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Alot of mucus: Excess Mucus In The Throat – Causes And What Works Best


What Is Mucus? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Excess mucus can be treated with medications or with home remedies.

Medication Options

Decongestants You can use an over-the-counter (OTC) nasal or oral decongestant to reduce the amount of mucus in your lungs or nasal passages. These medications clear up thick mucus, but shouldn’t be overused, since they can lead to side effects or complications.

Decongestants work by narrowing the blood vessels in your nasal passages, restricting blood flow, and reducing the amount of mucus produced. The trouble is, if overused, these drugs can actually dry up your mucous membranes and thicken the mucus they produce, which leads to congestion. Decongestants have also been linked to side effects such as dizziness, nervousness, and high blood pressure.

Antihistamines These medications are designed to block or limit the activity of histamine, a substance your body produces during an allergic reaction. They’re great for treating symptoms such as an itchy or runny nose, but can cause side effects including drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, and headache — especially if they’re overused.

Expectorants Cold and flu medications, both OTC and prescription, contain expectorants (for example, guaifenesin), which make mucus thinner and easier for your body to get rid of.

Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Excess Mucus

Nasal irrigation is a natural method for getting rid of excess mucus. It can be performed using a neti pot, a bulb syringe, or a squeeze bottle containing salt water. By pumping salt water into your nostrils, you can help loosen up the mucus in your nasal passages and flush it out.

One important caveat: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says to use only distilled, sterile, or boiled water. Tap water should not be used because it’s not adequately filtered or treated. (4) Tap water can contain low levels of microorganisms that, when swallowed, are usually killed by stomach acid. In your nasal passages, however, these bugs can stick around and cause potentially serious infections. In very rare cases, says the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they can be fatal. (5)

As with decongestants and antihistamines, overuse of nasal irrigation can lead to complications.

Although the flushing process does help thin out mucus and remove bacteria and allergens, it can also wash away some of the mucous membrane and other protective tissue that keeps you from getting sick.

To reduce mucus and congestion, the Cleveland Clinic recommends doing the following: (3)

  • Drink more water (enough so that your urine is pale) and go easy on beverages loaded with caffeine, which can be dehydrating.
  • Try a humidifier to keep your throat and nasal passages moist (this counteracts excessive mucus and phlegm production).
  • Make sure filters on your heating and cooling system are clean; this can help reduce airborne irritants.
  • Try a saline nasal spray, which helps keep nasal tissues and sinuses moist.

It may also help to give yourself a dose of heat and steam. Try breathing through a warm washcloth, or turning on the shower and inhaling the steam, which can make your mucus thinner and easier to clear.

Prevention of Mucus

You don’t want to prevent mucus from forming in your body. But you can try the strategies and medications suggested above if you want to prevent excess mucus or address thick mucus.

Everything You Ever Wondered About Mucus and Phlegm – Cold and Flu Center

Respiratory infections, the common cold, sinus infections, allergies, smoking, and even your environment all trigger changes in your mucus that can leave you frustrated and wandering the pharmacy aisles looking for the best solution.

“Mucus is like a gelatin, a sticky substance the function of which is to lubricate and also to filter,” says Dr. Ellis. It’s made by cells in membranes that run from your nose to your lungs. While you swallow most of it without noticing, what’s left behind keeps your airways moist so that they work properly.

However, Ellis explains, what most people think of as mucus in their nose and sinuses is a delicate balance of both mucus and watery secretions — fluid made by the cells of the nose and sinuses.

Usually these two substances work together smoothly, and you probably don’t even notice them.

“If you get an allergy or a cold and your nose is running like a faucet, you’re making an excess of watery secretions,” Ellis says.

At the other extreme, thick mucus — the kind that leads to postnasal drip and congestion or gets crusty — is usually the result of being excessively dry.

Ellis says 90 percent of the patients he sees are actually experiencing problems with thick mucus, not a runny nose due to the common cold.

Phlegm is a slightly different substance. It’s a form of mucus produced by the lower airways — not by the nose and sinuses — in response to inflammation.

