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What to do for a concussion at home: Concussion – Symptoms and causes

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Concussion – Care at Mayo Clinic

Concussion care at Mayo Clinic

Your Mayo Clinic care team

Mayo Clinic doctors are experienced in evaluating and treating people who’ve had traumatic brain injuries, including concussions. Mayo Clinic doctors trained in neurology, physical medicine and rehabilitation (physiatry), and psychiatry and psychology will work with you and your family to develop your treatment plan if you’ve had a concussion. Mayo Clinic experts evaluate and treat more than 1,600 people with concussion each year.

Advanced diagnosis and treatment

The experts at Mayo Clinic use advanced technology and detailed imaging tests to determine the cause of your symptoms and diagnose concussion. They can work with you to determine the most appropriate treatment to speed your recovery and reduce your symptoms, and advise you on how to best recover from your concussion to prevent further injury.

Expertise and rankings

Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., and Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., rank among the Best Hospitals for neurology and neurosurgery in the U.S. News & World Report Best Hospitals rankings. Mayo Clinic in Phoenix/Scottsdale, Ariz., is ranked high-performing for neurology and neurosurgery by U.S. News & World Report.

Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., is ranked among the Best Hospitals for rehabilitation by U.S. News & World Report.

Learn more about Mayo Clinic’s neurology department’s expertise and rankings.

Locations, travel and lodging

Mayo Clinic has major campuses in Phoenix and Scottsdale, Arizona; Jacksonville, Florida; and Rochester, Minnesota. The Mayo Clinic Health System has dozens of locations in several states.

For more information on visiting Mayo Clinic, choose your location below:

Costs and insurance

Mayo Clinic works with hundreds of insurance companies and is an in-network provider for millions of people.

In most cases, Mayo Clinic doesn’t require a physician referral. Some insurers require referrals, or may have additional requirements for certain medical care. All appointments are prioritized on the basis of medical need.

Learn more about appointments at Mayo Clinic.

Please contact your insurance company to verify medical coverage and to obtain any needed authorization prior to your visit. Often, your insurer’s customer service number is printed on the back of your insurance card.

More information about billing and insurance:

Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Florida and Minnesota

Mayo Clinic Health System


Feb. 22, 2020

Concussions (for Parents) – Nemours KidsHealth

What Is a Concussion?

A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury (or mild TBI). It happens when a blow to the head or an injury makes the head move back and forth with a lot of force. This causes chemical changes in the brain and sometimes damage to the brain cells. 

Kids and teens who follow their health care provider’s recommendations usually feel better within a few weeks of the concussion.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of a Concussion?

Someone with a concussion might be knocked out (this is called a loss of consciousness). But a person doesn’t have to get knocked out to have a concussion.

Signs and symptoms of a concussion include:

  • headache
  • blurred or double vision
  • dizziness, balance problems, or trouble walking
  • confusion and saying things that don’t make sense
  • being slow to answer questions
  • slurred speech
  • nausea or vomiting
  • not remembering what happened
  • not feeling well

Symptoms of a concussion usually happen right away, but can show up hours or days after an injury. A teen with a concussion may:

  • have trouble focusing
  • have learning or memory problems
  • have a headache that gets worse
  • have sleep problems
  • feel sad, easily upset or angered, or nervous 

If your child has been diagnosed with a concussion, call your health care provider or go to the ER if your child:

  • has a severe headache or one that gets worse
  • has a seizure
  • passes out
  • has other symptoms (such as continued vomiting) that worry you

These could be signs of a serious concussion, and your child might need treatment in a hospital.

What Happens in a Concussion?

The skull helps protect the brain from injury. Spinal fluid cushions the brain inside the skull. A blow or jolt to the head can hurt the brain directly or make the brain move around and bang up against the hard bone of the skull. This changes the signals between nerves, which causes concussion symptoms.

How Do Kids and Teens Get Concussions?

Most concussions in kids and teens happen while playing sports. The risk is highest for kids who play football, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, and field hockey.

Concussions also can happen from:

  • car or bicycle accidents
  • a fight
  • a fall

How Are Concussions Diagnosed?

To diagnose a concussion, the health care provider will:

  • ask about how and when the head injury happened
  • ask about symptoms
  • test memory and concentration
  • do a physical exam and test balance, coordination, and reflexes

If a head injury happens while someone is playing sports, a coach or athletic trainer may do sideline concussion testing. This is when a trained person does a few simple tests after a head injury to help decide if the athlete needs immediate medical care. An athlete who has a head injury must stop playing and see a doctor before returning to play.

Many schools or sports leagues use baseline concussion tests. Baseline testing uses computer programs to test a player’s normal brain function. It checks attention, memory, and speed of thinking. Doctors compare testing after an injury with baseline results to see how someone is recovering.

Concussions do not show up on a CAT scan or MRI. So, the doctor may not order a brain scan for a mild concussion. A CAT scan or MRI might be done to look for other problems if someone:

  • was knocked out
  • keeps vomiting
  • has a severe headache or a headache that gets worse
  • was injured in serious accident, such as from a car accident or very high fall

How Are Mild Concussions Treated?

Each person with a concussion heals at their own pace. It’s important to find a balance between doing too much and too little.

At first, your child needs to cut back on physical activities and those that require a lot of concentration. Then, he or she can start trying these activities again. Symptoms don’t have to be completely gone for your child to add activities. But if symptoms interfere with an activity, your child should take a break from it. He or she can try it again after a few minutes or longer, or try a less strenuous version of the activity.

Help your child follow these steps:

Rest (for 1–2 days after the concussion)
  • Have your child relax at home. Calm activities such as talking to family and friends, reading, drawing, coloring, or playing a quiet game are OK. If symptoms interfere with an activity, your child should take a break from it. He or she can try it again after a few minutes or longer, or try a less strenuous version of the activity.
  • Your child should avoid or cut down on screen time. Video games, texting, watching TV, and using social media are likely to cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Don’t let your teen drive.
  • Be sure your child avoids all sports and any activities (such as roughhousing with friends, or riding a bike or skateboard) that could lead to another head injury. 
  • Help your child get plenty of sleep. He or she should:
    • Keep regular sleep and wake times.
    • Avoid screen time or listening to loud music before bed.
    • Avoid caffeine.
    • Nap during the day, as needed.
  • For the first few days after the injury, if your child has a headache and your health care provider says it’s OK, your child can take acetaminophen (Tylenol® or a store brand) or ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®, or a store brand).
Light Activity (usually within a few days to a week after the concussion)
  • Your child can slowly try more activities, such as going for a walk or watching TV. If symptoms interfere with an activity, your child should take a break from it. He or she can try it again after a few minutes or longer, or try a less strenuous version of the activity.
  • After a few days, your child should feel well enough to return to school. Work with your health care provider and a school team to create a plan for returning to school. Your child may need to start with a shorter day or a lighter workload. If your child is not back in school by 5 days after the concussion, call your health care provider.
  • If your teen drives, ask your health care provider when your teen can start to drive again.
  • Be sure your child continues to avoid all sports and any activities that could lead to another head injury.
  • Make sure your child continues to get plenty of sleep each night. If your child doesn’t feel tired during the day, he or she doesn’t need to nap.
  • If your child still needs medicine for headaches, talk to your health care provider.
Moderate Activity (usually about a week after the concussion)
  • If symptoms are nearly gone, your child can go back to most activities, including regular schedules for school and work.
  • Be sure your child continues to avoid all sports and any activities that could lead to another head injury.
  • If symptoms interfere with an activity, your child should take a break from it. He or she can try it again after a few minutes or longer, or try a less strenuous version of the activity.
Regular Activity (a month or more after the concussion)
  • If all concussion symptoms are gone, your child can go back to all activities, except sports.
  • For sports, your health care provider will work with your child’s coach and athletic trainer (if available) to create a clear, written plan for a gradual return to play. Don’t let your child go back to playing sports until your health care provider says it’s OK.

When Can Teens Go Back to Sports After a Concussion?

Student athletes must wait until their health care provider says it’s safe before returning to sports. This means that they:

  • have had a physical exam
  • are back in school
  • have no symptoms
  • aren’t taking any medicines for concussion symptoms
  • are back to their baseline results on physical and cognitive testing

Hurrying back to sports and other physical activities puts teens at risk for second-impact syndrome. This is when someone gets another head injury before the concussion has healed. Although very rare, second-impact syndrome can cause lasting brain damage and even death. Almost every state has rules about when teens with concussions can start playing sports again.

Looking Ahead

People are much more likely to get a concussion if they’ve had one before. So preventing concussions is very important after a head injury. To prevent another concussion:

  • Be sure that any teams your child is on has rules to reduce the risk of concussions, such as limits on tackling (football) or heading the ball (soccer).
  • Be sure your child wears a helmet for skiing, snowboarding, biking, riding a scooter, skateboarding, or rollerblading. A concussion can still happen while wearing a helmet, but the helmet can protect your child from a skull fracture and serious brain injury.
  • Kids who get another head injury should never ignore symptoms or try to “tough it out.” They need to stop the sport or activity they are doing and get medical care right away.

Concussion Treatment and Recovery | Michigan Medicine

Recovery from concussion is a complex and dynamic process. During recovery it is critical to identify the factors responsible for symptoms and to develop a treatment plan targeting them. If recovery is not properly managed it can lead to unnecessarily prolonged recovery. Management of recovery should be individualized and directed by a health care provider with expertise in concussion care and who has ready access to treatment resources. 

Please note that reading information about concussion, including this web page or others, is not a substitute for appropriate care. A specialist should direct care for recovery from concussion.

Three Phases of Concussion Recovery

There are three phases of concussion recovery:

  1. Acute symptomatic phase
  2. Recovery phase
  3. Recovered phase

The time spent in each phase is influenced by many factors and has individual variation.

