Average baby milestones: CDC’s Developmental Milestones | CDC


Developmental milestones for baby

During the first year of life, your baby will grow and develop at an amazing speed. 

Her weight will double by 5 to 6 months, and triple by her first birthday. And she is constantly learning. 

Major achievements—called developmental milestones—include rolling over, sitting up, standing and possibly walking. And your heart will likely melt at the sound of her first “mama” or “dada.”

No two babies are exactly alike. Your baby will develop at her own pace. Most babies reach certain milestones at similar ages. However, it’s not unusual for a healthy, “normal” baby to fall behind in some areas or race ahead in others.

The following milestones are only guidelines. Your baby’s health care provider will evaluate your baby’s development at each well-baby visit. Remember: Always talk to your child’s health care professional if you think your baby is lagging behind.

If your baby was born prematurely (before 37 weeks of pregnancy), you need to look at the milestone guidelines a little differently. The age at which your baby is expected to reach various milestones is based on her due date, not her birthday. So if your baby was born two months early, she will most likely achieve milestones two months later than the guidelines below predict.

By the end of their first month, most babies:

  • Make jerky, quivering arm movements
  • Bring hands near face
  • Keep hands in tight fists
  • Move head from side to side while lying on stomach
  • Focus on objects 8 to 12 inches away
  • Prefer human faces over other shapes
  • Prefer black-and-white or high-contrast patterns
  • Hear very well
  • Recognize some sounds, including parents’ voices

By the end of their third month, most babies:

  • Raise head and chest when lying on stomach
  • Support upper body with arms when lying on stomach
  • Stretch legs out and kick when lying on stomach or back
  • Push down on legs when feet are placed on a firm surface
  • Open and shut hands
  • Bring hands to mouth
  • Grab and shake hand toys
  • Follow moving object with eyes
  • Watch faces closely
  • Recognize familiar objects and people at a distance
  • Start using hands and eyes in coordination
  • Begin to babble and to imitate some sounds
  • Smile at the sound of parents’ voices
  • Enjoy playing with other people
  • May cry when playing stops

By the end of their seventh month, most babies:

  • Roll over both ways (stomach to back and back to stomach)
  • Sit up
  • Reach for object with hand
  • Transfer objects from one hand to the other
  • Support whole weight on legs when held upright
  • Develop full-color vision and mature distance vision
  • Use voice to express joy and displeasure
  • Respond to own name
  • Babble chains of consonants (ba-ba-ba-ba)
  • Distinguish emotions by tone of voice
  • Explore objects with hands and mouth
  • Struggle to get objects that are out of reach
  • Enjoy playing peek-a-boo
  • Show an interest in mirror images

By their first birthday, most babies:

  • Sit without assistance
  • Get into hands-and-knees position
  • Crawl
  • Pull self up to stand
  • Walk holding onto furniture, and possibly a few steps without support
  • Use pincer grasp (thumb and forefinger)
  • Say “dada” and “mama”
  • Use exclamations, such as “oh-oh!”
  • Try to imitate words
  • Respond to “no” and simple verbal requests
  • Use simple gestures, such as shaking head “no” and waving bye-bye
  • Explore objects in many ways (shaking, banging, throwing, dropping)
  • Begin to use objects correctly (drinking from cup, brushing hair)
  • Find hidden objects easily
  • Look at correct picture when an image is named

By their second birthday, most children:

  • Walk alone
  • Pull toys behind them while walking
  • Carry large toy or several toys while walking
  • Begin to run
  • Kick a ball
  • Climb on and off furniture without help
  • Walk up and down stairs while holding on to support
  • Scribble with crayon
  • Build tower of four blocks or more
  • Recognize names of familiar people, objects and body parts
  • Say several single words (by 15 to 18 months)
  • Use simple phrases (by 18 to 24 months)
  • Use two- to four-word sentences (“want snack”)
  • Follow simple instructions
  • Begin to sort objects by shapes and colors
  • Begin to play make-believe
  • Imitate behavior of others
  • Show growing independence

0-3 Month Development Milestones | Track Baby Milestones

Resources by Age:
0-3 Months Milestones


Milestones are behavioral or physical checkpoints in children’s development as they grow. All of our developmental milestones are validated by American Academy of Pediatrics findings. These are the core skills all children should be reaching.


Abilities are additional skills your child should be developing. These are important skills that look at your child’s overall behavior to gauge their progress.

Be sure to adjust for prematurity. If your child is missing any milestones, be sure to talk with your healthcare provider.

Missing one or two abilities should not cause alarm, as every child develops differently. However, if they are missing multiple abilities, be sure to talk with your healthcare provider.

Key Milestones

  • While lying on tummy, pushes up on arms
  • While lying on tummy, lifts and holds head up
  • Able to move fists from closed to open
  • Able to bring hands to mouth
  • Moves legs and arms off of surface when excited
  • Difficulty lifting head
  • Stiff legs with little or no movement
  • Keeps hands fisted and lacks arm movement
  • Pushes back with head while lying on back

0 to 3 Month Baby – Motor Milestones to Look For

The 0-3 months motor milestones video shows parents and caregivers examples of motor milestones baby should reach by 3 months old.

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Key Milestones

  • While lying on back, attempts to reach for a toy held above their chest
  • While lying on back, visually tracks a moving toy from side to side
  • While lying on back, keeps head centered to watch faces or toys
  • Able to calm with rocking, touching, and gentle sounds
  • Enjoys a variety of movements
  • Does not follow an object with their eyes
  • Frequently resists being held
  • Fists remain closed most of the time
  • Does not enjoy different types of movement

0 to 3 Month Baby- Sensory Milestones to Look For

The 0-3 months sensory milestones video shows parents and caregivers examples of sensory milestones baby should reach by 3 months old.

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Key Milestones

  • Quiets or smiles in response to sound or voice
  • Turns head towards sound or voice
  • Shows interest in faces
  • Makes eye contact
  • Cries differently for different needs (e. g. hungry vs. tired)
  • Coos and smiles
  • Does not cry when hungry or uncomfortable
  • Does not notice or respond to loud sounds
  • Does not make eye contact or smile at caregiver

0 to 3 Month Baby- Communication Milestones to Look For

The 0-3 months sensory milestones video shows parents and caregivers examples of sensory milestones baby should reach by 3 months old.

See More Videos

Key Milestones

  • Latches onto nipple or bottle
  • Tongue moves forward and back to suck
  • Drinks 2 oz. to 6 oz. of liquid per feeding, 6 times per day
  • Sucks and swallows well during feeding
At this stage, baby has very little neck and head control. They need to be supported while being fed milk or formula and they cannot digest any other types of food.
  • Unable to latch on while nursing or bottle feeding
  • Loses a lot of breast milk or formula out of side of mouth while feeding

0 to 3 Month Baby- Feeding Milestones to Look For

The 0-3 months feeding milestones video shows parents and caregivers examples of feeding milestones baby should reach by 3 months old.