You may not notice phlegm unless you cough it up as a symptom of bronchitis or pneumonia.

As is the case with mucus, phlegm that has a color such as green or yellow may indicate infection. And anytime you see blood in the phlegm you cough up, you should seek medical attention.

Mucus, explains Ellis, helps protect the lungs by capturing dirt and dust as you inhale. The dirt, dust, and debris are passed out of your system.

While a persistent yellow or green color, possibly accompanied by an unpleasant odor, is often a sign of infection, color does not always indicate a health problem, says Ellis.

The fact that your mucus may be discolored by what is in the air is a good thing.

“If you’re in an environment where there is a lot of dust or smoke or smog, the function of the nose is to protect the lungs,” he stresses.

Thick mucus, which may seem to have greater volume and may create problems such as postnasal drip, results from a number of situations and is usually an indication of being over-dry.

Here are some of the factors that contribute to that feeling of thick, clogging mucus:

  • A dry indoor environment, which may be due to air-conditioning or heating
  • Not drinking enough water and other fluids, or drinking beverages such as coffee, tea, and alcohol that may lead to losing fluids
  • Medications that are drying
  • Smoking

Using a small facial steamer or humidifier, taking a hot steamy shower, or even breathing through a warm wet washcloth can give you some relief from thick, crusty mucus.

Your doctor will evaluate the character of your mucus as well as the presence (or absence) of other allergy or cold symptoms. Getting the right diagnosis means you can get the right treatment.

Unfortunately, many people misdiagnose themselves, thinking, for example, that a large quantity of thick mucus indicates an allergy (which actually is signaled by a lot of watery secretions accompanied by allergy symptoms). They then mistakenly take antihistamines, which end up drying out the nose and making thick mucus worse.

“That’s why it’s important to make the right diagnosis,” says Ellis, who also warns against self-medicating with decongestants like Sudafed, which are also drying and will further thicken your mucus.

With a bacterial sinus infection you may be able to take a doctor-prescribed antibiotic to treat the cause, but with viral colds the best you can do is correctly treat symptoms, so you want to be sure you have the right match.

Here are some of the mucus problems Ellis sees, along with his recommended treatments:

  • Postnasal drip (thick mucus) Take an expectorant (this thins mucus and phlegm), drink lots of fluids, breathe through a warm washcloth, and use steam to make the mucus more liquid.
  • Congestion (blocked nose) This is mostly due to swollen nasal membranes, so shrinking those membranes is the goal. Use an oral decongestant or decongestant nasal spray (for up to three days only), breathe through a warm wet washcloth, and use steam to ease congestion.
  • Runny nose (with sneezing and/or itching) Take an antihistamine.

Any option is fine, says Ellis. Since the mucus may be infected, make sure you follow basic hygiene after blowing your nose: Carefully dispose of the facial tissue and wash your hands. Also, avoid spitting out your mucus in public.

Mucus is so important that your body makes about a quart of the stuff on a normal day. Learn how to live with it when it is out of balance, and you’ll be more comfortable until the flow goes back to normal.

What to Do If You Have Too Much – Cleveland Clinic

Excessive mucus and phlegm may not be much of a conversation starter (unless you’re 14 and trying to spit the furthest). But if you have too much mucus, it can drive you crazy in search for solutions.

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

First, consider that mucus has a purpose. This fluid is naturally made by your body every day, says laryngologist Paul C. Bryson, MD, Director of Cleveland Clinic’s Voice Center.

“While the exact amount your body makes isn’t known, most experts think it’s about one liter a day,” he says. (That’s half of a 2-liter bottle of soda!)

Why does your body overproduce mucus?

Mucus has an important role in the body. It lines many of your tissues. Its slippery consistency helps protect and moisturize, and it also traps potential irritants.

Your body can go into overdrive creating mucus and phlegm when you:

• Have a cold
• Have irritated sinuses (sinusitis)
• Have allergies
• Are exposed to smoke or pollution

“Environmental allergies can cause excess mucus or phlegm, as can food allergies, but the latter is harder to diagnose based on this symptom alone,” Dr. Bryson says.