Phase 1: Acute Symptomatic Phase

The acute symptomatic phase is defined as the time from injury, through maximum symptoms, to the beginning of when the symptoms resolve. Typically, this phase lasts less than three days. If you experience any of the following “Red Flag Symptoms during this phase,” you should go to the emergency room:

  • Loss of consciousness for more than one minute
  • Increasing confusion or inability to stay awake
  • Repetitive vomiting
  • Seizure or convulsion
  • Severe or increasing headache
  • Severe neck pain
  • Weakness, tingling, or burning in arms or legs
  • Persistent double vision or loss of vision
  • Increasingly restless, agitated, or combative

In the first one to two days after suffering a concussion, near complete rest is important.

Even though symptoms during the acute symptomatic phase may be quite limiting, returning to light thinking and physical activities should start after the first couple of days. 

Examples of light thinking activity include:

  • Watching TV
  • Pleasure reading (if tolerated)
  • Listening to music 
  • Short periods of schoolwork

Examples of light physical activity include:

  • Light chores around home 
  • Short walks

During the acute symptomatic phase, it is typical that thinking and physical activity can make symptoms worse. Exposure to bright lights, loud sounds, and movement may also worsen symptoms. During the acute symptomatic phase, any activity that worsens symptoms should be avoided or limited. See Electronic Devices and Screen Time During Concussion Recovery (below) for information about screen time during recovery.

Management During the Acute Symptomatic Phase

During the first 24 hours you should avoid medications that can increase risk of bleeding. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil), and naproxen sodium (Naprosyn, Aleve). During the first 24 hours acetaminophen (Tylenol) can be used for pain relief. After the first 24 hours, ibuprofen (Advil) and naproxen sodium (Naprosyn, Aleve) are generally more effective for pain relief, and are safe. In some patients, nausea and vomiting can be bothersome, and prescription medications can help.

Restful sleep is important in all stages of recovery from concussion. If getting to sleep or staying asleep is difficult, discuss this with your doctor for further recommendations. Sleep behavior techniques may be helpful as is the use of certain medications.

Throughout concussion recovery you should be sure to stay hydrated (60-80 ounces of water or non-caffeinated beverages per day), and eat normally.

Phase 2: Recovery

The recovery phase is characterized by:

  • Lessening symptoms
  • Ability to perform more intense thinking and physical activities without symptoms getting worse
  • Gradual return to your preinjury state

During this phase it is common that symptoms will worsen with more thinking and physical activity. 

Gradual Return to Thinking and Physical Activity

After a 1-2 day period of rest, gradually increasing thinking and physical activity should be encouraged. During the recovery phase, symptoms should gradually improve to the point where you are symptom-free at rest, first with thinking activities, and then with physical exertion.

The amount of thinking and physical activity that is tolerated during recovery from concussion is dynamic and based on symptoms. Until recently, the recommendation had been to rest until symptom-free. New studies, including one performed at Michigan NeuroSport, suggest that limited exercise during the recovery phase allows for quicker recovery from concussion. 

Return to physical activity and exercise should be gradual and determined by your doctor. 

Examples of cardiovascular exercises that are started during this phase include use of a stationary bike or walking. Again, the specifics of the activity should be determined and guided by your doctor. Exercises that require bearing down, such as situps, pushups, pullups and weight lifting, should be avoided at first unless directed by your doctor, as they typically worsen symptoms.

Determining what type and how much activity is part of an individualized care plan that should be provided by your clinic. Accommodations may be needed during the transition to full-time school and work (see below).


Academic Accommodations Following Concussion

  • Notify school of concussion
  • Develop plan for gradual return-to-school demands
  • Provide waiver of missed assignments or exams
  • Plan to assist/support completion of missing assignments
  • Provide rest time/breaks during school day
  • Consider exemption from upcoming standardized tests
  • Excuse activities requiring rigorous physical activity
  • Reduce homework assignments
  • Reschedule, coordinate or pace exams during times when the student is asymptomatic
  • Negotiate timing of large assignments
  • Assign a counselor
  • Preferential seating for nose reduction and teaching monitoring
  • Allow test-taking in a distraction-free environment
  • Allow extended time for exams and assignments
  • Using dedicated notetaker

Adapted from O’Neil JA, Cox MK, Clay OJ, et al. A review of the literature on pediatric concussions and return-to-learn (RTL): Implications for RTL policy, research, and practice. Rehabilitation Psychology: 2017;62(3):300-323


Management During the Recovery Phase

During the recovery phase factors that are causing symptoms should be sought and treatment plans put in place for their resolution. Common treatable causes of concussion-like symptoms include; neck injury, dizziness, lightheadedness, vision problems, difficulty with sleep, and new or worsening mood symptoms.  Continued follow up at a clinic with expertise in management of concussion during the recovery phase allows for an individualized recovery plan including, a prescription for exercise and referrals to optimize recovery.

During the symptomatic/recovery phase use of medications may still be necessary. Consistent scheduled medications used to treat headache should be discouraged, and reserved for severe headaches that limit activities. Consistent, prolonged use of medications to treat headache may result in medication overuse or rebound headache.

Medications for nausea may also be considered, if nausea is severe. During this phase nausea should significantly improve, and if it doesn’t, alternative explanations for it should be sought.

For sport-related concussion recovery, visit our Concussion in Athletes page.

Normal and Prolonged Concussion Recovery

Recovery is influenced by several important factors (see “Symptoms Associated With” list below), but age appears to be particularly important. Normal recovery for those younger than 18 is considered 30 days, and for those older than 18 is considered 14 days. A goal of recovery management it to avoid prolonged recovery, but 10-30% of those experiencing concussion can experience prolonged recovery.

The dynamic nature of concussion recovery requires follow-up with tailored management during each phase of concussion. Key milestones in the recovery process are return to learn, school, work, exercise, and sport. Each of these milestones is approached gradually from symptom-limited activity to full participation.


Symptoms Associated With (or Not Associated With) Prolonged Concussion Recovery

Factors associated with prolonged recovery:

  • Initial symptom burden
  • Female gender
  • Age less than 18, with ages approximately 13-17 being at highest risk for prolonged recovery
  • History of mental health issues
  • Concurrent cervical involvement
  • Convergence insufficiency

Factors not consistently assocated with prolonged recovery:

  • History of migraine
  • History of a neurobehavioral or attention disorder, i.e. ADHD or ADD
  • Loss of consciousness

Adapted from Iverson GL, Gardner, AJ, Terry DP, et al. Predictors of clinical recovery from concussion: a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2017;51(12):941.


About Michigan Neurosport

The University of Michigan is one of only a handful of comprehensive programs in the country dedicated to the neurological concerns of athletes of all levels through our multidisciplinary NeuroSport outpatient clinic. Visit our Concussion in Athletes page or NeuroSport page for more information.

Patient Resources

Make an Appointment

To request an appointment or to get more information, please call 734-930-7400 and a team member will get back to you within two business days.


Electronic Devices and Screen Time During Concussion Recovery

It is important not to completely avoid use of electronic devices or exposure to screens unnecessarily. Restriction from email and social media can lead to social isolation and worsening of concussion-like symptoms. Use of electronic devices and social media during concussion recovery may be practiced as long as they do not make symptoms significantly worse. Computers, phones, TVs and social media can help avoid the complications of boredom and social isolation as well as their potential harmful consequences. Electronics use should be reasonably limited based on symptom worsening.

 

 

Neurology | What to Expect After a Concussion

A concussion may be caused by a blow, bump or jolt to the head, or by any fall or hit that jars the brain. This invisible injury disrupts the way the brain works by decreasing mental stamina, as the brain must work longer and harder even to complete simple tasks. Concussions may involve loss of consciousness, but in the majority of concussions, loss of consciousness does not occur. 

It is important to know the signs and symptoms of a concussion.

Concussion danger signs

In rare cases, a dangerous blood clot may form on the brain in a person with a concussion and crowd the brain against the skull. A patient should be seen in an emergency department right away if symptoms worsen and / or if the patient has: one pupil larger than the other, worsening headaches, seizures, neck pain, unusual behavior change, increased drowsiness, repeated vomiting, slurred speech, problems recognizing people or places, increased confusion, weakness or numbness in arms or legs, or if the patient can’t be awakened or is less responsive than usual.

Concussion recovery and treatment

Approximately 80 percent of concussions resolve over seven to 14 days, with an average of 10 days. People with concussions should never return to sports or other physical activity sooner than one week from sustaining the injury.

A concussed patient’s recovery has two and sometimes three phases depending on the severity of the concussion:

Acute phase is the initial period after sustaining a concussion in which the patient is still experiencing symptoms. This phase can last a week or more. During the acute phase, the concussed brain requires mental and physical rest to recover from the injury. Absence from school or half-day attendance may be recommended because academic work demands focus, memory, and concentration – all brain processes that are affected by a concussion. Decreasing the amount of activity in the brain through absence from school and schoolwork (and therefore achieving mental rest) will help decrease symptoms and begin the healing process.

People who have had a concussion should avoid texting, computer use, video games, television, driving, loud music and music through headphones because all of these activities make the brain work harder to process information and can exacerbate symptoms and slow the recovery process.

Additionally, people with concussions may not participate in any physical activity until cleared by a health care provider, including gym class, weightlifting and sports activities due to the risk of second impact syndrome. This potentially life-threatening event may result from a second, often minor, blow to the head suffered before recovery from the initial injury has occurred. Ultimately, the key to a speedy recovery is both physical and mental rest.

The patient may take pain medicine as prescribed, and use an icepack on the head and neck for comfort. They may also sleep or rest.