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Key Abilities

  • Enjoys playful face-to-face interaction with people
  • Coos in response to playful interaction
  • Notices and responds to sounds

Key Abilities

  • Moves legs and arms off of surface when excited
  • Uses vision to follow black and white or brightly colored objects
  • Is able to open and shut hands
  • Is able to bring hands to mouth
  • Is able to be on tummy for short bursts of time

Key Abilities

  • Is able to latch on while nursing or bottle feeding
  • Is able to calm during car rides when not tired or hungry
  • Enjoys bath time
  • Is usually able to tolerate diaper changing without crying

Key Abilities

  • Is able to be comforted by cuddling or a parent’s touch
  • Is not upset with everyday sounds
  • Is usually happy when not hungry or tired
  • Enjoys varied playful movement experiences, e. g. bouncing on knees
  • Is able to calm with experiences, such as rocking, touching, and calm sounds
  • Does not demonstrate frequent or long bouts of being upset

Monthly Baby Milestones Chart

The first smile, the first step, the first word: Most parents remember exactly when their baby accomplished these big goals. But before baby reaches each one, you’re probably dying to know when to be on the lookout for the important milestones, camera at the ready.

While it’s helpful to understand how baby development generally unfolds, don’t feel like you have to obsessively monitor your child’s progress against the baby milestone chart. As long as you’re keeping up with baby’s well visits, the doctor will keep track for you. “Pediatricians will ask parents questions about their child’s development at each well visit and look for certain developmental red flags,” says Karen Fratantoni, MD, MPH, medical director of the Complex Care Program at Children’s National Health System in Washington, DC.

Simply put, this baby milestone chart gives you an overview of what your child’s behavior may be like at each age—and when you can expect to check the big milestones off the list. But of course, every child is different, and you can expect your baby to hit their picture-worthy milestones at their own pace.

Image: Lindsey Balbierz

1 Month Old Baby Milestones

Baby’s senses are still developing—and they’ll be busy testing them out to help make sense of this strange new world.

  • Notices faces
  • Sees bold patterns, especially in black and white
  • Recognizes the sound of your voice
  • Starts to coo and make sounds beyond a simple cry
  • Brings hands within range of their eyes and mouth
  • Moves their head side to side when lying on their stomach

See what else baby will be doing at 1 month here.

Related Video

2 Month Old Baby Milestones

Observe these 2 month baby milestones closely—if baby isn’t achieving them, your pediatrician may want to explore further. “The ability to track an object is important,” Brown says, because the inability to do so may indicate a visual or brain problem, “just like not turning their head to sounds could indicate a hearing issue.

  • Starts to smile at people
  • Briefly calms themselves (may bring their hands to their mouth to self-soothe)
  • Begins to follow things with eyes and recognizes people at a distance
  • Begins to get fussy and acts bored if the activity doesn’t change
  • Holds their head up
  • Begins to push up when lying on their tummy
  • Makes smoother movements with their arms and legs

See what else baby will be doing at 2 months here.

3 Month Old Baby Milestones

Baby’s emotional skills will begin to develop: They may start to use different cries to tell you what they’re feeling and turn their head away to let you know they’re bored.

  • Can distinguish your face from others
  • Starts to have different cries for different needs—hunger, diaper change, pain, etc.
  • Turns their head away to express boredom
  • Opens and shuts their hands
  • Swipes at dangling objects
  • Follows moving objects with their eyes
  • Turns their head in the direction of sounds
  • Enjoys playing with other people (and may cry when the playing stops)

See what else baby will be doing at 3 months here.

4 Month Old Baby Milestones

How time flies—baby is no longer considered a newborn! Right now they’re probably becoming more alert and eager to explore the world around them.

  • Starts to giggle and laugh
  • Copies facial expressions
  • Reaches for a toy with one hand
  • Holds their head steady, unsupported
  • Pushes up onto their elbows when they’re lying on their tummy

See what else baby will be doing at 4 months here.

5 Month Old Baby Milestones

The skills baby is building now may seem small, but they form the foundation for bigger skills that’ll pop up later on the baby milestone chart—and may help your doctor diagnose an issue early if you notice something isn’t right. “All the milestones are a big deal because they build upon one another,” says Natasha Burgert, MD, FAAP, a pediatrician in Kansas City, Missouri, and blogger behind KC Kids Doc. “You can’t walk if you can’t pull up. You can’t speak in sentences if you don’t have simple words.”

  • Rolls over from tummy to back
  • Explores toys by putting them in their mouth
  • Babbles
  • Loves to look at themselves in a mirror
  • Entertains themselves for short periods of time

See what else baby will be doing at 5 months here.

6 Month Old Baby Milestones

At the 6-month mark, baby may be ready to start accomplishing some huge developmental milestones—like mobility! But even if they don’t start creeping (pushing themselves around on their tummy) at 6 months, there’s no reason to worry. “There’s a range of time during which each skill is expected to develop, and that range can be narrow for some and wider for others,” Fratantoni says.

  • Starts creeping along the floor
  • Passes things from one hand to the other
  • Starts sitting unaided
  • Starts to understand simple words
  • Responds to their name

See what else baby will be doing at 6 months here.

7 Month Old Baby Milestones

Baby is becoming a little scientist, manipulating objects around them to learn about them. That can lead to the pretty annoying habit of dropping things onto the floor, but it’s an encouraging sign of baby’s curiosity.

  • Enjoys dropping things on the floor
  • Plays simple games like peekaboo
  • Begins to respond to “no”
  • Finds partially hidden objects

See what else baby will be doing at 7 months here.

8 Month Old Baby Milestones

At this age, you might be paying particular attention to baby’s developing mobility—especially if you’re babyproofing like mad to help keep your little explorer safe. “Parents may focus more closely on one domain of a child’s development, such as gross motor skills like crawling or walking on time, but I think it’s helpful for parents to consider all domains of a child’s development,” Fratantoni says.

  • Develops a pincer grasp (using the thumb and index finger)
  • Begins crawling
  • Stands while holding onto something

See what else baby will be doing at 8 months here.

9 Month Old Baby Milestones

Your babbling baby may start to experiment with different tones and sounds as they inch toward one of the biggest baby milestones—talking. But experts say not to worry if you aren’t hearing that long-awaited “mama” or “dada” quite yet. “Not all children talk at the same time, but they should make constant forward progress,” Brown says. “Children progress from cooing to consonant sounds to simple words to two-word phrases to small sentences.”

  • May be wary of strangers and clings to familiar people
  • Has favorite toys
  • Makes a lot of different sounds, like “mamamama” and “bababababa”
  • Copies sounds and gestures of others
  • Uses fingers to point at things

See what else baby will be doing at 9 months here.

10 Month Old Baby Milestones

If you’re part of a playgroup, you may start to see a wide range of abilities emerge at this age—many babies may still be crawling, but some are starting to cruise and a few bold souls may be nearly ready to take their first steps. And all of them are right on track.

  • Explores things in different ways, like shaking, banging and throwing
  • Pulls to stand
  • Starts cruising (shuffling along while holding onto furniture)
  • Gets into a sitting position without help
  • Begins feeding themselves finger food, thanks to better hand-eye coordination

See what else baby will be doing at 10 months here.

11 Month Old Baby Milestones

Even if baby hasn’t taken their first step, don’t rush them. “A baby milestone chart is a great guide to see if your baby is working toward expected physical, verbal and social goals. The exact progression, however, can’t be rushed or pushed forward any faster than your baby’s brain allows,” Burgert says. “What’s most important is to enjoy every phase of development as it’s occurring. When you crave fast progress, you can miss the magic of the moment.”

  • Understands object permanence
  • Crawls up the stairs (while supervised)
  • Makes sounds with changes in tone (sounds more like speech)
  • Develops separation anxiety

See what else baby will be doing at 11 months here.