Is excess mucus ever a sign of something more serious?

If the amount of mucus your body makes is uncomfortable, you might worry it’s a sign of a more serious problem.

According to Dr. Bryson, mucus is typically not a symptom to worry about if it’s your only symptom.

“Worrisome signs are mucus accompanied by fevers, chills and night sweats, especially if you also experience weight loss, nasal obstruction or intermittent nose bleeds for more than two weeks,” he says.

Are there natural ways to address mucus or phlegm?

If you have chronic problems with phlegm, try the following:

Hydrate more. Drink more water. Also, consider your medications or any dehydrating beverages you regularly drink, such as coffee, alcohol and some teas. “A good rule of thumb is to drink enough water to make your urine pale,” Dr. Bryson says.

Use a humidifier. This can help your body moisturize your throat and nasal passages and may help you reduce mucus and phlegm production.

Check filters on heating and cooling systems. Make sure the filters are clean and functioning well to keep dust and other potential irritants out of the air.

Use a nasal saline spray. This helps rinse and hydrate tissues in your nose and sinuses.

These remedies also help if your problem with mucus and phlegm progresses to a post-nasal drip.

Other options for phlegm and mucus

“If you’re concerned about allergies, remember that the testing is easy and straightforward. You can also try over-the-counter allergy medications, which may solve your issue,” Dr. Bryson says.

Also, if in doubt, don’t hesitate to discuss your problem with your primary care doctor or an otolaryngologist, who can dig into your particular symptoms and history to find solutions.

Mucus is gross. But here are 9 things you should know about it.

Mucus is not widely considered a topic for polite conversation. It’s something to be discreetly blown into a tissue, folded up, and thrown away.

But the simple truth is that without mucus, you wouldn’t be alive.

“Mucus is essential for the protection of your body,” says Jeffrey Spiegel, an ear, nose, and throat surgeon at Boston University. “It’s a protective barrier and it allows you to breathe comfortably. If you had no mucus, you’d be quite sorry you didn’t.”

Given how important mucus is — and how often colds and allergies cause mucus-related symptoms — it’s worth learning a bit more about it.

1) You produce about 1.5 quarts of mucus a day — and swallow the vast majority

Most of us think of mucus as something that leaks from our nose, but the truth is that it also gets secreted in your trachea and other tubes that carry air through your lungs, where it’s technically called phlegm. Wherever it’s produced, mucus is a mix of water and proteins, and most of it gets pushed to the back of your throat by microscopic hairs called cilia.

Microscopic cilia flap back and forth continuously to push mucus to the back of your throat. (American Rhinologic Society)

Whether you’re aware of it or not, you’re constantly swallowing all this mucus, and it harmlessly ends up in your stomach. “You’re swallowing, on average, twice a minute — even when you’re sleeping at night,” says Michael Ellis, an ear, nose, and throat doctor at Tulane University.

Ellis says that, on average, a person produces about 1.5 quarts of mucus per day, and contrary to what you might think, it doesn’t vary by all that much. But that mucus gets diluted by a separate, watery secretion (called serous fluid), which can vary widely based on your health.

2) Mucus is basically the body’s flypaper

Even grosser than mucus. (Shutterstock.com)

Mucus has two main functions: it keeps the nasal cavity and the other airways inside your body moist, preventing them from drying out due to all the air that flows over them. (Relatedly, the serous fluid that mucus is mixed with also moistens the air itself before it enters the lungs. )

Mucus’ other function, though, might surprise you. “Mucus is kind of like flypaper,” Ellis says. “Debris that comes into the nose or throat sticks to it, and then you swallow it, so it doesn’t get into your lungs.”

Mucus, in other words, is nature’s filter for your delicate lungs. The bacteria, dust and other tiny particles that you breathe in get stuck in mucus and pulled down into your stomach, where they’re destroyed by enzymes.

3) There are two different things that cause runny noses


When a cold or allergies cause your nose to run, it’s because they’re triggering an inflammatory response in your nasal cavity and airways. Even though you always produce roughly the same amount of mucus, this dramatically increases the amount of the serous fluid it’s diluted in.