Recovery phase occurs once the patient feels physical improvement, such as headaches subsiding, and postconcussion neurocognitive test scores have improved. During this phase, the patient can gradually return to academic and athletic activity as directed by a health care provider. However, academic accommodations may be required during the recovery phase because the concussion may still affect thinking, attention, focus, memory, learning speed and mental processing.

Chronic phase occurs in some cases when the patient may experience more long-lasting (chronic) problems with cognitive function. This may require consideration of a 504 plan, home schooling or a medical leave of absence.

If unmanaged, these problems have the potential to significantly impact the patient’s life as a whole. Patients who are in the chronic phase of a concussion will be referred to one of our neuro rehab specialists who will treat the chronic symptoms.

No two concussions are exactly the same, so individualized treatment is necessary. Developing brains are highly variable, so the symptoms experienced by one person may be completely different from  another. Some patients will take longer to recover from a concussion for various reasons. Therefore, each concussion is managed on an individual basis.

Remember: Concussion affects people differently. While most people with a concussion recover quickly and fully, some will have symptoms that last for days or even weeks. A more serious concussion can last for months or longer. Do not compare your concussion symptoms and recovery to that of someone else or even to any previous concussions you may have sustained.

A Parent’s Guide to Concussions

We’re a national leader in the care and management of concussions.

Nationwide Children’s Hospital Sports Medicine wants you to be aware of concussions and how to keep your young athlete safe. Safety begins by educating yourself!

Concussion Identification:

What is a concussion?

A concussion may be caused by a blow, bump, or jolt to the head or by any fall or hit that jars the brain. This “invisible” injury disrupts the brain’s normal physiology which can affect mental stamina and function, causing the brain to work longer and harder to complete even simple tasks. A concussion may involve loss of consciousness (being “knocked out”), but the majority do not. Ultimately, ALL concussions are serious because they are brain injuries!

How do I tell if my child has sustained a concussion?

A concussion can affect a child in many different ways: physically, cognitively, emotionally, and by disturbing sleep. The table below indicates common symptoms for each category.

Common Concussion Symptoms

Physical Cognitive Emotional Sleep

Headache

Feeling mentally foggy

Irritability

Trouble falling asleep

Dizziness

Feeling slowed down

Sadness

Sleeping more than usual

Balance problems

Difficulty concentrating

Nervousness

Sleeping less than usual

Nausea/Vomiting

Difficulty remembering

More emotional than usual

Fatigue

Difficulty focusing

Sensitivity to light

Sensitivity to noise

While a blow to the head may not seem serious immediately, concussion symptoms can develop upon impact or up to 48 hours after the incident. Ignoring any signs or symptoms of a concussion is putting the child’s long- and short-term health at risk.

Underreporting of concussions: The importance of honesty.

Even though concussions are very serious and potentially life threatening to the young athlete, studies show that less than 50% of high school athletes will report their concussions. Even after being diagnosed, many athletes feel pressured to say they do not have symptoms when they still do. This is dangerous and should always be avoided. Almost all athletes who have died or suffered serious complications from repeated concussions did not report their continued concussion symptoms to their parents, athletic trainer, or doctor. Therefore, it is vitally important that parents, coaches, and athletes recognize the signs and symptoms of concussions and encourage honesty in reporting them.

Is it dangerous for my child to play sports with a concussion?

Yes, without question. Second impact syndrome is a catastrophic event that can occur when a second blow to the head happens before an athlete has completely recovered from a concussion. This second impact, which may be even a minor blow, causes brain swelling, resulting in severe consequences such as brain damage, paralysis, and even death. This condition occurs only in youth and adolescents up to age 21. Therefore, no child should be allowed to participate in any physical activity if he or she has sustained a possible concussion. In addition, no child should return to participation after sustaining a concussion before he or she is cleared by a qualified medical professional.

Concussion Management:

If my child sustains a concussion, what should I do?

First, the child should be monitored for worsening signs and symptoms in the 24 to 48 hours following the injury. If any of the following danger signs present themselves, the child should be evaluated by a physician immediately.

  • Severe or increased headache
  • Double vision
  • Unequal pupils
  • Convulsions
  • Unusual/increased drowsiness
  • Bleeding/clear fluid from the ear/nose
  • Projectile or repeated vomiting
  • Unusual stiffness in the neck area
  • Severe personality changes
  • Weakness in either arm(s) or leg(s)
  • Numbness in the face/extremities

Second, follow these recommendations:

  • Do not let the child perform any strenuous activity or go back to playing in sports.
  • Do not use aspirin or ibuprofen for headaches for the first 48 hours. Use acetaminophen (Tylenol) only.
  • Encourage your child to rest and eat a light diet.
  • Allow them to use ice packs on the head and/or neck to ease pain.
  • Let them sleep in a cool, dark, quiet room.

Third, arrange for your child to be evaluated by a medical professional qualified and educated in concussion evaluation and management, such as an athletic trainer or sports medicine physician. Knowledge about concussions is rapidly evolving. The previous severity scales, such as a grade 1 or grade 3 concussion are no longer used. Preventing your child from going to sleep or to wake him or her every hour after a concussion is also an outdated practice. Don’t be afraid to ask the healthcare provider if he or she is aware of the up-to-date concussion protocols.

Concussion Recovery:

Concussion recovery should be a collaborative approach

A concussion can affect school, work, and sports. Along with coaches and teachers, the child’s school nurse, athletic trainer, employer, and other school administrators, such as a guidance counselor, should be aware of the child’s injury and their roles in helping the child recover. Varying or mixed messages from any of these parties may cause the child unnecessary distress and confusion, so clear communication among the group is vital.

Why is mental rest important to recovery?

A concussion affects how the brain works, so resting the brain as much as possible is necessary for recovery. In this context, mental activities are defined as those in which the brain must work hard to process information. This includes critical thinking and problem solving activities such as schoolwork, homework, and technology use.

What can I do to help my child achieve mental rest?

Consider restricting or limiting the following activities as they can increase brain function, worsen symptoms & delay healing:

  • Computer work/Internet use
  • Video games
  • Television
  • Text messaging/cell phone use
  • Bright lights, such as strobe lights at school dances
  • Listening to loud music or music through headphones
  • Loud noises
  • Parties, concerts, pep rallies, etc.
  • Driving
  • Work

How do I know when my child is using his or her brain too much?

Continued activity when symptoms are moderate to severe can prevent the brain from healing. Therefore, the key to concussion recovery is to reduce mental activities until symptoms improve and then gradually begin increasing the length and difficulty of those activities as symptoms allow.

On days where the symptoms are severe (which often occur in the first few days after injury), it may be better to suspend any scheduled mental activities (i.e. school, work, homework, etc.) and have the child rest at home.

As symptoms improve, the child may begin to gradually resume simple school-related mental activities. As difficulty is increased, continue monitoring symptoms. Ask, “Do you have any symptoms? Are your symptoms getting worse since you started this activity?” If the child states symptoms are worsening, have him or her stop what they are doing and rest. If the symptoms resolve with rest in a short period of time (20 minutes or less), the child may be allowed
to resume the mental activity. If symptoms remain elevated, the child should discontinue the activity and rest and
re-attempt when symptoms have improved (such as the next day).

Note that there may be good days when symptoms are very mild and bad days when symptoms may be a little worse. This is a normal part of recovery. Sometimes there is a fine line between how much mental activity is okay and how much is too much. The key is to try to figure out where that line is to minimize symptoms as much as possible.

How is school affected by a concussion?

Schoolwork demands focus, memory, and concentration – all brain processes that are affected by a concussion. Academic accommodations, ranging from medically necessary absences to tutoring or extra time for test taking, may be necessary in some cases to decrease symptoms and begin the healing process.

Notify your child’s teachers that he or she has sustained a concussion and provide them with any written recommendations you were given during your visit to your healthcare professional. Nationwide Children’s Hospital Sports Medicine has a document specifically for teachers, called An Educator’s Guide to Concussions in the Classroom which highlights academic accommodations for students healing from concussion.

Why is physical rest important to recovery?

In the context of concussions, physical activity is any situation in which a child has an elevated heart rate. Such activities include, but are not limited to, sports, gym class, weight lifting, and active play. Due to the risk of Second Impact Syndrome and other complications, a child who has been diagnosed with a concussion should not return to any physical activity and/or athletics until cleared by a healthcare provider experienced in concussion evaluation and management. Physical rest is essential to keep the child safe and to enable the brain to heal.

When can a child who has sustained a concussion safely go back to participating in gym class and/or sports?

A child who has sustained a concussion should not return to physical activity until cleared by an appropriate healthcare provider. The child should be completely symptom free and participating in school fully. Once cleared, the child should participate in a gradual progression back to activity. Ideally, a certified athletic trainer should supervise the child during this timeframe. This gradual progression is critical because a return of any signs or symptoms of concussion during mild physical activity signals that the brain has not healed and the child is not ready to return to activity.

Graduated Return to Sport (RTS) Strategy

Stage

Aim

Activity

Goal of each stage

Stage 1

Symptom-limited activity

Daily activities that do not provoke symptoms.

Gradual reintroduction to work/school activities

Stage 2

Light aerobic activity

Walking or stationary bike at slow to medium pace. No resistance training.

Increase heart rate

Stage 3

Sport-specific exercise

Running or skating drills. No head impact activities.

Add movement

Stage 4

Non-contact training drills

Harder training drills, eg. passing drills. May start progressive resistive training.

Exercise, coordination and increased thinking

Stage 5

Full contact practice

Following medical clearance, participate in normal training activities.

Return confidence and assess functional skills by coaching staff

Stage 6

Return to sport

Normal game play.

How can I keep my child from getting a concussion?

