes are temporarily disturbed. The bad condition is explained by: Children often face this diagnosis.

If you have a concussion, home treatment is possible only if the disease is identified in advance. The main signs include loss of consciousness. It lasts from a few seconds to a couple of minutes. Another symptom is nausea, which is accompanied by vomiting.Common indicators of concussion include: Depending on the severity of the damage, some patients experience a symptom of memory loss.

A person may not remember what happened to him before the impact. He will be confused, unable to determine his own state. Severe degree is accompanied by profuse vomiting, hallucinations. If the patient has a convulsive seizure or paralysis, then he urgently needs to be shown to a specialist. The first steps in a concussion. Concussion treatment at home is primarily accompanied by the provision of first aid.

Help the victim to lie down. Please note that the head should be raised. The patient must be kept awake, the first hour he must not fall asleep. If the person has lost consciousness, lay him on his right side, and tilt his head back a little, turning his face down. If there are no fractures, then the left leg and arm should be bent at right angles.

This position allows the lungs to be saturated with oxygen to the greatest extent, and vomit to go outside. If there are wounds, they need to be treated, and a cold bandage or ice should be placed on the head.It is not always possible to diagnose a concussion at home.

The patient must be shown to a doctor in order to avoid further complications. Injuries cannot always be identified and treated on their own. The patient should be taken to the traumatology department or an ambulance should be called if the victim does not regain consciousness. The traumatologist or neuropathologist will order an examination, take an X-ray, and prescribe follow-up directions for treatment. Examination is mandatory for severe brain damage.

In such cases, only tomography can tell about the degree of damage. Without timely treatment, cells will begin to die off gradually, which can lead to serious consequences, including paralysis. The traumatologist will determine if there are fractures or cracks. The doctor prescribes pain relievers, sedatives. Elderly people and children need to see a doctor.

In children, the symptoms of concussion are different, so the disease cannot always be determined without professional help.After examining a doctor, the patient needs to follow a certain regimen.

Peace is provided for him. To make concussion heal faster: Pain relievers should only be taken with a doctor’s prescription. To accelerate recovery, you can take vitamin complexes. To renew the process of cell regeneration, vitamins C, A, E, B are suitable.

For the treatment of concussion you can use :. The patient can undergo a course of massage or physiotherapy. But before such procedures, you should consult a doctor.Recovery will take several weeks. But there is a condition! It depends on the correctness of the diagnosis, the severity of the concussion.

Consult a physician to avoid severe head injury. Concussion treatment at home A concussion is a small dysfunction of the brain resulting from an injury. The bad condition is explained by: impaired connections of neurons; vasospasm, which affects the degree of oxygenation of nerve cells; changes in the balance of cerebral fluid; violation of communication of the columnar structure of the brain.

Symptoms and treatment of concussion If you have a concussion, home treatment is only possible if the disease is identified in advance.

Common indicators of concussion include: the appearance of tinnitus; cloudy eyes; general malaise of the body; headache that is worse in bright light; high blood pressure; insomnia; irritability; nosebleed; weakness; profuse sweating. First Steps for a Concussion Concussion Home treatment is primarily accompanied by first aid.

Why see a doctor? Mild concussion treatment at home After a doctor’s examination, the patient needs to follow a certain regimen. For concussion treatment to proceed faster: The patient must lie in bed. The first three days he is not allowed to go up. Also, the victim should avoid physical activity for one month. Provide him with peace. In case of concussion, it is forbidden to watch TV, read, use a phone, tablet, or computer.

Long communication is not recommended.Don’t turn on bright lights. The lighting should not be harsh; it is better to close the curtains during the day. Eliminate worries, stresses from the patient’s life. Folk advice For the treatment of concussion, you can use: Infusion of thyme. The semi-shrub is harvested in the summer. From its leaves you can get active substances, mineral salts, essential oil.

Ursular, caffeic acid has a beneficial effect on brain cells. Thyme helps to reduce fever and fight cramps. You can also use thyme honey.The herb tincture is effective when combined with blueberries. The plant is brewed and taken one gram before meals. Walnut. It has a lot of unsaturated fat, which helps with cardiovascular problems.

Vitamin E in its composition, resists oxidative processes. Walnuts will lower the blood pressure that occurs with a concussion.

Argenin will reduce the risk of blood clots. All nuts contain the required amount of calcium.Potassium is good for calming the nervous system. The complex of biologically active substances will improve brain function, accelerate cell renewal.