12 Month Old Baby Milestones

Congratulations! Baby has officially graduated to toddler status. You can look back on all the amazing things on the baby milestone chart that your child has mastered over the past 12 months—it’s quite a lot!

  • Responds to simple spoken requests and directions
  • Uses basic gestures, like shaking their head “no” or waving “bye-bye”
  • Says “mama” and “dada” and exclamations like “uh-oh!”
  • Looks at the right image or object when it’s named
  • Starts to use things correctly; for example, drinks from a cup or brushes their hair
  • May take a few steps without holding on
  • May stand alone

See what else baby will be doing at 12 months here.

Baby Milestones by Month: FAQs

It’s exciting to know what skills baby will gain month over month, but there are some major milestones that all parents are eagerly anticipating—they just might not know exactly when they’ll happen. Curious when baby will hit specific milestones? Take a peek at the “cheat sheet” below.

While you might see a “reflexive” smile from baby in the early weeks, babies typically don’t learn how to consciously smile until 2 or 3 months of age. By this time, babies start to socially smile in response to their surroundings. Be sure to have your camera ready!

When do babies start laughing?

Babies usually learn to laugh around month 3 or 4. If you’re eagerly waiting to hear baby’s giggle, this is the time to start listening for it.

When do babies start rolling over?

Babies typically begin rolling over around the 4-month mark. At this time, baby is getting stronger and will likely practice pushing their chest off the ground and rocking side to side, eventually making a complete roll from their belly to their back. By 6 months, babies have usually mastered rolling from their backs to their bellies and vice versa.

When do babies start crawling?

Some babies start crawling as early as 6 or 7 months old, while others wait until closer to 10 months. Keep in mind, though, that some babies skip crawling altogether and go straight to walking.

When can babies see in full color?

At birth, baby will only see shades of black, white and grey. As their eyes begin to develop, they’ll slowly begin to differentiate between hues. By 7 months, baby should be able to see the full spectrum of colors.

When do babies start talking?

Babies will usually begin babbling around 6 months and will slowly progress to forming words. By 12 months, many babies will begin saying their first words like “mama” or “dada.” However, some babies prefer to take their time when it comes to speaking, so be patient.

When do babies start walking?

Many babies begin experimenting with walking by the age of 9 months. However, it’s not uncommon for some babies to wait until the one-year mark—or as late as18 months—to take those first steps.

When Should I Be Concerned About Baby Milestones?

While it’s important to keep an eye on these markers, the ages at which babies will meet them are not set in stone. Every child progresses at their own speed, and doctors say not to be overly concerned if your little one isn’t hitting the milestones exactly when the baby milestone chart says they should. “Children develop along a spectrum, and not all children do things at the same time or according to any baby milestone chart that parents may have,” says Carrie Brown, MD, a pediatrician at Arkansas Children’s Hospital in Little Rock, Arkansas. Your little one might be quick to start crawling but slower when it comes to walking. Or they may not speak for months, only to wake up one day talking up a storm.

That said, if you are at all concerned about baby’s development, don’t hesitate to bring it up with your child’s pediatrician. “The biggest reason for concern is if you feel your child isn’t moving forward and making progress toward new skills,” Brown says. “Then you should talk to your doctor and see if they share your concerns.” They’ll complete an assessment and, if necessary, recommend next steps.

Karen Fratantoni, MD, MPH, is the medical director of the Complex Care Program at Children’s National Health System in Washington, DC. She earned her medical degree from Eastern Virginia Medical school in 1996.

Natasha Burgert, MD, FAAP, is a pediatrician at Pediatric Associates in South Overland Park, Kansas, and the blogger behind KC Kids Doc. She earned her medical degree from University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska.

Please note: The Bump and the materials and information it contains are not intended to, and do not constitute, medical or other health advice or diagnosis and should not be used as such. You should always consult with a qualified physician or health professional about your specific circumstances.

Infant development: Milestones from 4 to 6 months

Infant development: Milestones from 4 to 6 months

From ages 4 to 6 months, your baby becomes more aware of his or her surroundings. Infant development milestones include rolling over, clapping hands and babbling.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

The newborn days are behind you. As your baby becomes more alert and mobile, each day will bring exciting new adventures. Every experience — from cuddling before nap time to listening to a sibling’s chatter — will help your baby learn more about the world.

Expect your baby to grow and develop at his or her own unique pace. Consider these general infant development milestones as your baby’s strengths and preferences begin to emerge.

What to expect

As your baby becomes more aware of the surrounding world, he or she will begin exploring. From ages 4 to 6 months, your baby is likely to enjoy:

  • Evolving motor skills. Your baby’s arms and legs probably wiggle and kick more purposefully now. Soon you might notice your baby rocking on his or her stomach and eventually rolling over. As your baby gains muscle strength, he or she will have better head control. Most babies this age raise their heads when lying facedown. They might even try to push themselves up or bear weight on their legs. Around age 6 months, many babies begin sitting alone after being positioned upright.
  • Improving hand-eye coordination. Your baby will probably grasp your finger, a rattle or a soft object. Anything within reach is likely to end up in your baby’s mouth. You might notice your baby pulling objects closer with a raking motion of the hands.
  • Clearer vision. Your baby is beginning to be able to distinguish subtle shade of reds, blues and yellows. He or she might enjoy more complex patterns and shapes. You might notice your baby concentrating on a toy or staring at his or her reflection. If you roll a ball across the floor, your baby will probably turn his or her head to follow the action.
  • Babbling and other new sounds. Babies this age often start to babble chains of consonants. Your baby might respond to sound by making sounds and use his or her voice to express joy. He or she also might distinguish emotions by tone of voice — and begin responding to “no.” Your baby might even recognize his or her name.

Promoting your baby’s development

At this age, learning and play are inseparable. It doesn’t take expensive educational toys or intense effort, however, to capture your baby’s attention. To promote infant development:

  • Talk to your baby. Ask questions and respond to your baby’s coos and gurgles. Describe what you see, hear and smell around the house, outdoors, and when you’re out and about. Use simple words such as “baby,” “cat,” “go,” “walk,” “hot” and “cold.” Remember that your tone of voice and facial expression can communicate ideas and emotions.
  • Change positions. Lay your baby on his or her tummy for a few supervised minutes. Hold a colorful toy or make a noise to encourage your baby to pick up his or her head or practice rolling over. Hold your baby’s hands while he or she is lying down and say, “Are you ready to stand up? Here we go!” Count to three as you gently pull your baby to a standing position. When your baby’s ready, try a sitting position. Hold your baby or use pillows for support.
  • Offer simple toys. Babies this age often enjoy colorful toys, especially those that make sounds. Try a musical toy, a rattle with a handle, a soft ball or a wooden spoon. To help your baby focus, put out only one or two toys at a time. Place one toy slightly out of reach to encourage your baby to stretch and creep. Shake a rattle behind your baby’s head and let him or her turn and grab it. Let your baby watch his or her movements in a mirror.
  • Read to your baby. Reading to a baby promotes speech and thought development. Your baby will soak in your words and might even mimic the sounds you make. Start with books featuring large, brightly colored pictures. Describe what’s happening on each page. Point to and name common objects.
  • Play favorite games. Cover your face with your hands, then remove your hands and say, “Peekaboo, I see you!” Play patty-cake. Ask, “Where are your toes?” Then touch your child’s toes and say, “Here are your toes!” Hide one of your baby’s toys with the corner of a blanket and encourage him or her to find it.
  • Take time to cuddle. Balance stimulation with plenty of quiet time. Gentle caresses and tender kisses can help your baby feel safe, secure and loved. When you hold or rock your baby, talk quietly or sing soothing songs.
  • Turn on the tunes. Music can help calm, entertain and teach your baby. Sing or play lullabies, upbeat children’s songs or your own favorites.
  • Let your baby set the pace. When your baby turns away, closes his or her eyes, or gets fussy, take a break. Even babies need space. Get to know your baby’s unique personality, temperament, likes and dislikes. Responding to your baby’s needs will help you continue to build your baby’s trust in you.