There are a few things you can do to decrease your child’s chances of getting a concussion.

  • Ensure your child’s equipment fits properly and is checked and maintained regularly.
  • Encourage your child to follow the rules of your sport and practice good sportsmanship.
  • Encourage your child to listen to your coaches and practice good technique.

If recognized and treated properly, most children will recover fully from a single concussion. However, children who sustain multiple concussions during an early sports career tend to take longer to recover after each concussion and are more likely to experience prolonged post-concussion symptoms or cognitive impairment. Therefore, make sure your child is getting the best care and management possible for his or her concussion.

How can I share this resource with others?

Nationwide Children’s Hospital Sports Medicine provides an in-service on this topic free of charge. The length of the presentation and content can be tailored to fit the specific needs of the group. Please call (614) 355-6000 for more information.

What if I want to learn more?

We provide further educational resources, presentations, and print materials on concussion management and other sports-related injuries and fitness well-being. Visit www.NationwideChildrens.org/Sports-Medicine or call (614) 355-6000.

The concussion clinic at Nationwide Children’s Hospital utilizes the expertise of Pediatric Sports Medicine specialists and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation specialists, along with neurologists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, neuropsychologists, physical therapists, and athletic trainers to best manage pediatric concussions.

Nationwide Children’s Hospital Sports Medicine also offers baseline neurocognitive (concussion) testing to evaluate a healthy athlete’s decision making ability, reaction time, attention and memory.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides informational materials about concussions for athletes, parents, coaches, and teachers, including a free Heads Up! tool kit. Visit CDC.gov.

© Copyrighted by Nationwide Children’s Hospital.  All rights reserved.  Any use or reproduction of these materials without the express written consent of Nationwide Children’s Hospital is prohibited.




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Head injury and concussion – NHS

Most head injuries are not serious, but you should get medical help if you or your child have any symptoms after a head injury. You might have concussion (temporary brain injury) that can last a few weeks.

Urgent advice: Go to A&E if:

You or your child have had a head injury and have:

  • been knocked out but have now woken up
  • vomited (been sick) since the injury
  • a headache that does not go away with painkillers
  • a change in behaviour, like being more irritable or losing interest in things around you (especially in children under 5)
  • been crying more than usual (especially in babies and young children)
  • problems with memory
  • been drinking alcohol or taking drugs just before the injury
  • a blood clotting disorder (like haemophilia) or you take medicine to thin your blood
  • had brain surgery in the past

You or your child could have concussion. Symptoms usually start within 24 hours, but sometimes may not appear for up to 3 weeks.

You should also go to A&E if you think someone has been injured intentionally.

Help from NHS 111

If you’re not sure what to do, call 111 or get help from 111 online.

NHS 111 can tell you the right place to get help.

How to care for a minor head injury

If you have been sent home from hospital with a minor head injury, or you do not need to go to hospital, you can usually look after yourself or your child at home.

You might have symptoms of concussion, such as a slight headache or feeling sick or dazed, for up to 2 weeks.

Do

  • hold an ice pack (or a bag of frozen peas in a tea towel) to the area regularly for short periods in the first few days to bring down any swelling

  • rest and avoid stress – you or your child do not need to stay awake if you’re tired

  • take paracetamol or ibuprofen to relieve pain or a headache

  • make sure an adult stays with you or your child for at least the first 24 hours

Don’t

  • do not go back to work or school until you’re feeling better

  • do not drive until you feel you have fully recovered

  • do not play contact sports for at least 3 weeks – children should avoid rough play for a few days

  • do not take drugs or drink alcohol until you’re feeling better

  • do not take sleeping pills while you’re recovering unless a doctor advises you to

Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:

  • your or your child’s symptoms last more than 2 weeks
  • you’re not sure if it’s safe for you to drive or return to work, school or sports

Information:

Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: how to contact a GP

It’s still important to get help from a GP if you need it. To contact your GP surgery:

  • visit their website
  • use the NHS App
  • call them

Find out about using the NHS during COVID-19

Page last reviewed: 26 October 2021
Next review due: 26 October 2024

Concussion First Aid | What to Do for a Concussion

It can be easy to ignore a bump to the head. But even if a head injury seems minor, it’s important to follow the proper first aid steps.

Certain symptoms — including headache, dizziness, nausea and confusion — are clear signs you need medical attention. They’re signs of a concussion, and seeking treatment can help prevent serious complications.

Serious Warning Signs: What to Do

Act quickly after a hard blow to the head. Some symptoms can be signs of a serious brain injury. Call 911 right away for emergency help for any of these symptoms:

  • Loss of consciousness, even for a short time

  • The pupil of one eye being larger than the other

  • Blood or fluid leaking from the head, such as the nose

  • Seizures

  • Nausea or vomiting that persists

  • Severe headache

  • Feeling very sleepy

  • Mental symptoms such as confusion

  • Problems with balance or weak muscles

If possible, do not move a person who has these serious symptoms. He or she should lie very still until help arrives. If possible, keep the person’s head and shoulders slightly higher than the rest of the body. Do not remove any clothing or headgear, like a helmet.
Try to stop any bleeding. Put steady, firm pressure on the area, using a clean cloth. However, do not apply pressure to a bleeding head injury if you think there might be a skull fracture.

If the person isn’t breathing, moving or coughing, perform CPR. First call 911, or identify someone else to call.

Sometimes it’s not clear whether a head injury has resulted in a concussion. To be safe, assume it has. If the person was injured while playing a sport, he or she needs to leave the game right away and not return to play. A 911 call or a trip to an emergency room for testing and treatment for possible concussion is important any time someone has a head injury. This is especially the case if the person lost consciousness.

Be aware that concussion symptoms may not appear right away. In fact, it might take several hours or even days. A doctor should perform an exam without delay after a head injury. Your doctor will perform a physical as well as a neurological exam to identify changes in mental status and other signs of concussion. A thorough examination can help prevent serious consequences, such as bleeding in the brain. A doctor can also explain when it’s safe to work, go to school, drive or play sports again after a concussion or possible concussion.

What to Do for a Concussion

Rest is the main treatment for concussion, as it gives the brain time to heal. You probably won’t need any special medications. If you have headaches, take acetaminophen. Do not take aspirin, which can cause bleeding.

Also, avoid heavy exercise and any activity that requires concentration, such as readying, playing games, or studying. Your doctor will provide you a complete list of activity do’s and don’ts after a concussion.

The Bottom Line on Seeing a Doctor

If you, your child or a loved one has a head injury that’s more than a light bump, it’s always a good idea to get a checkup. Remember a concussion is a serious injury that needs medical attention. Only testing by a doctor can confirm or rule it out.

90,000 Concussion: how to recognize and what to do | Healthy life | Health

Concussion is a mild form of brain injury; in terms of frequency of occurrence, it ranks first in the structure of traumatic brain injury. The key to treating a concussion is rest and sleep. But a concussion can easily be confused with a more severe injury – a brain contusion. This injury requires compulsory drug treatment and hospitalization.

In any case, after a tangible blow to the head, you need to see a doctor, take an X-ray, exclude the presence of cracks in the skull, hemorrhages and consult a neurologist.

First aid

In case of minor head injuries (from a fall from a height not exceeding human height) without loss of consciousness, provide first aid to the victim and watch for symptoms. If you fall from a greater height, bleed and lose consciousness, you should immediately call an ambulance.

Click to enlarge

First aid for concussion:

– Examine the victim;

– If there are wounds, process and bandage them;

– If you have any symptoms, call a doctor;

– Provide peace.Lay the victim in a comfortable position and do not let him sleep for 30-60 minutes or until the doctor arrives;

– Constantly monitor the condition of the victim;

– If the victim has lost consciousness, lay him on his side with bent knees, hands under his head;

– If the victim is feeling well, the incident must not be ignored and allowed to move actively.

Symptoms of concussion

One can suspect that something was wrong immediately after the injury.

Symptoms:

• Pallor, sweating, weakness.

• The victim does not concentrate well.

• Headache, nausea and vomiting.

• Inhibition of reactions, answers inappropriate.

• The victim is poorly oriented in space and time.

• Lack of appetite.

• Temperature rise.

• Short-term loss of consciousness.

• Feeling of “fog in the head” or unsteadiness in the legs.

• Sleep disturbances (appear later)

• Fatigue, feeling tired

• Noticeable damage, nosebleeds.

Degree of concussion

Important!
Even after a minor concussion, complications (headaches, irritability, sleep disturbances, inability to concentrate) can occur. An urgent need to see a doctor.

Concussion of the 1st degree – slight fainting, normal state of health 20 minutes after the injury.

Concussion of the 2nd degree – disorientation lasts more than 20 minutes.

Concussion 3rd degree – loss of consciousness for a short period of time. The victim does not remember what happened.

Treatment

Treatment of a concussion lasts from 10 days to a month.

Treatment at home is possible only with a minor head injury with the permission of a doctor.At home treatment:

– bed rest and long sleep;

– listen to music (but not through headphones), it is not recommended to read;

– use sedative folk remedies or light herbal infusions;

– long-term dairy-vegetable diet with restriction of salt intake.

DO NOT

– watching TV, video, playing on a computer, playing a gameboy or Tetris – flickering frames irritates the brain;

– to play sports.

Consequences

Signs and symptoms of concussion usually disappear within 24 to 48 hours. With repeated brain injuries, their effects are cumulative.

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90,000 Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury – mechanical damage to the skull and (or) intracranial formations (brain, meninges, blood vessels, cranial nerves).It accounts for 25-30% of all injuries, and among the fatalities in injuries, its proportion reaches 50-60%. As a cause of mortality in young and middle-aged people, Ch. t. is ahead of cardiovascular and oncological diseases.