Periwinkle is popular due to the presence of alkaloids in it. They are actively used in medicines. Tincture of periwinkle is used to treat brain disorders. Due to the fact that the plant is poisonous, consult a doctor before use. It is not recommended to drink it if you have heart disease. For a simple decoction, take a tablespoon of periwinkle and pour a glass of boiling water over it.The broth must be infused for 30 minutes and filtered. Serotonin will also support the nervous system, it will calm the patient, reduce mood swings.

Sea buckthorn oil has bactericidal properties. If the patient has open wounds, the remedy will heal the mucous membrane, soothe itching, headache.

Sea buckthorn can be eaten raw, drunk juice, made from leaves. Well, the brain cells will be affected by taking a mixture of sea buckthorn, hawthorn, honey. Propolis tincture. Propolis accelerates tissue regeneration, restores damaged cells.Homemade tinctures will help to avoid infection, inflammation. The complex of minerals will relieve fatigue, remove toxic substances from the body. For quick preparation of the tincture, you need to pour the propolis with alcohol or vodka, infusing the mixture for 14 days in a dark place.

Concussion and its treatment with folk remedies

When there is a collision between the head and a solid object, the brain also suffers damage, striking the walls of the skull from the inside.As a result of such an injury, soft tissue edema occurs, a violation of most of the basic functions of the organ and a deterioration in blood circulation. The combination of these problems is characterized as a concussion – treatment at home for this pathology is possible, but only after a thorough examination and with the permission of a doctor. Regardless of the force of the blow and the severity of the symptoms of brain damage, it is necessary to immediately call a team of specialists and take the following measures:

Concussion – home treatment

Mild concussion is a traumatic brain injury in which there are short-term changes in the functioning of this organ.The pathological condition occurs as a result of blows and bruises. The initial symptoms are almost invisible, but a mild concussion can later lead to severe consequences in the form of headaches or Parkinson’s disease. Timely, correct assistance and accurate fulfillment of doctor’s prescriptions will avoid unnecessary complications. Closed light craniocerebral trauma TBI is a concussion of the brain lat.

Concussion treatment at home

A concussion is a small dysfunction of the brain as a result of trauma.In such cases, the brain hits the skull, which stretches the nerve cells. It is a common injury that does not harm basic bodily functions. The brain cells remain intact, but there is a temporary disruption of some processes. The bad condition is explained by: Children often face this diagnosis. If you have a concussion, home treatment is only possible if the disease is identified in advance. The main signs include loss of consciousness.

A concussion is not the worst head injury, but the consequences are nasty: several weeks of nausea, dizziness and irritability.And this is still good, because a more serious problem can be disguised as a concussion.

Concussion Rehabilitation Program; vascular dementia – treatment: on our website

Consent to the processing of personal data. As a result of contact of the substance of the brain with the bones of the skull, as a rule, occurs: Photo: shutterstock.Concussion symptoms Photo: shutterstock.

A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury. It can be caused by a bruise, bump, fall, or any other head injury that causes the head and brain to jerk back and forth.


90,000 Concussion – first aid and home treatment

Any circumstances in which the brain is in danger, even the most stupid ones, can have many unfortunate consequences.Some types of injury, such as concussion, are not fatal and pose no threat to the body. However, with the slightest damage to the brain, there is a high probability of losing some of the thinking abilities and even memory. If at the same time a person is engaged in scientific activity or other mental work, then at first after the injury he will have a hard time.

There are cases when even a seemingly mild injury can put an end to your career. Therefore, one should not be frivolous about the therapy of even minor injuries and bruises of the brain.This article summarizes what to do with a concussion at home, its symptoms and treatment.

Our brain – the control center of the body – is placed in a liquid called cerebrospinal fluid. This liquid acts as a shock absorber and protects against light shudders. In addition, this organ is surrounded by a hard skull. The fluid is located between the inner lamina of the cranial bone and the brain.

Concussion is the movement of this organ, which consists in its contact with one wall of the skull and repeated inertial impact on the other wall.In this way, the brain is injured by its own protective shell both times. In addition, there is damage when the brain does not touch the walls of the skull, but rotates around its axis inside.

The danger lies in the fact that even with a slight impact, and even more so when the brain is turned, neurons are damaged. Axons, the main constituent of white matter, are the so-called “myelin wires”, which carry the function of transmitting brain signals.