We tend to experience this as an excess of watery, runny mucus, and it can be treate by taking an anti-histamine, which reduces the amount of water — leading to thicker, drier mucus.

Cold weather causes a runny nose in an entirely different way. In cold temperatures, your cilia (the microscopic hairs that sweep mucus to the back of your throat) stop sweeping back and forth as quickly, causing some of the mucus to drip down through your nose instead.

4) A stuffy nose isn’t stuffed full of mucus — it’s swollen

The nose is mostly filled by conchae. (Bruce Blaus)

The inside of your nose is filled with structures called conchae, or turbinates. Their primary function is to warm the air you inhale to body temperature and add moisture until it’s very humid — so that the air can enter your lungs without causing problems.

Stuffy noses occur when the conchae rapidly swell in size in response to cold, dry conditions, so there’s more surface area for the air to flow over. Additionally, if you’re fighting an infection, the conchae can swell further with blood, in order to bring more white blood cells to the site of the infection.

“We call it congestion when [noses] get swollen up, because it seems like we’re having trouble getting air through,” Ellis says. Most people think of this congestion as a result of too much mucus — but in reality, it’s just swollen conchae.

This explains why many people are congested when they wake up in the morning (after breathing cold, dry air all night), especially because central air and heating systems dry out air significantly.

5) The best way to decongest your nose is with steam


Because cold, dry air is what most often causes your conchae to swell, the best remedy is to add hot, moist air. This is why taking a hot shower often opens up a clogged nose, and why hot washcloths and facial steamers are also effective treatments.

Nasal decongestants (such as pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine) can also help de-swell the conchae, but in some cases, there’s a downside: they dry out the nasal cavity, by reducing the amount of serous fluid. So if you’re also experiencing excessively thick, dry mucus, you’re better off avoiding decongestants.

6) Thick mucus could mean you’re dehydrated


A few different factors can reduce the production of serous fluid in your nose, leading to thick, dry mucus. This is often experienced as post-nasal drip — thick mucus at the back of your throat that’s much more noticeable than the thinner mucus you swallow unconsciously.

One cause is dehydration: if your body doesn’t have enough water, it’ll cut back on the secretion of serous fluid. An excessively dry environment — often caused by central heat or air conditioning — can also cause the same problem, as can smoking cigarettes.

Instead of taking a decongestant to relieve post-nasal drip, Ellis recommends using an expectorant, which will increase the amount of serous fluid your mucus is diluted in.

7) Boogers are just dried mucus

Everybody does it. (Shutterstock.com)

Most of the mucus in your nose gets swept by your cilia to the back of your throat. But sometimes — especially in arid environments — some of the mucus near your nostrils (in an area formally called the nasal vestibule) begins to dry out first, becoming too viscous to be swept by cilia. If it sits there long enough, it dries even further, becoming the crusty accretion colloquially known as a booger.

Boogers, as it happens, are the subject of some scientific study. Several researchers have considered the question of why people pick their noses. One theory is that people simply derive pleasure from the act of “cleaning up,” and while tissues aren’t always available, your fingers are.

Whatever the reason, it’s widespread. The authors of one small survey finding that 91 percent of adults admitted to picking from time to time. But that doesn’t mean it’s a good idea: Dutch researchers, among others, have found that nose-picking can spread infections.

8) The color of your mucus can tell you a lot

Mucus, in its natural state, is clear. But that doesn’t mean that colored mucus is necessarily a bad thing.

Grey, whitish, or yellowish mucus could simply be the result of dust, pollen, or other particles you’ve inhaled from the air around you. On the other hand, these colors can be a sign of an infection, as they can be caused by an excess of white blood cells or pus. And darker colors — like pink, red, or brown — can be a sign of bleeding in your nasal cavity.

9) Afrin is powerfully addictive

Don’t use this. (Coronades03)

The nasal decongestant spray Afrin (which has the active ingredient Oxymetazoline) works really, really well. Too well.