Traumatic brain injury is divided into 3 stages in terms of severity: mild, moderate and severe. To light Ch.-m. t. include concussion and brain contusions of mild degree; to moderate severity – moderate brain contusions; to severe – severe brain contusions, diffuse axonal damage and compression of the brain.

The main clinical forms of traumatic brain injury are concussion, cerebral contusions (mild, moderate and severe), diffuse axonal brain injury, and cerebral compression.

Concussion occurs in 60-70% of victims. Mild diffuse craniocerebral trauma, characterized by impaired consciousness. While the short-term nature of the violation is often pointed out, there is no clear agreement on its duration.Usually, macro- and microscopic damage to the medulla is not observed. There are no changes on CT and MRI. It is also believed that loss of consciousness is optional. Possible changes in consciousness: confusion, amnesia (the main symptom of SHM) or complete loss of consciousness. After the restoration of consciousness, complaints of headache, dizziness, nausea, weakness, tinnitus, flushing, sweating are possible. Other vegetative symptoms and sleep disturbances. The general condition of patients is rapidly improving during the 1st, less often the 2nd week.after injury.

Contusion (contusion) of the brain. A distinction is made between mild, moderate and severe cerebral contusions.

Mild brain contusion is observed in 10-15% of patients with Ch.-m. t. It is characterized by impaired consciousness after injury, the duration is possible up to several minutes. After the restoration of consciousness, complaints of headache, dizziness, nausea, etc. are typical. Neurological symptoms are usually mild (nystagmus, signs of mild pyramidal insufficiency in the form of reflex paresis in the extremities, meningeal symptoms), often regressing by 2-3 weeks.after injury. Treatment is conservative, initially it is obligatory in the stationary conditions of the neurosurgical department.

Medium brain contusion is observed in 8-10% of victims. It is characterized by the switching off of consciousness after an injury lasting from several tens of minutes to several hours. Expressed amnesia (retro-, con-, anterograde). The headache is often severe. Repeated vomiting may occur. Mental disorders are sometimes noted. Focal symptoms are clearly manifested, the nature of which is due to the localization of the brain contusion; pupillary and oculomotor disorders, paresis of the extremities, disorders of sensitivity, speech, etc.These symptoms gradually (within 3-5 weeks) are smoothed out, but they can persist for a long time. Treatment, in most cases, is conservative in the neurosurgical department. In some cases, the course of this type of injury is complicated by the appearance of secondary hemorrhages and even the formation of an intracerebral hematoma, when surgical assistance may be required.

Severe brain contusion is observed in 5-7% of victims. It is characterized by the switching off of consciousness after an injury lasting from a day to several weeks.This type of injury is especially dangerous in that it manifests itself as a violation of the brain stem functions, there are severe violations of vital functions – respiration and systemic hemodynamics. The patient is admitted to the intensive care unit. The treatment is collegially carried out by a neuroresuscitator and a neurosurgeon. General cerebral and focal symptoms regress slowly. Characterized by persistent residual effects in the form of mental disorders, motor deficits.

In the case of the formation of an intracerebral hematoma, which is the cause of compression of the brain, surgical treatment is indicated – craniotomy, removal of the hematoma.

Intracerebral hematoma of the right temporal lobe.

Diffuse axonal brain injury is characterized by a long-term (up to 2-3 weeks) coma, severe stem symptoms (paresis of the gaze upward, eye difference along the vertical axis, bilateral suppression or loss of the light reaction of the pupils, impaired or absent oculocephalic reflex, etc. .). Often there are disturbances in the frequency and rhythm of breathing, hemodynamic instability.A characteristic feature of the clinical course of diffuse axonal damage is the transition from a prolonged coma to a persistent or transient vegetative state, the onset of which is evidenced by the appearance of a previously absent eye opening spontaneously or in response to various stimuli. At the same time, there are no signs of tracking, fixing the gaze or following at least elementary instructions (this condition is called apallic syndrome). The vegetative state in such patients lasts from several days to several months and is characterized by functional and / or anatomical separation of the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem.As we recover from the vegetative state, the neurological symptoms of disconnection are replaced mainly by symptoms of prolapse. Among them, extrapyramidal syndrome dominates with severe muscle stiffness, discoordination, bradykinesia, oligophasia, hypomimia, minor hyperkinesis, ataxia. At the same time, mental disorders are clearly manifested: pronounced aspontaneity (indifference to the environment, untidiness in bed, lack of any urge to any activity), amnestic confusion, dementia, etc.At the same time, there are gross affective disorders in the form of anger, aggressiveness.

CT scan with diffuse-axonal brain damage (diffuse edema, many small hemorrhages).

Treatment of this type of injury is carried out conservatively with the participation of a neuroresuscitator, neurosurgeon, doctor and exercise therapy instructor (early motor rehabilitation is carried out in order to prevent the formation of contractures in the joints).

Compression (compression) of the brain is observed in 3-5% of victims.It is characterized by an increase in a certain period of time after an injury or immediately after it of general cerebral symptoms (the appearance or deepening of disturbances of consciousness, increased headache, repeated vomiting, psychomotor agitation, etc.), focal (the appearance or deepening of hemiparesis, focal epileptic seizures, etc.) etc.) and stem symptoms (the appearance or deepening of bradycardia, increased blood pressure, restriction of gaze upward, tonic spontaneous nystagmus, bilateral pathological signs, etc.).

. Among the causes of compression in the first place are intracranial hematomas (epidural, subdural, intracerebral, intraventricular). The reason for the compression of the brain can be depressed fractures of the bones of the skull, foci of crushing of the brain, subdural hygromas, pneumocephalus.

Epidural hematoma on a computed tomogram looks like a biconvex, less often a flat-convex zone of increased density, adjacent to the cranial vault. The hematoma is limited and, as a rule, localized within one or two lobes.

Epidural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa.

Treatment of acute epidural hematomas.

Conservative treatment:

– epidural hematoma with a volume of less than 30 cm3, a thickness of less than 15 mm, with a displacement of the midline structures of less than 5 mm in patients with a GCS level of consciousness of more than 8 points and the absence of focal neurological symptoms. Clinical monitoring is carried out within 72 hours with a frequency of every 3 hours.

Surgical treatment

1. Emergency surgery

acute epidural hematoma in a victim in a coma (less than 9 points on the GCS) in the presence of anisocoria.

2. Urgent surgical intervention

epidural hematoma more than 30 cm3, regardless of the degree of depression of consciousness according to the GCS. In some cases, with a slight excess of the specified volume of epidural hematoma and a completely compensated condition of the victim with no symptoms, conservative tactics with dynamic CT control of the situation is acceptable.

Absolute indications for surgical treatment for injuries of the posterior cranial fossa are epidural hematomas> 25 cm3, lateral cerebellar damage> 20 cm3, occlusive hydrocephalus, lateral dislocation of the IV ventricle

Operation methods:

1.Decompressive trepanation

2. Bone-plastic trepanation

For subdural hematoma on a computed tomogram, the presence of a crescent-shaped zone of altered density of a plano-convex, biconvex or irregular shape is more often characteristic.

Subdural hematoma.

Treatment of acute subdural hematomas.

Surgical treatment

1. In case of acute subdural hematoma> 10 mm thick or displacement of the midline structures> 5 mm, regardless of the neurological status of the victim according to GCS.

2. Patients in a coma with a subdural hematoma <10 mm thick and a displacement of the midline structures <5 mm, if there is a deterioration in neurological status in dynamics - an increase in coma depth, the appearance of stem symptoms.In patients with acute subdural hematoma, if there are indications for surgery, surgical intervention should be performed as an emergency. Removal of acute subdural hematoma is carried out by craniotomy in most cases with removal of a bone flap and plastics of the dura mater

Treatment of depressed fractures of the skull bones.

Surgical treatment is indicated in the presence of signs of damage to the dura mater (DM), significant intracranial hematoma, depressions greater than 1 cm, involvement of the airways, cosmetic defect.

Principles of surgical treatment ..

early surgical intervention is recommended to reduce the risk of infection; elimination of the depression and surgical debridement of the wound are the main elements of the operation. In the absence of wound infection, primary bone grafting is possible.

Comminuted fracture of the skull bones with an impression in the cranial cavity.

Forecast for light Ch.-m. T. (concussion, mild brain contusion) is usually favorable (subject to the recommended regimen and treatment for the victim).

With moderate trauma (moderate brain contusion), it is often possible to achieve complete restoration of the work and social activity of the victims. A number of patients develop leptomeningitis and hydrocephalus, causing asthenia, headaches, vascular dysfunction, impaired statics, coordination and other neurological symptoms.

In severe trauma (severe brain contusion, diffuse axonal injury, compression of the brain), the mortality rate reaches 30-50%.Among the survivors, disability is significant, the leading causes of which are mental disorders, epileptic seizures, gross motor and speech disorders. With an open Ch.-m. i.e., inflammatory complications (meningitis, encephalitis, ventriculitis, brain abscesses), as well as liquorrhea, may occur.

90,000 Concussion. Treatment of concussions with osteopathy at the Ostmed clinic in Moscow

How osteopathy helps in the treatment of concussions

A concussion is a mild form of brain damage.It is believed that the manifestation of a concussion is based on a violation of the connections between nerve cells, mainly functional.

Concussion in terms of frequency of occurrence ranks first in the structure of traumatic brain injury. The causes of concussion are both road traffic accidents and domestic, industrial and sports injuries; criminal circumstances also play a significant role.

Concussion symptoms

Immediately after concussion

single vomiting,

some rapid breathing,

faster or slower heart rate,

but these indicators will soon return to normal.Blood pressure quickly returns to normal, but in some cases it can rise steadily – this is due not only to the trauma itself, but also to the accompanying stress factors. Body temperature during concussion remains normal.