A concussion may damage some of the axons (in most cases they break).If the axon is damaged, it releases a toxic substance that kills the neuron.

The death of a neuron is an irreversible process. If most of the neurons die in a certain place, then we can talk about the death of a part of the brain.

Such damage has serious consequences. They can be expressed in hearing loss, the ability to speak, perceive and analyze information, as well as loss of memory; it all depends on which part of the brain is damaged.

In most cases, a concussion is a minor injury that heals without consequences.However, its outcome should not be neglected.

Concussion can be obtained by hitting with a heavy blunt object; if you fall, if you bump your head against a wall or floor; with a sharp turn of the neck down, up, or from side to side; in case of car accidents and other accidents.

Severity of concussion

There are three degrees of severity of concussion, symptoms:

  • Mild concussion. The organ is almost intact, the trauma is imperceptible, there are no injuries or bleeding.The person is in a satisfactory condition, a second fainting is possible. Headache after concussion is not expressed, there is no loss of oneself in space, aphasia. Speech is coherent and clear, there may be slight dizziness and single vomiting. Blurred eyes, buzz in the ears are also possible.
  • Medium. The patient feels unwell for more than half an hour. Possible short-term loss of consciousness (up to fifteen minutes). There is a pronounced disorientation in space, profuse vomiting, dizziness.A person cannot clearly and clearly answer questions, there is no ability to concentrate attention. A severe headache and a feeling of dimness of consciousness are not excluded.
  • Severe concussion. It is accompanied by prolonged loss of consciousness. When the victim comes to his senses, he cannot remember for a long time what happened to him. Consciousness is clouded, there is no ability to concentrate, the person is completely disoriented. Nausea and vomiting may occur. The patient has pronounced dizziness and headache.Head bruises are also possible.

What is the danger?

Statistics show that concussion is a fairly common injury, even at home, not to mention tourism, boxing or cycling. A significant part of such injuries ends well and is not accompanied by neurological and other complications, however, if a person has a weakened immune system, there are lingering illnesses, in 3 out of a hundred cases a concussion leads to disability. The procedure for treating concussions is described below.

The most dangerous concussion occurs in babies. Children acquire all skills and experience due to the increase in the number of neurons. If a trouble happened to the child, and part of the brain was bruised, then he may lose the ability to memorize information well, learn and develop. For an adult, this is not so critical, since he has already acquired all the necessary skills and knowledge, unlike a child.

In young children, the brain is tiny and soft. Concussion in newborns is not uncommon.Rocking your child before bed or throwing him up can cause him serious brain injury, which will entail negative consequences.

Both adults and children should see a doctor immediately after a blow or sudden head movement that causes pain. The biggest risk is the development of a hematoma, which will compress the brain and the person may die. A hematoma develops as a result of intracranial bleeding, the period of its growth can last up to one or two days.

The highest risk of developing hematoma is in older people who take blood thinning pills. However, children and adults are also no exception. Removal of the accumulation of blood is carried out only surgically in an emergency mode. That is why, after a concussion, you should immediately consult a doctor without fail.


Unfortunately, treatment of a concussion is not possible, because it is not a disease, but an injury.You can only eliminate its consequences and prevent the development of complications.

After a concussion, all we can do for a patient is to alleviate his condition and examine him to exclude serious injuries.

First aid for concussion is necessary to prevent serious consequences. First you need to call an ambulance. Next, you should find out if the person is conscious. If not, then you need to put him on his right side, tilt his head back and turn face down.

In order to fix this position, it is recommended to bend the arm and leg so that the whole body rests on them. This position will allow vomit to escape freely (which is not uncommon with concussions), and also prevents the tongue from blocking the airway.

If a person is conscious, he must be reassured and persuaded to lie still. Often, in stressful situations, people develop a panic mood, which can do more harm than an acquired trauma.

Only after hospitalization, monitoring and instrumental research is a physician able to draw a correct conclusion. If the concussion is minor, then the victim is transferred to a semi-hospital, and further treatment of the concussion at home is possible. In other cases, the patient should not leave the hospital earlier than seventeen to twenty days, until an absolute cure.

Necessary Conditions for Recovery

How to treat a concussion at home?

Treatment of a minor concussion at home is possible if the patient meets a number of conditions.