When something’s not right

Your baby might reach some developmental milestones ahead of schedule and lag behind a bit on others. This is normal. It’s a good idea, however, to be aware of the signs or symptoms of a problem.

Consult your baby’s doctor if you’re concerned about your baby’s development or your baby:

  • Has very stiff or tight muscles
  • Seems extremely floppy
  • Reaches with only one hand
  • Hasn’t shown any improvement in head control
  • Doesn’t respond to sounds, such as by startling to sudden loud noises
  • Doesn’t reach for or bring objects to his or her mouth
  • Doesn’t attempt to roll over or sit
  • Has an eye or eyes that consistently turn in or out
  • Doesn’t babble
  • Doesn’t seem to enjoy being around people or spontaneously smile

Trust your instincts. The earlier a problem is detected, the earlier it can be treated. Above all, delight in your baby’s discoveries and abilities.

June 25, 2020

Show references

  1. 3 to 6 months: Your baby’s development. Zero to Three. Accessed May 22, 2017.
  2. Shelov SP, et al. Age one month through three months. In: Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Bantam Books; 2014.
  3. Positive parenting tips for healthy child development: Infants (0-1 year old). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed May 25, 2017.

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Infant development: Milestones from 7 to 9 months

Infant development: Milestones from 7 to 9 months

Your baby might surprise you with how quickly he or she is picking up new skills. Infant development milestones for a 7- to 9-month-old include sitting, standing and laughing.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

As your baby becomes more mobile and inquisitive, infant development takes off. It might seem that your baby learns something new every day. Understand your baby’s next milestones and what you can do to promote his or her growth.

What to expect

Your baby will continue to grow and develop at his or her own pace. From ages 7 to 9 months, your baby is likely to experience:

  • Advancing motor skills. By this age, most babies can roll over in both directions — even in their sleep. Some babies can sit on their own, while others need a little support. You might notice your baby beginning to scoot, rock back and forth, or even crawl across the room. Some babies this age can pull themselves to a standing position. Soon your baby might cruise along the edge of the couch or coffee table.
  • Improved hand-eye coordination. Most babies this age transfer objects from one hand to another or directly to their mouths. Pulling objects closer with a raking motion of the hands will give way to more-refined movements, such as picking up objects with just the thumb and forefinger. This improving dexterity will help your baby handle a spoon and soft finger foods.
  • Evolving communication. Your baby will communicate with you through sounds, gestures and facial expressions. You’ll probably hear plenty of laughing and squealing. Some babies might repeat the sounds they hear — or give it their best shot. Your baby’s babbling is likely to include chains of sounds, such as “ba-ba-ba.” You might even pick out an occasional “mama” or “dada.”
  • Stranger anxiety. Many babies this age become wary of strangers. Your baby might resist staying with anyone other than you. If your baby fusses when you leave, have the person staying with your child create a distraction. Then say goodbye with a hug and kiss and a reminder that you’ll be back soon. Your baby will likely stop crying as soon as you’re out of sight.
  • Teething. You can expect the first tooth anytime. You might notice your baby drooling more than usual and chewing on just about anything. Try gently rubbing the gums with one of your fingers or offer a rubber teething ring. When your baby’s first teeth appear, use a soft-bristled toothbrush to clean them twice a day. Until your child learns to spit — at about age 3 — use a smear of fluoride toothpaste no bigger than the size of a grain of rice.

Promoting your baby’s development

For babies of any age, learning and play are inseparable. To support your budding adventurer:

  • Create an exploration-safe environment. Keep only safe objects within your baby’s reach. Move anything that could be poisonous, pose a choking hazard or break into small pieces. Cover electrical outlets, use stairway gates, place cords from blinds or shades out of reach, and install child locks on doors and cabinets. If you have furniture with sharp edges, remove it from rooms where your baby plays. The same goes for lightweight objects your baby can use to pull himself or herself to a standing position, such as plant stands, decorative tables, potted trees and floor lamps. Anchor bookcases, televisions and their stands to the wall.
  • Keep chatting. You’ve likely been talking to your baby all along. Keep it up! Narrate what you’re doing, and give your baby time to respond. Say something to your baby and then wait for him or her to repeat the sounds. Sing simple songs. Ask your baby questions that involve more than a yes or no response. You might not be able to pick words from your baby’s babble, but you can encourage a back-and-forth conversation.
  • Teach cause and effect. Push the button on a musical toy and dance to the tune. Open the door on a toy barn and listen to the cow say “moo.” Help your baby do the same. Self-confidence will grow as your baby realizes he or she can make things happen.
  • Take time to play. By now, you and your baby might be old pros at classics, such as peekaboo, patty-cake and itsy-bitsy spider. Get creative. Arrange cushions and pillows on a carpeted floor and encourage your baby to creep or crawl over them. Stack blocks and invite your baby to knock them down. If you’re up for a mess, smear applesauce on the highchair tray and let your baby “paint” with the mixture. At bath time, provide small containers and plastic utensils for pouring and mixing.
  • Pull out the books. Set aside time for reading every day — even if it’s only a few minutes. Reading aloud is one of the simplest ways to boost your baby’s language development. Make it more interesting with facial expressions, sound effects and voices for various characters. Store books within easy reach so that your baby can explore them whenever the mood strikes.

When something’s not right

Your baby might reach some developmental milestones ahead of schedule and lag behind a bit on others. This is normal. It’s a good idea, however, to be aware of the signs or symptoms of a problem.

Consult your baby’s doctor if you’re concerned about your baby’s development or your baby:

  • Doesn’t roll over in either direction or sit with help
  • Doesn’t bear some weight on legs
  • Doesn’t try to attract attention through actions
  • Doesn’t babble
  • Shows no interest in games of peekaboo

Trust your instincts. The earlier a problem is detected, the earlier it can be treated. Then you can set your sights on the milestones that lie ahead.

June 25, 2020

Show references

  1. 6-9 months: Your baby’s development. Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddler and Families. Accessed May 25, 2017.
  2. Teething. American Dental Association. Accessed May 25, 2017.
  3. Healthy habits. American Dental Association. Accessed May 30, 2017.
  4. Shelov SP, et al. Age eight months through twelve months. In: Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Bantam Books; 2014.

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Your Baby’s First Year Explained With Pictures

(1)     Alistair Berg / Digital Vision / Getty Images

(2)     sot  / Taxi Japan / Getty Images

(3)     Purestock / Getty Images

(4)     Julia Smith / The Image Bank / Getty Images

(5)     Julia Smith / Riser / Getty Images

(6)     Tim Hawley / Photographer’s Choice / Getty Images

(7)     Dag Sundberg / The Image Bank / Getty Images

(8)     Mieke Dalle / Riser / Getty Images

(9)     Cohen/Ostrow / Digital Vision / Getty Images

(10)  Miguel S Salmeron / Taxi / Getty Images

(11)  Altrendo  / Getty Images


American Academy of Pediatrics.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Marat Zeltsman, DO, pediatrician, Joe DiMaggio Children’s Hospital.

Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, MD, medical epidemiologist, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC.

Michelle Bailey, MD, medical director, Duke Health Center at Southpoint.

Parker S, Zuckerman B and Augustyn M (eds.). Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2005.

The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities.

Baby milestones: one to six months

This gives you an idea of what to expect from your baby at each stage during his first six months. Bear in mind that all babies develop differently. If you have any concerns about your baby’s development, ask your health visitor for advice.

One month

Achieved skills (most babies can do)
Emerging skills (half of babies can do)

  • Follows objects
  • Makes “ooh” and “ah” sounds

Advanced skills (a few babies can do)

  • Smiles
  • Holds head at 45-degree angle

Find out more about your baby at one month.

Two months

Achieved skills (most babies can do)
Emerging skills (half of babies can do)

  • Recognises your voice
  • Smiles responsively
  • Holds head at 45-degree angle
  • Movements become smoother

Advanced skills (a few babies can do)

Find out more about your baby at two months.

Three months

Achieved skills (most babies can do)
Emerging skills (half of babies can do)

  • Does mini push-ups
  • Laughs and smiles

Advanced skills (a few babies can do)

  • Turns towards loud sounds
  • May bring hands together and bat at toys

Find out more about your baby at three months.

Four months

Achieved skills (most babies can do)

  • Holds head up steadily
  • Can bear weight on legs
  • Coos when you talk to him
  • Does mini push-ups

Emerging skills (half of babies can do)

  • Can reach out and grasp objects or toys

Advanced skills (a few babies can do)

  • Imitates speech sounds, such as “baba” and “dada”
  • May cut first tooth
  • May roll over from tummy to back

Find out more about your baby at four months.

Five months

Achieved skills (most babies can do)
Emerging skills (half of babies can do)
Advanced skills (a few babies can do)

  • May sit momentarily without support
  • May roll over from back to tummy
  • Mouths objects
  • May show signs of stranger anxiety

Find out more about your baby at five months.

Six months

Achieved skills (most babies can do)
Emerging skills (half of babies can do)

  • Reaches for objects and mouths them
  • Rolls in both directions
  • Recognises own name

Advanced skills (a few babies can do)

  • May lunge forward or start crawling
  • May jabber or combine syllables
  • May drag object towards himself
  • May sit without support

Find out more about your baby at six months.

Discover what your baby may be able to do from seven to 12 months.

90,000 Major milestones in the development of the Russian nobility in the 16th and early 17th centuries.



IN THE XV century. the Moscow boyars significantly expanded their possessions. But simultaneously with the process of the formation of large land wealth, an intensive process of fragmentation of estates took place, which resulted in the crisis of the boyar estate at the end of the 15th century. An outward sign of the crisis was the emergence within the upper class of a new category of service people who adopted the name “boyar children” 1.Initially, this name indicated only a certain age group and meant the same thing as “youths” or “children” in Ancient Russia. But over time, the name “youths” began to be used to refer to the prince’s junior squad, and the name “boyar children” began to be used in relation to service people who made up the overwhelming mass of the Russian nobility of the 16th century.

The term “boyar’s son” indicated primarily the dependent, dependent position of a person as a junior member of the family, since under the traditional system of the Russian family, the power of the parent over the son was exceptionally great.The father’s power was also based on the fact that from his hands the son received hereditary land holdings – the “fatherland”. Marriages were concluded at an early age (at 15 years old and earlier), and therefore several adult sons appeared in the boyar family before the head of the family reached old age. The owner of a small estates (and such estates prevailed) could divide the estate, but then such a boyar was deprived of the opportunity to maintain a squad and continue serving. In such families, the sons often had to wait for a share in the inheritance until adulthood, retaining the name “boyar’s son.”In the era of fragmentation, the boyar served the prince as a “free servant.” He went on a campaign with a squad, but he could only support a squad if he had large land property. “Boyar children” were not necessarily landless. They could at any time receive a share in the hereditary

Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique. XXXIV (l -2). janvier-juin 1993, pp. 89-106.

YI All-Russian competition of organists “Sancta Caecilia” takes place in Krasnogorsk

From 26 May to 31 May 2019, the Krasnogorsk Concert Hall of the Alye Parusa Children’s Choir School is hosting V I All-Russian Organ Competition “Sancta Caecilia” .

The history of the competition begins in 2009, when the Manfred Tonius keyboard-wind organ was installed in the concert hall of the Scarlet Sails Children’s Choir School. The first forum took place in 2010 and was organized by A. Parshin, Honored Artist of Russia, Honored Art Worker of Russia, Professor of the Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Since then, the competition has been held regularly – once every two years. During this time, more than 150 young organists took part in it.

The format of the competition provides an opportunity for creative self-expression for musicians of different ages; depending on their capabilities, a program is built: from two pieces for the youngest musicians (the participant and his teacher can prepare pieces of any era, style) to a solo program representing the main milestones of organ art and allowing to show the ability to perform music of various styles – among performers in the oldest group. This approach is attractive to performers and, probably, not least because of this, the age range of participants is traditionally so large: from taking the first, but already confident, steps in the organ field of seven-year-olds to established musicians, graduates of leading Russian conservatories.This also determines another good tradition – performance in the competition of teachers – in the senior category, and their students – in the younger ones. Performing on the same stage with your teachers: what can be the greatest incentive for a student and at the same time the most responsible for a dedicated teacher? The combination of these traditions is the essence of the special creative spirit of the competition of organists “Sancta Caecilia”.

The main objective of the competition is to identify and support young Russian talents. This year, 22 participants in the competition represent children’s, secondary and higher educational institutions in Moscow and the Moscow region, St. Petersburg.The jury consists of reputable musicians from the Moscow Conservatory and the Gnesins Russian Academy of Music.

Founders of the competition – Administration of the city district Krasnogorsk, Moscow region, Moscow State Conservatory named after PI Tchaikovsky, Department of Culture of the Administration of the City District Krasnogorsk, Moscow Region, Children’s Choir School “Scarlet Sails” Krasnogorsk

Competition Jury


Honored Artist of Russia, Honored Artist of Russia, Professor of the Moscow State Conservatory named after P.I. Tchaikovsky


laureate of international competitions, associate professor of the Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory

Elena Nikolaevna TSYBKO, Laureate of European and international competitions, Associate Professor of the Department of Organ and Harpsichord at the Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory, teacher of the organ class at the Moscow Secondary Special Central Music School at the Moscow Conservatory

Ilya Vagifovich RIZAEV, Head of the Concert Hall of Organ and Chamber Music of the Vyatka Philharmonic, soloist of the Vyatka Philharmonic, laureate of the All-Russian competition

Nina Evgenievna SHUBINA, Senior Lecturer at the Gnesins Russian Academy of Music, Lecturer at the N.G. Rubinstein


VI All-Russian Organ Competition “Sancta Caecilia”


May 26 – May 31, 2019

May 26 (Sunday)

13.00-DRAW for all age categories

14.00 – Master class of the professor of the Moscow State Conservatory P. I. Tchaikovsky A. A. Parshina

May 28 (Tuesday)


May 29 (Wednesday)


May 31 (Friday)





MUDO “DMHSH” Scarlet Sails “


90,000 70th Anniversary of the United Nations – events around the world

Brussels: Around the World in 70 Days

In celebration of the 70th anniversary of the UN, the virtual character Elix, created by the renowned French artist Jacques, went on a trip around the world “Around the World in 70 Days”.Elix cannot speak, he has no nationality, race or gender, he is a truly universal character. 70 days before the birthday of the United Nations, Elix traveled around the world from the UN headquarters in New York and traveled to 70 countries on five continents, ending his journey in space on October 24. Elix visited one country a day, and each trip was covered on social media. Follow Elix’s adventures on his website.