Upon recovery of consciousness, typical complaints are headache, dizziness, weakness, tinnitus, flushing of the face, sweating, discomfort and sleep disturbance. Pain when moving the eyes, divergence of the eyeballs when trying to read.

With a concussion, the general condition of the victims usually improves rapidly during the first, less often – the second week. However, it should be borne in mind that headaches and other subjective symptoms can persist much longer for various reasons.

Age features of manifestations

The picture of a concussion is largely determined by age factors.

In infants and young children, concussion often proceeds without impairment of consciousness.At the time of injury – a sharp pallor of the skin (especially the face), palpitations, then lethargy, drowsiness. Regurgitation occurs when feeding, vomiting, anxiety, sleep disorders. All manifestations disappear in 2-3 days.

In children of younger (preschool) age, a concussion can proceed without loss of consciousness. The general condition improves within 2-3 days.

In the elderly and old people, the primary loss of consciousness with a concussion is observed much less frequently than in young and middle age.At the same time, pronounced disorientation in place and time is often manifested. Headaches are often pulsating in nature, localized in the occipital region; they last from 3 to 7 days, differing in significant intensity in persons suffering from hypertension. Dizziness is frequent.

Shock diagnostics

In diagnosing a concussion, it is especially important to take into account the circumstances of the injury and the information of the witnesses of the incident. Traces of trauma on the head and factors such as alcohol intoxication, the psychological state of the victim, etc., can play a double role.p.

Objectification of concussion can be indirectly promoted by various functional studies (electroencephalography, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound intracranial Doppler, etc.). The most informative is an otoneurological study (preferably with the use of electrogustometry, audiometry, electronystagmography).

There are no fractures of the skull bones during concussion. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and composition without deviations. M-echo is not offset.

Computed tomography in patients with concussion does not reveal traumatic abnormalities in the state of the brain matter (the density of gray and white matter remains within the normal range – 33-45 and 29-36 H, respectively) and cerebrospinal fluid-containing spaces. Concussion magnetic resonance imaging also does not reveal any lesion.

Concussion Treatment

First aid for shock

First aid to a victim with a concussion, if he quickly regained consciousness (which usually occurs with a concussion), consists in giving him a comfortable horizontal position with his head slightly raised.

If the person who received a concussion continues to be unconscious, the so-called saving position is preferable – on the right side, the head is thrown back, the face is turned to the ground, the left arm and leg are bent at right angles at the elbow and knee joints (fractures of the limbs and spine must first be excluded ). This position, ensuring the free passage of air into the lungs and the unobstructed flow of fluid from the mouth outward, prevents respiratory failure due to the retraction of the tongue, the flow of saliva, blood, and vomit into the respiratory tract.If there are bleeding wounds on the head, a bandage is applied.

All victims with a concussion, even if it appears to be mild from the very beginning, must be transported to the hospital on duty, where the primary diagnosis is specified. Patients with concussion are placed in bed rest for 1-3 days, which then, taking into account the peculiarities of the course of the disease, is gradually extended over 2-5 days, and then, in the absence of complications, it is possible to be discharged from the hospital for outpatient treatment (lasting up to 2 weeks ).

Drug therapy

Medical treatment for concussion is mainly aimed at normalizing the functional state of the brain, relieving headaches, dizziness, anxiety, insomnia and other complaints.

Typically, the spectrum of drugs prescribed on admission includes pain relievers, sedatives and hypnotics, mainly in the form of tablets and, if necessary, injections. Among the painkillers (analgin, pentalgin, baralgin, sedalgin, maksigan, etc.)) select the most effective drug for the patient. They do the same with dizziness, choosing one of the available medicines (belloid, bellaspon, platifillin with papaverine, tanakan, microzero, etc.).

Valerian, motherwort, corvalol, valocordin, as well as tranquilizers (elenium, sibazon, phenazepam, nozepam, rudotel, etc.) are used as sedatives. To eliminate insomnia, phenobarbital or reladorm is prescribed at night.

It is advisable to conduct course vascular and metabolic therapy for a faster and more complete restoration of cerebral dysfunctions.A combination of vascular (Cavinton, Stugerone, Sermion, Theonicol, etc.) and nootropic (Nootropil, Encephabol, Aminolone, Picamilon, etc.) drugs is preferable. As options for possible combinations, the daily three-time intake of Cavinton, 1 tab, can be presented. (5 mg) and nootropil 2 caps. (0.8) or stugerone, 1 tab. (25 mg) and encephabol, 1 tab. (0.1) for 1-2 months.

To overcome frequent asthenic phenomena after a concussion, appoint: Pantogam 0.5 3 times a day, Cogitum 20 ml 1 time a day, vasobraz 2 ml 2 times a day, multivitamins-polyminerals such as “Unicap-T”, ” Centrum “,” Vitrum “, etc.p. 1 tab. 1 per day. Of the tonic preparations, ginseng root, eleutherococcus extract, lemongrass fruit, saparal, pantocrine are used. In elderly and senile people who have suffered a concussion, anti-sclerotic therapy is intensified. They also pay attention to the treatment of various concomitant diseases. To prevent possible deviations in the successful completion of a concussion, dispensary observation is required throughout the year at a neurologist at the place of residence.

Forecast

With adequate adherence to the regime and the absence of circumstances aggravating the trauma, the concussion of the brain ends with the recovery of the victims with full recovery of working capacity.

In a number of patients, after the acute period of concussion, weakening of concentration, memory, depression, irritability, anxiety, dizziness, headaches, insomnia, fatigue, increased sensitivity to sounds and light are noted. 3-12 months after the concussion of the brain, these signs disappear or are significantly smoothed out.

However, in 3% of patients after concussion, moderate disability occurs if the recommended treatment regimen and behavior is not followed.This can lead to a lengthening of the recovery period and the occurrence of various consequences: asthenic syndrome, vegetative-vascular dystonia, insomnia and other disorders. With alcohol abuse, the development of epileptic seizures is possible.

Treatment of concussion in osteopathic medicine

(what conventional medicine does not do)

The osteopathic doctor, acting on the membranes of the brain, improves and restores its blood circulation, prevents the formation of adhesions, which are an inevitable factor for the occurrence of headaches, increased intracranial pressure, spasms of the cerebral vessels.Headache especially often torments patients after closed craniocerebral trauma.

Osteopathic techniques are aimed at restoring the circulation of the intercellular fluid, and therefore the normalization of biochemical processes in tissues and cells.

What is being done for this:

– the balance of blood circulation in the body is normalized by synchronizing the work of the cranial, cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracic and pelvic diaphragms;

– the cervicothoracic junction opens for the outflow of venous blood from the brain;

– the places of attachment of the dura mater in the cervical and sacral regions are freed;

– the outflow of venous blood from the skull is enhanced by the release of the sinuses of the dura mater (the main place of outflow of blood from the skull) and the cervical jugular vein;

– the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull and spinal canal is normalized;

– a new balance is established between the spheres of the skull;

– the biodynamic balance of the entire nervous system is restored;

As observations show, when treating a concussion at an osteopathic physician, the timing of fracture healing is significantly reduced, joint mobility is restored faster, pain and muscle spasms are relieved, the range of motion is expanded, and the rehabilitation process after injuries is accelerated.

Osteopathic treatment of concussion. Symptoms, features, diagnosis and treatment. How osteopathy can help, what it can do and what conventional medicine does not. Why, it is necessary to consult an osteopath after a brain injury.
Alexander Semenovich Razdobreev, an osteopathic physician, a rehabilitation therapist, a chiropractor, reports.

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90,000 Concussion – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

IMPORTANT!

The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication.In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician. For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your doctor.

Concussion: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Definition

A concussion is a functionally reversible form of closed craniocerebral trauma without organic damage to the brain, resulting from contusion, impact, and, in rare cases, sudden head movement.

Causes of a concussion

A concussion can be the result of a traffic accident, falls, domestic, sports and industrial injuries, as well as injuries resulting from street fights and collisions during mass events, exposure to a blast wave. Even a seemingly minor head injury can lead to a concussion. Thus, the fact of the presence of an injury may already indicate a possible concussion.

The mechanism of concussion is not exactly known. Most likely, as a result of trauma, certain problems arise with the functioning of the nerve cells of the brain (neurons). It is assumed that there is a functional disconnection between the brain stem and hemispheres. It is believed that due to a concussion, there is a temporary disruption of interneuronal connections. A slight displacement of the layers of brain tissue may appear, their nutrition may deteriorate and the connection between some brain centers may be disordered, which contributes to the development of functional disorders.In this case, macroscopic and histological changes in brain tissue are not detected.

Concussion ranks first among all brain injuries. Most patients recover within 1–2 weeks.

If over time the patient’s condition continues to deteriorate, and more severe forms of traumatic brain injury are excluded, then it is necessary to look for other causes of the existing symptoms – psychological problems, mental illness, side effects of drugs or other concomitant diseases.

Classification of the disease

According to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), concussion has a code S06.0. This nosology is one of the clinical forms of traumatic brain injury.

Depending on the severity of the patient’s condition and clinical symptoms, three degrees of concussion are distinguished.

Mild concussion . The victim has no impairment of consciousness, but disorientation, headache, dizziness, and nausea may occur during the first 20 minutes after the injury.Then the general state of health returns to normal. A short-term increase in body temperature (37.1-38 ° C) is possible.

Moderate concussion . Although the victim does not lose consciousness, pathological symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation may occur. They all last over twenty minutes. There may be short-term memory loss (amnesia), most often retrograde amnesia with the loss of a few minutes of memories prior to the trauma.