  • Work or play on the computer.
  • Watch TV.
  • Write SMS and speak on a mobile phone.
  • Learn.
  • Talk for long periods of time and listen to the conversations of others.
  • Violate any of the above points, even if you really want to.
  • Close all windows to avoid bright light entering the patient’s room.
  • Avoid noise and harsh sounds.
  • Maintain bed rest.
  • Drink all medicines prescribed by your doctor.
  • Don’t let your brain strain.
  • Eat right. The diet should include foods that are rich in proteins, trace elements and vitamins.
  • Observe the daily regimen.
  • Sedatives and sleeping pills (only as prescribed by a doctor!).
  • Vascular preparations and nootropics.
  • Decoctions of soothing herbs.A collection is possible, for example: a decoction of a mixture of lemon balm, motherwort and mint. Before taking any infusion, you should consult your doctor.
  • Painkillers. Concussion headaches are highly discouraged.
  • Vitamin and mineral complexes.

Depending on the patient’s condition, the doctor prescribes other medications (tonic, anti-sclerotic, etc.). In general, home treatment lasts from one to five weeks.

In the first week, bed rest is mandatory. This regime is tiring, most often it is difficult for the patient to lie down for days and do nothing, but this is the most necessary and effective stage of therapy. Treatment for concussion is the most difficult for children.

Massage and physiotherapy are prescribed after two to three weeks of drug treatment.

How to protect yourself from concussion

When playing sports or other vigorous activities, it is almost impossible to protect yourself from closed brain injuries using helmets and other protective elements.

Injuries happen even without a blow, but simply as a result of a strong jerk.

Concussions in some cases have a significant inhibitory effect on mental abilities and memory.

People who are engaged in scientific activities or want to become highly qualified specialists in any field are not recommended to participate in martial arts, to get involved in boxing or hockey, i.e. engage in sports where it is easy to injure the head.

It is much easier to get injured the second time than the first, so you should be careful about your health and not put yourself at risk again.

Now you know, in case of a concussion, what can and cannot be done, and, most importantly, how to carry out the treatment. If the post helped you figure it out, give it 5 stars!

90,000 symptoms, first aid and home treatment, trauma consequences

Brain trauma is not always easy to notice, let alone cure in a domestic environment. Their symptoms may not be obvious to a non-medical person, and even a doctor can sometimes miss some of the signs of a concussion.

Meanwhile, such injuries occur quite often, including in children – during outdoor games, sports, fights. Adults are equally often involved in traumatic situations and receive concussions. In this case, it is important to be able to notice the signs of injury in time and adequately assess their danger.


Concussion is a brain injury in which there is no damage to the structures of the nervous tissue, but there are functional disorders.All of them are reversible, that is, they can pass over time.

Concussion can be sustained by hitting your head on a hard object or falling from a small height (for example, your own height). There is also a possibility of concussion in the event of a strong blow to the face, especially in the upper jaw area.

Signs to recognize a concussion:

  • Headache that persists for several hours after injury;
  • The state of stunning immediately after the injury – for a while, a person ceases to navigate in space, may respond with a delay to speech addressed to him.This symptom disappears within a few minutes after the injury, rarely lasts more than half an hour.
  • Confusion of consciousness and memory impairment. These symptoms also do not last long.

With a concussion, several types of amnesia can occur, and usually only one of them is present, less often two or all three at once:

  1. Retrograde amnesia . The most common type of concussion. The patient cannot remember the events immediately preceding the injury.For this reason, eyewitnesses have to describe the circumstances of the injury in the emergency room.
  2. Anterograde – for several hours, and sometimes even days, the patient is not able to memorize large amounts of new information. Over time, memory is restored.
  3. Kongradnaya . The patient does not remember the very moment of the injury. Sometimes this leads to the patient denying that he received a concussion because he does not remember it.
  • Short-term loss of consciousness. A more rare symptom, but considered one of the characteristic ones. Fainting lasts from several seconds to several minutes, after which consciousness recovers on its own.

Some experts draw the line between loss of consciousness with concussion and with more severe brain damage according to the criterion of six hours.

If the patient was unconscious for less than this time, the prognosis is favorable, if more is a sign of more than severe lesions , the prognosis is dangerous.The expediency of such a division is questionable, because with severe brain damage, time can be a decisive factor.