Russian Federation: gala event at the Bolshoi Theater

On October 26, the Bolshoi Theater hosted a solemn celebration of the 70th anniversary of the United Nations, with a welcoming speech by President Vladimir Putin.The program included one-act ballets staged by choreographer Alexei Ratmansky, as well as a screening of a documentary film made by TASS and the Russia-24 TV channel. The organizer was the Russian Public Committee “UN-70” for the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the United Nations. Watch the video excerpt of the event.

Iran: Competition among journalists for the best story about the UN

In celebration of the 70th anniversary of the United Nations, the UN Office in the Islamic Republic of Iran organized the “UN Competition for Journalists”, the laureates of which were awarded during the UN Day ceremony in October 2015.The purpose of the competition is to express gratitude to journalists in their efforts to cover UN activities in Iran and to stimulate the interest of professional media in the work of the UN. Five winners of the competition received prizes and certificates.

UN and International Law

The Royal Institute of International Affairs Chatham House and New York University School of Law, one of the world’s leading legal institutions, celebrated the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations.Special conferences, sponsored by the UN Office of Legal Affairs, focused on the role of the United Nations in the development of international law over the past 70 years. The conferences were held in October 2015 in London and in November 2015 in New York.

Belarus: UN-70 Express Train on Sustainable Development Goals

To commemorate the 70th anniversary of the UN, on October 23, 2015, a special train “Express for the Sustainable Development Goals” set off from Minsk on a week-long trip across Belarus.UN officials, government officials, civil society organizations, private sector partners, youth, artists, and vulnerable groups traveled around the country to raise awareness of the new development agenda and the post-2015 sustainable development goals. The initiative involved UN Goodwill Ambassadors, as well as artists for joint cultural events, art exhibitions, sports, cultural and educational events.Peace Tree planting ceremonies were held in each region of Belarus. On the way from Grodno to Brest (25 October), a United Nations Model in English was organized in a special train dedicated to the adoption of the new sustainable development goals.

Austria: photo exhibition “We the Peoples”

In September 2015, the UN Traveling Photo Exhibition “We the Peoples” opened in Vienna, featuring 50 photographs illustrating the work of the world organization.The exhibition was timed to coincide with the 70th anniversary of the UN and was held under the patronage of UN Photo and the International Photographic Council. The exposition was shown in Bonn, Germany, and in Budapest, Hungary. The event was organized by the United Nations Information Service Vienna in cooperation with the United Nations Office at Vienna.

Switzerland: UN Open Day

On 24 October 2015, a special UN Open Day event took place at the Palais des Nations in Geneva and in Ariana Park.The event brought together representatives from UN agencies, foundations, programs, organizations, the diplomatic corps and civil society. More than a thousand participants were able to learn about various areas of the UN through visiting exhibitions, lectures, film screenings, concerts and numerous events. Also, the grand opening of the sculpture by the famous artist Michelangelo Pistoletto, created from 193 stones received from 193 UN member states, took place.

Poland: Blue Peace March

On June 20, as part of the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the UN, thousands of people marched in a peace march through the streets of Warsaw.The procession was led by the founder of the famous charitable foundation Dominika Kulczyk and UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Artur Zmievsky, as well as eminent musicians and athletes. The event was organized by the UN Information Center in Warsaw in cooperation with the European Association of Law Students – Poland.

Pakistan: “People of Pakistan and the United Nations” photo exhibition

To commemorate the 70th anniversary of the United Nations, in April 2015, the Urban Heritage Museum in Lahore inaugurated the photographic exhibition The People of Pakistan and the United Nations — Stories of People Through the Prism of Photography.The exhibit includes 74 photographs depicting the contributions of ordinary Pakistanis to various areas of UN work, including education, employment and gender equality. The photo exhibition was jointly organized by the United Nations Office in Pakistan, the National College of Arts and the Lahore Museum.

India: Star Launch of UN 70

In January 2015, Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, along with Nobel laureate Kailash Satyarty and UN Goodwill Ambassadors, including cricketer Sachin Tendulkar, famous actress Sharmila Tagore and popular actress and public figure Nandita Das, took part in the launch of the campaign in New Delhi UN70 and YoUNg @ 70 Initiatives.The event focused on the theme “The Future We Want”, under which a campaign is being held to raise awareness of the importance of sustainable development and engage – especially young people – in a global conversation about what kind of world they would like to live in.

Learn more about this event here.

Switzerland: benefit concert

A notable event took place at the Victoria Concert Hall in Geneva – a charity concert with the participation of the world famous pianist Khatia Buniatishvili and the UN Orchestra, designed to celebrate the anniversary of the world organization and support the Syrian refugees in Jordan.The event was organized in cooperation with the United Nations Office for Refugees (UNHCR). The concert, which took place on June 13, 2015, attracted over a thousand people.

Turkey: Joining forces with youth to promote the UN70 campaign

The UN Information Center in Ankara is collaborating with the Faculty of Communications of Ankara University to promote the core activities of the UN in 2015.Students prepared an outreach program to help celebrate the 70th anniversary of the United Nations and support the achievement of a comprehensive agreement on climate change and an effective post-2015 development agenda.

Burkina Faso: preparation of the UN 70th Anniversary Traveling Exhibition

In October 2015, on the eve of United Nations Day, a traveling exhibition of UN photographs, documents, brochures and films was launched in the country.It kicked off in the capital of Burkina Faso, from where the exhibition began its journey across the country, introducing viewers to the efforts of the world organization to promote peace, development, human rights, health, food security and education.

Lebanon: photo exhibition “We, the peoples …”

On UN Day, October 24, the grand opening of an exhibition of 70 photographs of UN activities around the world and in Lebanon took place.Between October and December 2015, the exhibition entitled “We the Nations …” was presented in three locations. The installation of the exposition was the fruit of cooperation between the UN office and Lebanese universities.

Colombia: 70th anniversary of the UN reflected at the International Book Fair

At the Bogota, Colombia International Book Fair, a special UN 70th Anniversary stand was set up to showcase United Nations publications and information materials.Around 12,000 people visited the UN booth, where they could view publications from 13 UN agencies, funds and programs.

Czech Republic: UN 70th Anniversary Traveling Exhibition

A collection of UN banners illustrating the activities of the world organization in the main areas – peace and security, development and human rights – began its journey across the country to participate in various events organized at universities, research institutes, labor exchanges, centers of non-governmental organizations.The traveling exhibition ran from March to December 2015.

Nigeria: Holocaust memorial rally

In 2015, Holocaust Remembrance Day commemorating the theme of “Freedom, Lives and Legacy of Holocaust Survivors” coincided with two significant events: the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II and the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations.In January 2015, the UN Information Center in Lagos, Nigeria celebrated Holocaust Remembrance Day by organizing a number of events, including a rally by students, media representatives and non-governmental organizations.