“It’s not just habit-forming,” Ellis says. “It’s totally addictive, because the lining of the nose becomes completely dependent on it.”

Afrin relieves congestion by cutting down on blood flow to the conchae, rapidly reducing swelling and opening up the nasal cavity. But soon after it wears off, it leads to rebound swelling, with the conchae getting even bigger than they were before. As a result, many people become totally dependent on Afrin, continuing to use it to fix congestion that it’s causing in the first place.

“Once you start spraying, you can’t stop,” Ellis says. “If you go more than three or four days, the nose becomes so dependent on that it’s almost like heroin.” Afrin bottles do have a fine print warning telling people not to use the medicine for more than three days, but so many people miss it that there are Afrin addiction support groups online. Ellis, among others, thinks the spray should be a prescription-only medicine.

Mucus and Phlegm: Barometers of Your Health

It’s easy to get the care you need.

See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.

Your body constantly produces mucus and phlegm to help protect you from infection and prevent your internal tissues from dehydrating. Though they’re always at work, you typically only notice the sticky substances when you’re sick.

Mucus and phlegm are similar, yet different: 

  • Mucus is a thinner secretion from your nose and sinuses.
  • Phlegm is thicker and is made by your throat and lungs. 

Both work as part of your immune system. They trap particles you breathe in through your airways – including viruses and bacteria. Each day your body makes about 1.5 liters of them — even more when you’re fighting infection.

Mucus and phlegm are made of water, antibodies, enzymes, proteins and salt. They carry dead cells, dust and other debris from the nose and lungs.

When you breathe through your nose, 80 percent of particles are filtered through the mucus lining. Tiny hairs called cilia in the nose and lungs move mucus and phlegm toward the throat.

Color Not Always a Clear Indicator

The color and consistency of mucus and phlegm offer clues as to what’s happening in your body. But the color can’t be counted on to clearly indicate whether you have a bacterial or a viral infection, says Laura Tully, MD, of Premier ENT Associates.

“Patients think that because mucus is a color other than clear – like yellow or green – that means they have a sinus infection,” Dr. Tully says. “Just because your mucus starts out green or yellow, that’s very common with a typical viral cold, and doesn’t necessarily mean you have a bacterial illness.”

She adds, “Eventually a cold can morph into something like an acute sinusitis that is bacterial.”

The color and consistency of mucus and phlegm offer clues as to what’s happening in your body.

What to Know and Do When Your Mucus Changes 

Here’s a rundown of what the color and consistency of mucus and phlegm may indicate:

  • Clear. Thin and clear mucus is normal and healthy.
  • White. Thicker white mucus goes along with feelings of congestion and may be a sign that an infection is starting. The white color comes from an increased number of white blood cells. If you have asthma, lots of white phlegm may be a sign of inflamed airways. Using a preventer inhaler can help. Drink more water to stay hydrated and try saline sprays to ease a stuffy nose.  
  • Light yellow or green. Mucus or phlegm of this color means your body is fighting an infection. The color comes from the enzymes in white blood cells. Get plenty of rest and stay hydrated. If you have asthma, you may be experiencing more symptoms. Be sure to use your preventer inhaler to keep your airways open. 
  • Dark yellow or green. These colors – especially if accompanied by a fever, cough and sneezing – are a sign an infection is getting worse. Make an appointment with your doctor, especially if you have asthma and your inhaler is not effective.
  • Pink or red. Phlegm and mucus with a red tinge include blood. Irritation and dryness from nasal tissue can cause this. If phlegm from the lungs is pink or red, see your doctor right away. People with asthma who have a cough may bring up phlegm streaked with blood. 
  • Brown. Dried blood, dirt particles and residue from smoking or tobacco use can make mucus brown. Smoking can trigger asthma symptoms and prevent an inhaler from working.
  • Black. Heavy smoking and air pollution can cause black mucus. Rarely, it can be a sign of a fungal infection. See your doctor.

What to Do with Phlegm and Mucus?