Severe concussion . It is necessarily accompanied by loss of consciousness for a short period of time, usually from several minutes to several hours. The victim does not remember what happened – retrograde amnesia develops. Pathological symptoms disturb a person for 1-2 weeks after injury (headache, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, disorientation, impaired appetite and sleep).

Symptoms of a concussion

Physical (somatic) symptoms :

  • dizziness at rest, which increases with a change in body position, turning or tilting the head – this is due to impaired blood circulation in the vestibular apparatus;
  • throbbing headache;
  • nausea;
  • single vomiting;
  • rapid breathing, tachycardia;
  • Blurred vision or double vision;
  • flashing of flies or stars before the eyes;
  • imbalance;
  • Hypersensitivity to light or noise;
  • ringing, tinnitus.

Behavioral, emotional symptoms :

  • drowsiness;
  • increased fatigue or general weakness;
  • irritability;
  • depression;
  • anxiety;
  • 90,459 excess hours of sleep

  • Difficulty falling asleep.

Cognitive symptoms :

  • retardation and impaired coordination of movements;
  • short-term confusion of consciousness;
  • delayed incoherent speech;
  • difficulty concentrating;
  • Difficulty memorizing.

Diagnosis of concussion

Diagnosis of concussion is established on the basis of anamnesis, examination and exclusion of a more severe traumatic brain injury.

The doctor examines the entire body of the patient for abrasions, bruising, joint deformities, changes in the shape of the chest and abdomen, bleeding.

In the first hours after a concussion, the victim’s pupils are dilated or narrowed – a traumatic brain injury of any severity leads to disruption of the nerve pathways responsible for the functioning of the eyes.The reaction of the pupils to light is normal. The victim complains of pain when moving the eyes to the sides, there is a small horizontal nystagmus (involuntary trembling movements of the eyeballs), if you take your eyes to the most extreme positions. There may be slight asymmetry of tendon reflexes, unsteadiness in the Romberg position (legs together, straight arms extended forward to a horizontal level, eyes closed). The level of consciousness is assessed on the Glasgow coma scale and is 14-15 points.

The list of laboratory tests includes:

  • general blood test;
  • cerebrospinal puncture.
  • There should be no specific changes in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid during concussion.

    Instrumental diagnostics includes:

    • X-ray of the skull – with a concussion, there are no fractures of the skull bones;

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine may be needed to rule out spinal problems.
    Differential diagnosis is carried out with brain contusion, asthenic state of the patient, psychoemotional lability, alcohol intoxication, vegetative-vascular dystonia, post-convulsive syndrome.

    Which doctors should you contact

    With a concussion, you should consult a trauma doctor. He examines the patient, collects anamnesis, checks reflexes, prescribes an X-ray of the skull, and if a more complex brain damage is suspected, he sends a consultation to
    neurologist or neurosurgeon.

    Indications for specialist consultation:

    • consultation
      otorhinolaryngologist in order to exclude pathologies of the ear, throat, nose;
    • consultation with an ophthalmologist in order to exclude or confirm violations on the part of the visual apparatus;
    • consultation
      a therapist with the aim of correcting the treatment of concomitant pathology;
    • consultation
      surgeon, maxillofacial surgeon and other narrow specialists according to indications.

    Treatment of concussion

    If a concussion is suspected, first aid should be given to the victim, ensuring him complete rest. It is necessary to lay a person in a quiet darkened room, it is better to slightly raise his head. It is very helpful to apply cold compresses to the head. Patients with concussion should stay in bed for at least several days.

    If you have a concussion, you should not read, listen to loud music, or watch TV.Drinking a lot is not recommended. Alcohol is strictly contraindicated!

    For 12 weeks after the injury, the patient should be under the supervision of a doctor in order to assess his condition and a full return to daily activity. To date, there are no effective drugs that accelerate the recovery period.

    From drugs used non-narcotic analgesics, tranquilizers, hypnotics, sedatives. This is usually enough.

    In some cases, drugs are used to relieve cerebral edema, suppress the gag reflex, as well as antihistamines.If any autonomic symptoms are excessively expressed, then, for example, b-blockers may be required (with severe tachycardia and hypertension). They conduct courses of nootropic and metabolic therapy.

    Hospitalization is indicated within three days after injury. The indication for emergency hospitalization is the fact of injury or the presence of severe cerebral and autonomic symptoms.

    Complications

    It must be remembered that a person who has suffered even a mild concussion may develop post-traumatic neurosis or other more serious complications, such as epilepsy.Approximately 3% of patients experience complications in the form of persistent asthenic syndrome, insomnia, migraines, intracranial hypertension and other conditions. Therefore, some time after recovery, you should definitely visit a neurologist and perform an electroencephalography.

    The consequences of a concussion of the brain can appear after a few years, significantly complicating the usual life.

    The hardest thing is for those who, for one reason or another, did not seek medical help in time for the timely diagnosis of the problems that have arisen.

    Prevention of concussion

    Prevention of concussion consists in following the following rules:

    • Wear a helmet when cycling, skateboarding, rollerblading, as well as playing hockey, rugby and other traumatic sports games;
    • Protect your head while practicing martial arts;
    • do not forget about the seat belt in the car;
    • during icy conditions, use special pads on shoes that reduce slipping;
    • Observe the rules of personal safety, avoid traumatic situations.

    Sources:

    1. Great Medical Encyclopedia (BME), edited by Petrovsky B.V., 3rd edition, volume 24.
    2. Mild traumatic brain injury: clinical guidelines / Potapov A.A., Likhterman L.B., Kravchuk A.D. and others – M .: Association of neurosurgeons of Russia, 2016 .– 23 p.
    3. Golovacheva V.A., Evzikov G.Yu. Management of a concussion patient. iDoctor 2014; 10 (29): 60-63.
    IMPORTANT!

    The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication.In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician. For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your doctor.

    Information checked by expert

    Lishova Ekaterina Alexandrovna

    Higher medical education, work experience – 19 years

    90,000 Concussion diagnosis leads to incomplete recovery

    American pediatricians urge doctors to use the term “mild traumatic brain injury” more often to avoid cases when children after a concussion return to normal life earlier than it can be done for medical reasons.

    Traumatic brain injury

    is damage to the bones of the skull or soft tissues, such as brain tissue, blood vessels, nerves, meninges. There are two groups of craniocerebral injuries – open and closed.

    Getting a head injury at a young age is not a tricky business. As a rule, all children love to play, jump, run, while some climb trees, and some are engaged in such dangerous sports as hockey or downhill skiing.Traumatic brain injury and, in particular, a concussion, of course, is an unpleasant thing, but it is not at all a tragedy with proper treatment. But it turns out that it is not always possible to get it.

    Pediatrics February will feature an article by Carol Dematteo of McMaster University. This publication analyzes the medical history of 434 children who were treated for traumatic brain injury.

    Comparing the described symptoms, diagnoses, timing and treatment methods, Dematteo found a number of trends that are worth looking at.

    For example, children diagnosed with concussion were treated in hospital less time than children with similar symptoms but diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury.

    “Children with very serious injuries can be diagnosed with a concussion,” says Dematteo.”Concussion seems to be a less serious diagnosis than mild traumatic brain injury, and it is often used when there is no structural damage to the brain and symptoms that are rapidly resolving.”

    Concussion often results in incomplete treatment.

    Either the incompetent doctor decides to stop treatment earlier than required, or the parents, seeing that their child looks healthy, stop treatment and send him to school.It is known that an incompletely healed concussion leads to serious consequences that can manifest themselves both a week later and a year after the injury. That is, a seemingly healthy child suddenly complains of fatigue and headaches, becomes inattentive, his academic performance falls, and so on. This is what Dematteo draws attention to in his work.

    “Our study proves that if a child is diagnosed with a concussion, then they have less time to heal and identify actual brain damage than they need to,” says the author of the Pediatrics article.- Children with “concussion” are sent to school and allowed to return to their normal active life sooner than necessary.

    This increases the risk of re-injury or simply worsens health, so much so that no one understands what is happening to the child. ”

    Carol Dematteo believes that using the term mild traumatic brain injury instead of concussion will make a difference. In this case, the chances will increase that children will undergo a high-quality examination and receive the necessary treatment within the required period, and this will minimize the possibility of complications, relapses and other troubles.

    For its part, Gazeta.Ru reminds that the typical signs of a concussion are short-term loss of consciousness, loss of memory for events preceding the injury, nausea, dizziness, headache, weakness and difficulty in thinking. In case of manifestation of these symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor, otherwise you can get serious complications. And this applies not only to children, but also to adults.