More than 15 high schools in Nigeria screened the exciting documentary “Children’s Block 66: Return to Buchenwald”, and the world’s largest straw mat was created with a map of the world and messages on the occasion of the Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the Victims of the Holocaust.

More detailed information about events here

Tunisia: shaping the worldview of youth

The UN Information Center in Tunisia organized 70 visits to UN agencies in Tunisia for secondary and high school students. Students had the opportunity to learn about the work of various UN agencies first-hand. The first such visit took place in January 2015.

90,000 Poisoning by poisonous plants

Consultation for parents

Preschool children show a great interest in the surrounding nature, but due to the fact that they still do not have sufficient knowledge about some features of plants, sometimes they pluck poisonous plants or even eat their fruits, rhizomes, etc.
Most often poisoning by poisonous plants occur in the summer. There are also cases of burns to the skin, mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth when in contact with or ingestion of the sap of some plants.

Brief characteristics of poisonous plants

Milestone poisonous . It looks like garden plants – parsley, dill, etc. It grows in damp places, along rivers and lakes, in bushes. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Poisoning occurs more often if you eat the rhizome. A distinctive feature of this plant is a pleasant smell, which is released when rubbing any part of it, the presence of a thick rhizome, divided by transverse partitions into chambers.

Symptoms of poisoning come on very quickly, depending on the amount of the plant eaten. The first signs of poisoning: abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, pallor, shortness of breath. Subsequently, convulsions and loss of consciousness join.

Castor oil plant . The plant grows in the southern regions of the Rostov region and the Stavropol Territory, in the Transcaucasus. Poisoning occurs if you eat the seeds of the plant, similar to beans and beans.Fruits (seeds) are placed in three-nested capsules, attract with a bright color. Severe poisoning is possible from 2-3 seeds. Signs of poisoning occur after 1-2 hours: headache, redness of the throat, pain in the pharynx, a drop in temperature below normal, the pulse is fast and small.

Black henbane . It grows in wastelands, along roads, in abandoned fields. The whole plant is covered with soft, sticky hairs, emitting a specific unpleasant odor. Poisoning most often occurs from seeds, which children mistake for poppy.

Datura ordinary . Datura – wasteland plant. Poisoning occurs from eaten seeds and inhalation of the smell of a flowering plant. Bloom from mid June to September. Fruit – a spherical box, covered with thorns. The ripe capsule opens with four valves, inside of which are kidney-shaped black seeds.

Signs of poisoning with bleached black, common dope, belladonna are of the same type: dilated pupils with loss of reaction to light, dry mucous membranes.The more the child chewed the plant, the more reddening of the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat.

The same group includes bittersweet nightshade . Poisoning occurs from the eaten fruits of the plant, in the form of spherical black berries, with a sweetish-bitter taste.

Wrestler (shoes). It grows everywhere: in forests, ravines, on river banks, in parks. All parts of the plant, especially underground, are very poisonous. Poisoning most often occurs in the spring from the use of tubers.

The picture of poisoning is expressed in diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, increasing weakness, damage to the heart and respiratory activity, a drop in blood pressure.

Hemlock speckled . Grows in meadows, along roads, fences. Poisoning occurs if you eat the stem. When rubbed with hands, this plant emits a characteristic mouse smell. Poisoning is similar to the picture of nicotine poisoning. Symptoms are nausea, dilated pupils, impaired swallowing, minor cramps, ptosis (paralysis of the muscles that raise the eyelids), clear consciousness.

Green and ordinary cheremitsa . Causes poisoning similar to poisoning from the wrestler plant. Fatalities are rare.

Common wild rosemary . Distributed in the northern and middle regions of the European territory of Russia, in the Far East, in Siberia. Dangerous during flowering (May-July). During this period, the terrestrial parts of the plant secrete substances that have an irritating effect on the central nervous system; absorbed through the skin.

Wolf’s Bast . The plant is widespread in the northwestern part of the Russian Federation, the European part and Siberia. Grows in mixed coniferous shady forests and plains. Blooms in April and early May. Fruit – abundant bright red drupe, located along the stem. The bark and berries (fruits) have the greatest toxic effect. Wet bark can cause burns. Eaten berries cause a burning sensation in the mouth, swelling of the oral mucosa and larynx. In this case, suffocation may occur.

Hogweed . Weed plant. Occurs in wastelands, near roads, in meadows and forest edges. Poisoning and burns occur when in contact with stems, leaves, when the juice of a plant gets on the skin.

Buttercup caustic . Perennial. Contains a poisonous substance that causes a strong irritant effect on the skin and mucous membranes. On contact, it causes inflammation of the skin with the formation of blisters. If the juice of the plant gets on the skin, ulcers may occur.

Raven Eye . All parts of the plant are poisonous, but poisoning most often occurs from fruits (berries), which children mistake for blueberries, blueberries.
Poisoning is characterized by the appearance of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. In the absence of help, death is possible as a result of damage to the cardiovascular system.

May Lily of the Valley . A common perennial plant. Has a fruit – a bright red berry. Eaten berries cause poisoning.In this case, there is a headache, tinnitus, dizziness, cold sweat, nausea, diarrhea, a rare arrhythmic pulse. The pupils are constricted, convulsions are possible.

Black elderberry . Shrub or small tree. The flowers are white, collected in corymbose inflorescences, the fruits are black-purple in color, berries, the pulp of the fruit is dark red with wrinkled bones. The shrub is found both wild and ornamental.

Eaten berries cause poisoning. Vomiting, diarrhea occurs; in severe cases, there may be a picture characteristic of hydrocyanic acid poisoning.

Euphorbia vine . The milky juice contained in the stem of the plant is poisonous. In contact with the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, nose, an acute inflammatory process occurs, redness and blisters appear at the site of the lesion. If the child tried to eat the plant, vomiting, diarrhea occurs. In severe cases, damage to the central nervous system occurs: convulsions, respiratory failure, cardiac activity.

First aid

If the poison gets inside, you need to induce vomiting, rinse the stomach with water or a solution of potassium permanganate, inject activated charcoal, give a saline laxative, and deliver the victim to a hospital.

If the skin and mucous membranes are damaged, they should be washed with warm water, lubricated with an alcohol methylene solution, apply ointments containing anesthesin and prednisolone, and diphenhydramine should be given inside.

Urai City Clinical Hospital

Milestones in the history of Urai health care:

The first medical institution in the village of Urai was the Urai district hospital with 5 beds, opened in 1951. At that time, there were 3 medical workers in the hospital: a midwife, a paramedic and a nurse.
. In 1958, according to the reports of the Kondinsky health department, the number of hospital beds was increased to 10, in 1961 – 25. At that time, 19 doctors, 82 paramedical workers, 58 nurses worked in the district clinic, it was located near the Konda River, in the area of ​​foresters’ houses. It was a one-story, dilapidated, wooden building with several offices. The organizational and methodological management of the health care of the Urai settlement was carried out by the Kondinsky district hospital. The district polyclinic included medical assistant posts in the villages of Nazarovo, Shaim, Chantyrya, Tursunt.
1965 – 1970
With the development of the Shaimskoye field, the active development of the oil industry began. The population of the city increased to 30 thousand people. There was an urgent need to open medical departments, equip them with equipment and attract medical workers. From 1964 to 1967, six buildings were deployed in adapted buildings (dormitories, residential buildings, a nursery – a garden, an office), a hospital with 180 beds was opened, therapeutic, surgical, obstetric, children’s departments, a polyclinic, women’s and children’s consultations, a pharmacy, sanitary and epidemiological department, emergency department.
In 1965 – 66 in Urai, due to the lack of running water, outbreaks of dysentery and typhoid fever arose, 100 – 150 patients fell ill every day. To eliminate outbreaks of acute intestinal infectious diseases, specialists from the regional SES, the regional health department, and the medical institute were involved. Then, for the hospitalization of infectious patients, an infectious diseases department with 40 beds was opened in the building office. The polyclinic was divided into children’s and city polyclinics, antenatal clinic.
1966 – X-ray room was opened in the city polyclinic.
1970 – A new three-story hospital building was put into operation on the banks of the Konda River. The bed fund by that time was 300 beds, 43 doctors and 215 paramedical workers worked in the hospital.
1970 – 1975
In 1971 , a children’s dairy kitchen with a capacity of 200 portions per shift was opened: milk, kefir, cottage cheese were prepared. Since 1975, they began to produce simple mixtures – B – rice, B – buckwheat, B – oats for children up to three months of age.
In 1972 a drug treatment room was opened in the polyclinic.
1975 – 1980
1976 – the city polyclinic No. 1 for 250 visits per shift was built and put into operation. It was located at 80 Lenin Street (the building of the reserve maternity hospital), next to the Yubileiny shopping center. Were allocated offices for the reception of narrow specialists: urologist, otolaryngologist, rheumatologist, oncologist, cardiologist, neurologist, surgeon, ophthalmologist, dermatovenerologist, psychiatrist.
1985 – 1990
In 1985 , the child population in Uray increased to 10,743 children. With the increase in the child population in the city, a need arose for the construction of a children’s clinic. In the fall of 1985, the children’s polyclinic moved into a five-story adapted building and was housed on four floors. The throughput of the polyclinic was 200 visits per shift. The structure of the institution included a pediatric department, offices of an otolaryngologist, dentist, phthisiatrician, rheumatologist, surgeon, healthy child, an office for the prevention of infectious diseases, massage and a physiotherapy room.
1987 – the building of the maternity hospital and antenatal clinic for 58 visits per shift was built and put into operation. In the maternity hospital, an obstetric department with 60 beds was deployed.
1989 – a rehabilitation service with a day hospital for 10 beds was organized in the department of rehabilitation treatment of the children’s polyclinic. The day hospital at the children’s polyclinic was the first in the Tyumen region and was a school of excellence.
1990 – on the basis of the order of the Ministry of Health of the RSFSR No. 7 of 19.01.1989 – The Urai city sanitary and epidemiological station was separated from the medical and sanitary unit of the Uraineftegaz production association.

1995 – 2000
1996 :
-the office of hyperbaric oxygenation was opened in the hospital
-the family planning office and the office of prenatal diagnostics were opened in the antenatal clinic
-the department of radiation diagnostics was formed and equipped with modern X-ray equipment in the hospital
-the day hospital was opened in the city polyclinic
– infant mortality was reduced by 30%, perinatal by 57%
– a school of excellence in early diagnosis of tuberculosis was opened
– a system of compulsory and voluntary health insurance is being developed

2000 – 2005
In 2000 a new city polyclinic No. 1 for 600 visits per shift was put into operation, it has five outpatient polyclinic units
– a day hospital for 30 beds was opened in the city polyclinic
2004 – after reconstruction it was opened new infectious diseases department with 30 beds
2005 1330 people work in the Central City Hospital, of which 167 doctors, 553 paramedical workers
2005 – 2010
2005 – the beginning of construction of the 1st stage of the children’s city polyclinic for 200 visits per shift
– an asthma school, a school of diabetes mellitus, a school of hypertension
2006 – the beginning of the implementation of a priority national project in the territory of the city of Urai
– commissioning of the building of a new maternity hospital
– introduction of the project “Generic certificates”
– the park of medical vehicles is being gradually renewed
– ultrasound and EKG devices have been received
– the beginning of the medical examination of the working population
– the beginning of immunization of the population within the framework of the National calendar vaccinations (viral hepatitis, rubella, poliomyelitis, influenza)
– an office for centralized preparation of prescriptions was opened in the city polyclinic
2007 – licensing of medical offices in educational and preschool institutions
2008 – equipping with diagnostic equipment a hospital-polyclinic institutions
– the building of the pediatric department with 30 beds with ASPON was put into operation.
– a hematology analyzer was purchased for the hospital to determine the level of hemoglobin
2010 – 2015
– The Urai city hospital operates under such long-term programs as “Modernization of health care in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Ugra”, “Priority national project” Health “and” Modern health care in Ugra ” Ugra registry ”

– opening of the Health Center
– receipt of modern equipment: ultrasound of an expert class, a computed tomograph, 3 hemodialysis machines “Artificial kidney”, a digital fluorograph, a mammograph
– according to the informatization program, in the building of the city polyclinic, a terminal for making an electronic appointment with specialist doctors
– the ambulance fleet of 6 cars was renewed – 5 new ones
– 4 cars were purchased for district doctors
– the “Glonass” software complex was installed on the ambulance cars

– the public reception of the hospital was opened
– the program “Main directions of development of the Urai health care for the period up to 2017 – 2020 was developed.G.”
– In September, a new children’s polyclinic was opened for 200 visits per shift. The work of specialists is organized in 2 shifts. Reception of the child population is carried out by 15 narrow specialists. Among the studies are available ultrasound diagnostics, laboratory tests, physiotherapy, massage. There is a day hospital, two swimming pools and a phytobar. The children’s polyclinic serves over 9 thousand children.
– hemodialysis room was opened
– the website of the institution “” was developed
– the system for assessing the quality of medical services was introduced
– the ethical code of the doctor was developed and implemented
– on the basis of school No. 4 a medical class was opened
– on the basis of the hospital a branch of the Tyumen Medical College
– on the basis of a medical institution in the gymnasium was organized the volunteer movement “Volna”
– the municipal program “Implementation of the priority national project” Health “in the city of Urai for 2008-2010” has expired

– MBU “Urayskaya city hospital” changed its status to Budgetary institution of KhMAO-Ugra “Urayskaya city clinical hospital” the reorganization of the work of the outpatient and polyclinic divisions of the hospital was carried out:
were transferred to a six-day mode of operation;
separated the flows of patients who receive free and paid medical services and streamlined the time for preventive hiring and periodic medical examinations;
– 40% increase in the number of coupons to doctors for initial admission
– people with disabilities were given a separate time to make an appointment with specialists by calling
– beds for providing palliative care to severe cancer patients were opened in the hospital.
– an office for prescribing medicines for privileged categories of citizens was opened in the city polyclinic
– work is being completed on the transfer of the sports medicine department (medical and physical dispensary) at the address of microdistrict. Zapadny 16
– work is underway to attract specialist doctors to the hospital, 15 doctors were accepted for 11 months of 2014
– new types of surgical interventions became available to the Urays: on the thyroid and parathyroid glands, bone autoplasty, osteoplasty
– implementation of joint with the Department of Education continues of the city and the Khanty-Mansiysk Medical Academy of the “Medical class” project, on the basis of school No. 4 a second medical class was opened.

-The hospital employs 169 doctors, including 5 candidates of medical sciences, 3 veteran doctors have the title of Honored Doctor of the Russian Federation and six doctors – Honored Health Workers of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.