When your body is overrun with phlegm and mucus, you can blow it out, spit it out or swallow it. Any method is fine. The stomach neutralizes bacteria carried by mucus and phlegm and does its part to remove other waste lodged in the sticky substances from the body.

If you have asthma and you feel that your body is making too much phlegm, talk with your doctor about exercises and medicines that can help. 

It’s easy to get the care you need.

See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.

Source: Laura Tully, MD, Premier ENT Associates; Texas A&M Health and Science Center; Asthma UK; The Conversation

Different Kinds Of Snot And What To Do About Them

Different Kinds Of Snot And What To Do About Them

If you’re like most people, you probably don’t like blowing a bunch of stringy ‘snot’ into a tissue. Although it may be annoying that you feel like a mucus factory when you’re sick or suffering from allergies, it is an essential component in the human body. It can also tell you a lot about what is going on inside your body. The way your snot looks can indicate things such as allergies, a cold, the flu, a sinus infection, or sinusitis. So, it is important to open up that tissue and take a peek if you aren’t feeling great.

Mucus Serves Many Essential Functions In The Body

No, mucus isn’t there just to make you miserable when you have a cold. Did you know that your body actually produces around 1-1.5L of it each day even when you’re healthy? Most of this mucus gets swallowed and dissolves in your stomach, so you never see it. Behind the scenes though, mucus helps keep your body running. It lines the tissues of your mouth, nose, throat, sinuses, and digestive tract. This keeps them moist and acts as a protective layer. Mucus also traps unwanted visitors from entering your body like bacteria and dust. When it does catch these foreign invaders, mucus has antibodies that helps the body kill them. So, even though you blame your mucus for making you miserable when you have the flu or a sinus infection, it actually helps keep you healthy.

Snot Tells You A Lot

As we mentioned, snot can tell you a lot about what is going on in your body. It can be a sign of common illnesses like the cold and flu or more serious ones like a sinus

or fungal infection. There are six common colors that snot can take on, including: clear, white, green/yellow, red/pink, brown/orange, and black. mucus can change colors for a variety of reasons, but each color tells a story about what is going on in your body. Furthermore, the viscosity – or thickness – of your mucus can also tell you a lot.

What Do The Colors Of Snot Mean?

Here is a basic breakdown of what the different colors of mucus mean:

Clear: If your snot is clear, that’s a good thing. Clear mucus is considered ‘normal’ or healthy. However, if you are experiencing a large amount of clear nasal discharge, it may be a sign of allergic rhinitis. This is the form of allergies that most people who suffer from them experience. You could be triggered by pollen, dust, animal fur, or other irritants.

White: White mucus differs from clear mucus when it looks cloudy and clumpier than normal. Oftentimes, this points to the common cold. White snot is caused by your snot losing its water content, making it thick and cloudy. You might also be experiencing a sore throat, congestion, coughing, or a low-grade fever.

Yellow/Green: Yellow snot is a good sign if you’ve been experiencing symptoms of an illness. It means that your immune system is fighting back. The yellow color is caused by white blood cells gathering to kill invaders. Once they are done, they are discarded in your snot and turn it a yellow/brown color. If your snot turns green, it means your immune system is working very hard to fight the infection. This is often accompanied by snot becoming very thick. It can be a sign of a sinus infection or more serious bacterial infection.

Pink/Red: Pink or red snot usually points to some sort of injury or nasal trauma. Snot can become stained red or pinkish from blood. This can happen because of a hit to the nose or because you have been excessively blowing it, causing it to dry out and bleed.

Brown/Orange: Brownish-orange snot can be caused by old blood leaving the body and often follows pink/red snot. It can also be caused by something you inhaled that discolors the mucus, such as dirt.

Black: Black snot almost always points to some sort of fungal infection. It is not common but should be considered serious and confirmed by a physician. Black snot can also appear in people who abuse illicit drugs or smoke heavily.