  • Visual impairment. They last several hours, sometimes several days after the injury. The patient may complain of blurred vision, double vision, “sparks”, “stars”, and other optical illusions. Temporary squint may occur, especially while reading.
  • Nausea and vomiting. Occur an hour and a half after injury, intensify if the patient continues to be active.Vomiting is usually single. Loss of appetite and even temporary aversion to the sight and smell of food may also occur.
  • Weakness, dizziness, drowsiness. If the patient wants to sleep uncontrollably, then this can be an alarming sign, because such symptoms are observed not only with concussion, but also with more severe brain injuries. In this case, a doctor should make a diagnosis.
  • Emotional disorders. This is a common symptom in children; adults suffer from it in a less pronounced form.It can be manifested by sudden mood swings, irascibility, tearfulness, in children – whims, tears and disobedience.
  • Epistaxis. This is rare, but can occur if intracranial pressure has increased as a result of the injury.

In this case, it is important to pay attention to the accompanying symptoms – if not only blood flows from the nose, but also a transparent yellowish liquid (nasal liquorrhea), or dark circles appear around (a symptom of glasses) – this is a sign of a fractured skull bones, and you need to as soon as possible call the ambulance brigade.

This list of symptoms is rather rough, but it allows you to highlight what is important to pay attention to. Not every blow to the head can result in a concussion or more serious injury, but such a possibility cannot be ruled out.

Also read on our website an article on a similar topic about closed craniocerebral trauma and concussion.

Aid for concussion

The main condition for the patient’s recovery is physical and psychological peace after trauma:

  • The patient should, if possible, be taken away from the injury site, , placed on a bed or other flat surface.
  • Bright lights and loud noises are undesirable near the patient, this can provoke a headache attack.
  • In the next few hours after the injury, the patient should not engage in physical labor, visual stress (reading, working at the computer) is also contraindicated.
  • If the patient does not want to eat or is disgusted with the sight and smell of food , then it is worth waiting with the meal.
  • Drinking is allowed in unlimited quantities , from drinks fruit juices, milk, still water are allowed.Tea is allowed only if it is not strong.
  • Alcohol, coffee and energy drinks are strictly prohibited.
  • If the patient wants to sleep , it is worth giving him that opportunity.
  • If he is able to maintain a conversation, then it is necessary to talk to him, and it is always important to monitor his condition, and if it worsens, call a doctor immediately. It is possible to take the patient to the emergency room, but it is not desirable – concussion can contribute to motion sickness.

Home treatment

It is not recommended to treat concussion solely at home, as there is a risk of overlooking more serious injuries. Even if the concussion was not accompanied by loss of consciousness, it is better to take the patient to the hospital or call a doctor, since only a doctor can prescribe adequate treatment.

Earlier we wrote about how long a concussion goes through.

But if for some reason there is no way to get qualified medical care, then you have to treat such an injury at home.

In this case, the main principles of treatment:

  • Rest, healthy sleep, good food and symptomatic therapy.
  • Rest means that the patient should not engage in physical labor for at least a week after the injury , preferably more time to sleep.
  • Increasing the load is possible only gradually and only with good health, otherwise it will only aggravate the patient’s condition.
  • Food should not contain strong-smelling components, you should observe the measure in seasonings.
  • Experiences and violent manifestations of emotions are undesirable for the patient, so you need to protect him from this.

Medicines and preparations

Medical treatment of concussion is mainly symptomatic, it improves the patient’s well-being and accelerates the recovery of damaged brain functions:

  1. pain relievers for headache relief are selected based on which is most effective for the patient.The dosage should be prescribed by a doctor.
  2. For the treatment of insomnia and emotional disorders sedatives and mild hypnotics are used. The choice of the drug is on the same principle as for painkillers.
  3. For a more complete and effective restoration of brain activity, nootropic drugs, angioprotectors and other drugs that improve cerebral blood flow are prescribed.
  4. As a general strengthening treatment – vitamin complexes.
  5. According to indications, other drugs can also be prescribed – tonic herbal preparations, acetylsalicylic acid to improve the rheological properties of blood.

Mild concussion: treatment

A concussion that was not accompanied by loss of consciousness is considered a lung. Nevertheless, even with such the most innocuous of craniocerebral trauma, it is advisable to take the patient to the hospital.

The doctor recommends hospitalization and prescribes bed rest for the next two days – this is necessary to prevent deterioration of the condition and in order to be able to monitor the patient’s condition.If there are no alarming symptoms, then the regimen can be extended to a ward, and after five days the patient can be discharged for outpatient treatment.


With timely treatment, the prognosis for concussion is favorable. Functional disorders are transient and disappear over time.