    Take care of your head

    The consequences of a concussion can be very serious.
    A concussion is damage to the bones of the skull or soft tissues, such as brain tissue, blood vessels, nerves, meninges. An accident can happen to a person, in which he can hit his head on a hard surface, this just entails such a phenomenon as a concussion. In this case, some disturbances in the functioning of the brain occur, which do not lead to irreversible consequences.
    All traumatic brain injuries are classified as open and closed. Open injuries are those that damage the soft tissues of the head (skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia) and the bones of the skull.Closed injuries are somewhat less dangerous, but still unpleasant. They, in turn, are divided into concussion, contusion and compression. Concussion ranks first among all brain injuries. Moreover, according to the observation of traumatologists, it is more common in women. Although, perhaps, they simply seek professional help more often than men.
    Concussion may be caused by bruising, impact, or sudden movement (both acceleration and deceleration). The most common causes of concussions are road traffic accidents, work, sports or domestic injuries.
    Problems of recognition
    What exactly happens as a result of a concussion to our brain, doctors still find it difficult to answer unequivocally. After all, if you examine the injured brain with the help of computed tomography, then practically no organic disorders can be detected. Most likely, as a result of a concussion, certain problems arise with the functioning of the nerve cells in the brain. In this case, their nutrition may deteriorate, a slight displacement of the layers of brain tissue may appear and the connection between some brain centers may go wrong.
    Severe concussion can rupture blood vessels and severely injure certain parts of the brain. The main danger in traumatic brain injuries is intracranial bleeding, since the leaked blood is capable of squeezing and saturating the brain structures, disrupting their work and vitality. In addition, trauma can lead to another formidable complication – cerebral edema. Brain injuries complicated by shock and injuries affecting the brainstem, where breathing and blood pressure are regulated, are especially severe.
    Severe concussion is dangerous because it can severely injure certain areas of the brain or rupture of blood vessels inside the skull.
    Fell down, woke up
    After an injury, a person often loses consciousness. This can last from a few seconds to several minutes. The time spent in this condition can be one indicator of the severity of a concussion. The extreme degree of loss of consciousness is a coma.
    With a concussion, a person often does not understand where he is, what happened, and hardly recognizes the people around him.Another important sign by which one can judge the severity of brain damage is memory loss: does a person remember the moment of injury, and if not, how much of the time before the injury fell out of his memory. The larger the memory lapse, the more serious the injury.
    When the victim regains consciousness, he may vomit and vomit. Often he turns pale, his head is spinning and hurts, his ears are noisy, it is difficult for him to focus his gaze, his breathing becomes rapid, and his pulse jumps. In the first hours after a concussion, the victim’s pupils are dilated or narrowed – a traumatic brain injury of any severity leads to disruption of the nerve pathways responsible for the functioning of the eyes.Surely in the movies you have seen more than once how, when examining a person who is unconscious, the doctor directs the flashlight beam into the victim’s eyes. This is done to determine the reaction of the pupils. With a mild concussion, the pupils react to light, but sluggishly, and with a severe concussion, there is no reaction at all. At the same time, the expansion of only one of the pupils and the lack of reaction in the second is a formidable symptom and may indicate severe damage to one of the cerebral hemispheres.
    In the first hours or days after the concussion, the victim turns pale, complains of weakness and dizziness, tinnitus.The headache is pulsating in nature and is localized in the back of the head. Nausea and vomiting may appear, breathing becomes more frequent, the pulse changes in the direction of increasing or slowing down. After a while, these indicators will normalize. Depending on the injury itself and on the accompanying stress factors, blood pressure can either quickly return to normal or rise. Body temperature remains unchanged.
    In connection with the dysfunction of the nerve cells of the brain after a concussion, negative phenomena are observed in the organs of vision: pain when moving the eyes, difficulty focusing the gaze, narrowed or dilated pupils, pupils of different sizes, divergence of the eyeballs when reading.Other symptoms may include sweating, flushing, discomfort, or sleep disturbances.
    Symptoms in children
    In infants and young children, concussion occurs without loss of consciousness. During the blow, the skin turns pale (especially the face), the heart rate increases. A little later, drowsiness and lethargy appear. When feeding, regurgitation and vomiting occur more frequently than usual. Sleep disorders and general anxiety have been reported.
    In preschool children, all manifestations from concussion disappear within two to three days.Young and middle-aged people lose consciousness at the time of trauma much more often than children and old people. At the same time, the representatives of the older generation show a pronounced disorientation in space and time. As a rule, for most people, the neurologic symptoms of a mild concussion resolve within a few weeks. However, after any concussion, the energy metabolism in the brain remains in an altered state for a long time (a year or longer).
    First aid
    If a concussion is suspected, provide first aid to the victim.To begin with, you need to provide the person with complete peace, put him on a bed in a quiet darkened room. It is better to slightly raise the head. It is very helpful to apply cold compresses to the head. Drinking a lot in case of concussion is not recommended. If the victim is thirsty, make him sweet tea. Alcohol is strictly contraindicated!
    And, of course, be sure to call your doctor, as it is possible that the brain damage is more severe than meets the eye. If the patient is in shock, carefully monitor his breathing and pressure before the ambulance arrives.In an emergency, start artificial respiration and chest compressions.
    Only a doctor can make a complete diagnosis and make an accurate diagnosis. He will examine and interview the patient, check reflexes, prescribe an X-ray of the skull and, if a more complex brain damage is suspected, will refer you to a neurologist for consultation. There, the patient is waiting for a full-scale check: electroencephalography (EEG), echoencephalography, computed or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, Doppler ultrasonography of the cerebral vessels, spinal puncture.Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine may be needed to rule out spinal problems.
    It should be remembered that a person who has suffered even a mild concussion may develop post-traumatic neurosis or other more serious complications such as epilepsy. Therefore, some time after recovery, you should definitely visit a neurologist and undergo an electroencephalography. Treatment for more serious head injuries depends on the severity of the injury. In some complicated cases, the help of neurosurgeons may be required.
    After a concussion, victims are required to visit a neurologist regularly throughout the year. Patients with concussion should stay in bed for at least several days. In this case, you cannot read, listen to loud music and watch TV. It is necessary to follow all the instructions of the doctor, carefully take the medications prescribed by him.
    During the first two weeks, the general condition of the victim improves. However, it should be borne in mind that health disorders can last much longer.For example, headache in those who suffer from essential hypertension is particularly intense.
    Be healthy!
    Prepared by a neurologist at the Tambov City Clinical Hospital No. 3 Irina TENDLER
    Material published in the Tambov Courier newspaper

    Concussion: how to recognize what to do and how not to harm

    Concussion is a sudden short-term dysfunction of the brain … Concussion usually occurs after a headbutt or fall. Sometimes there are no external signs of injury: no bumps, no bruises, no wounds.And there is a concussion.

    Symptoms of concussion may not appear immediately after injury. A few weeks will pass, and your head will start to hurt, dizziness will appear, and you will not understand why.

    Trauma disrupts the work of the reticular activating system. It is this system that is responsible for consciousness, regulates sleep and awakening, and helps to highlight the necessary information from the general noise.

    When the brain temporarily changes its habitual position due to a shock, interference occurs in the electrical activity of the nerve cells that form the reticular activating system.Concussion symptoms appear.

    When to Seek Help

    After a head injury, the person should be seen by a doctor. Even if there is no visible damage to the skull, the brain could be severely damaged. The doctor must rule out hemorrhage or cerebral edema (these are more complex consequences of trauma).

    You cannot diagnose concussion yourself and think that everything will pass.

    Concussion symptoms fall into several categories because trauma affects almost the entire body.

    Symptoms of concussion on the part of thinking and memory

    1. The person lost consciousness for a few seconds or minutes.
    2. Doesn’t remember what happened to him and what happened immediately after the injury.
    3. Is inhibited, slowly answers questions, does not understand what is being said.
    4. Cannot concentrate.
    5. Difficulty reading or writing.
    6. Cannot remember new information.

    Symptoms of concussion from the general state of the body

    1. Headache.
    2. Visual impairment: flies fly before the eyes, the image is double and blurred.
    3. Nausea and vomiting.
    4. Dizziness.
    5. Sensitivity to bright light and noise.
    6. Problems with balance, wobbly gait.
    7. Drowsiness or, conversely, insomnia.

    Symptoms of shaking on the part of emotions and mood

    1. Unreasonable irritability.
    2. Depression.
    3. Increased emotionality: the person’s mood changes rapidly.
    4. Fatigue, lack of energy.

    It is possible to notice trauma in a child if his behavior has changed: the baby does not respond to external stimuli, cannot concentrate, is capricious, cries, refuses water and food.

    If a person is sick, he cannot remain conscious, falls asleep, does not answer questions, do not try to take him to the hospital on your own, call an ambulance.

    If a drunk person or taking tranquilizers is injured, he must be taken to the emergency room, because the symptoms of a concussion in such a situation are easy to miss.

    What to do while you are waiting for doctors

    1. Apply a cold compress to the impact site for 20 minutes to reduce swelling. Wrapping a bag of frozen vegetables in a towel is the quickest way to make an ice pack.
    2. Lay the person on their side, bend their legs, place one palm under the head, and bend the other arm at the elbow. The position should be stable so that the person does not accidentally roll over onto his back if consciousness is switched off.
    3. Do not give medicine.

    Important! If someone is unconscious, then by default they are considered to have a serious head or neck injury. Do not shake, overturn, or carry the person. Call an ambulance.

    Signs of complications in concussion

    Head injuries are insidious in that symptoms may not appear immediately. Even if a person with a concussion was sent home from the emergency room, it is imperative to call doctors in these cases:

    1. The headache does not go away and increases.
    2. Severe weakness rolls over, coordination is impaired.
    3. Vomiting recurs.
    4. Speech becomes slurred.
    5. One pupil becomes larger than the other.
    6. The person cannot be woken up.

    How to treat a concussion

    There are three degrees of severity of concussion. With mild, you can be treated at home, and moderate and severe degrees mean that you need to lie down in the hospital.

    A person with a concussion should not be left alone for two days, because complications may appear at this time.

    The main principle of treatment is rest. After an injury, you need to rest more and not worry. The patient should not read, watch TV, play computer games. You can listen to music, but without headphones.

    Return to work only when you are fully recovered. You will also have to wait for the cure to get behind the wheel of a car or ride a bike. Contact sports – after the permission of the attending physician.

    Full restoration will take from three months to six months.

    How to protect yourself from a concussion

    Concussion occurs most often in children between the ages of 5 and 14. The causes of injury are sports and cycling.

    Adults earn concussions in road accidents and falls. It is also a common injury among athletes, especially if the sport is extreme or contact (boxing, rugby).

    You don’t have to fall yourself to get a concussion. It is enough to catch something heavier than a soccer ball with your head.

    It seems that no one is insured against an accident.