Velocity Urgent Care Is Here To Fix Your Snot Problem

If you are experiencing colored snot or other symptoms of the cold, flu, or a sinus infection, a visit to Velocity Urgent Care can help remedy your condition. Our team of board-certified, friendly physicians will take a detailed medical history and perform a physical exam to help determine the cause of your nasal discharge. They will carefully and thoroughly treat your snot problem and get you back to feeling 100%. Walk-in to any of our 11 locations and take advantage of the fast, quality care that Velocity Urgent Care has to offe

Excess Mucus, Home Remedies, Foods To Eliminate Excess Mucus

You must always spit out excess phlegm to reduce uneasiness and breathing problems


  • Ginger can help in eliminating excess mucus
  • Garlic can also be helpful
  • Pineapple juice is an effective remedy for excess mucus

Phlegm is a kind of mucus which is produced in lungs and lower respiratory tract. It is most noticeable when a person is unwell or has a longstanding health condition. Mucus is formed in some parts of the body even when a person is unwell. It protects these areas from drying out and helps the body defend against foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses. Some mucus is required for a healthy body, but too much of it can be caused because of infections such as common cold or flu, irritation in nose throat or lungs, allergies, gastroesophageal reflux disease, smoking or lung diseases like pneumonia, COPD, lung cancer and cystic fibrosis.

Some effective ways of keeping mucus under control include keeping the air around you moist, drinking plenty of fluids, not suppressing cough, spitting out excess phlegm, salt water gargle and taking the right medicines to name a few.

However, some home remedies for getting rid of excess of phlegm can be more effective in terms of getting relief and easing the breathing process for the patient. In one his recent posts on social media, lifestyle coach Luke Coutinho mentions 6 foods that can help in eliminating excess mucus.

Also read: Beware! Poor Air Quality Can Be Harmful For You: Top 6 Natural Ways To Decongest Your Lungs

6 foods to eliminate excess mucus as suggested by Luke Coutinho

1. Ginger

Ginger can be used as a natural decongestant and antihistamine. Antiviral and antibacterial properties of ginger can help in easing congestion in the chest by drying out excess mucus and stimulating removal of its buildup. Drinking ginger tea for a few times in a day can help in eliminating excess mucus.

2. Cayenne pepper

Excessive cough and mucus can be eliminated with the help of cayenne pepper. Capscaicin is a compound in cayenne pepper which helps in thinning of mucus.

Also read: An Essential Oil To Reduce Indoor Air Pollution, Provide Relief From Cough, Cold And Congestion

3. Garlic

Garlic can be used as a natural expectorant which can help in breaking down phlegm build-up. Anti-microbial properties of garlic can help in fighting viral, fungal and bacterial infections which causes respiratory glands to produce more phlegm. Including more garlic in your diet can help in eliminating excess phlegm from the body.

Garlic can help in breaking down phlegm build-up
Photo Credit: iStock

4. Pineapple

Pineapple is a fruit which can help in eliminating mucus. Pineapple juice contains a mixture of enzymes called bromelain. It has strong anti-inflammatory properties which can help with respiratory problems that are associated with asthma and allergies. Pineapple juice also contains mucolytic properties which can help in expelling and breaking up mucus.

5. Onion

Onion can help in dealing with cold, cough, fever, low immunity and a sore throat. It can also help in eliminating excess cough. All you need to do is soak grated onion in water for around 6 to 8 hours. Drinking 3 to 4 tbsp of this water every day can be helpful in improving health and eliminating excess cough.

Also read: Here’s How To Get Rid Of Phlegm And Mucous In The Chest, Throat

6. Cardamom

Cardamom can help in reducing buildup of excess mucus in the body. Cardamom is traditionally taken after meals for aiding digestion and assimilation. It aids easy digestion of food by protecting mucus membranes. It liquefies mucus in heavy foods which are harder to digest and forms more mucus in the body.

So, if change of weather or air pollution is causing excess phlegm or mucus, you know exactly what to do to get rid of it!

(Luke Coutinho, Holistic Lifestyle Coach – Integrative Medicine)

Disclaimer: This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for qualified medical opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. NDTV does not claim responsibility for this information.

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90,000 Vaginal discharge, discharge from the genital tract in women – the gynecologist’s answers to questions

We observe a great interest of our patients in such an intimate topic as discharge from the genital tract . You asked us – where is the line between norm and pathology; how much discharge should be in the norm and how to determine the first symptoms of thrush . With these questions, we turned to obstetrician-gynecologist Tatyana Nikolaevna Timofeeva .Tatyana Nikolaevna is a true professional in her field and enjoys a well-deserved popularity among patients of the DoktorA network of clinics , she answered your questions in detail.

Normally, discharge from the genital tract in a woman is always present and this is good. Allocations provide the function of self-cleaning of the vagina from menstrual blood, “dead cells”, various microorganisms, mucus. And yet what should be normal vaginal discharge ? They should be transparent, practically colorless, not emit a strong odor and should not exceed one teaspoon per day in volume. Normal vaginal discharge is maintained by lactobacilli, which, forming lactic acid, create unfavorable conditions for the growth of pathogenic bacteria. But sometimes, especially in young girls, the discharge can become more intense, acquire a whitish color. This is due to the fact that young girls are still in the process of forming a normal menstrual cycle and there is still no constancy of the composition of vaginal discharge. If a woman is not worried about itching, discomfort or pain – such discharge is normal .

But often, under the influence of a number of factors, such as colds, stress, taking antibiotics, abuse of washing (after all, natural mucus is washed out) and means of “intimate hygiene”, the local immunity system of the vagina can weaken and vaginal discharge becomes white -curious, thick, with a sour smell . At the same time, the vaginal mucosa becomes bright red, edematous, the woman is worried about itching in the external genital area ….All these are characteristic signs of “thrush” or candidiasis, a fungal disease of the vagina. This state itself cannot bring any obvious harm to the female body, but it is an indicator of trouble in the female reproductive system and “prompts” the woman to urgently consult a doctor to clarify the causes of the disorder ….

Also, women can have discharge of yellowish, brown, greenish color , they become cloudy …. All these are signs of obvious trouble and indicate the onset of an inflammatory process of the pelvic organs.The biggest mistake is self-medication, because this will eliminate only the external manifestations of the threat, leaving the “root of the problem” deep inside the female body and can lead to various formidable complications. In such cases, consultation with a gynecologist is strictly mandatory.

And we remind you that on our website you can ask a question to any specialist of our medical team, not a single question will remain unanswered. We will publish answers to common and most interesting questions in the news.

Laboratory diagnostics of sputum at SZCDM

Pathological discharge from the respiratory tract is called sputum . This is a secretory product that is secreted by epithelial cells and accumulates on the walls of the respiratory system. Normally, sputum is absent, and the secret that the respiratory system produces is swallowed. During illness, it becomes too much and he clears his throat.

Sputum examination is necessary in the presence of a pathological process in the lungs and bronchi.The analysis will determine the causes of the pathology, the stage of the process and the nature of the disease. This study is assigned in dynamics, which allows you to assess the adequacy of therapy and adjust it, if necessary.

The attending physician may prescribe a sputum analysis if there is a prolonged cough, a chronic pathological process in the organs of the respiratory system, if the diagnostic picture is unclear.

Types of sputum examination

There are the following types of sputum examination:

  • Macroscopic

  • Microscopic

  • Microbiological

  • Chemical.

Go to analyzes

Macroscopic analysis allows you to assess the general properties and nature of sputum. The amount of sputum, its consistency, color, odor are assessed. Also, impurities, their nature and quantity, various fibers are studied. You can determine pus, mucous particles, serous fluid, elements of a putrefactive process or tissue decay, blood, fibrin fibers. These elements can be absent, occur one by one or in combination with each other.

Microscopic analysis gives a more accurate idea of ​​the composition of sputum. Magnification allows you to determine the presence of cells, tissue elements. These can be traces of epithelium, leukocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes.

Bacteriological examination helps to confirm or exclude the presence of microorganisms in the sputum. It can be bacteria, fungus, parasites. An analysis is also carried out for sensitivity to antibiotic therapy, which makes the treatment more effective, shortens its time and eliminates the wrong tactics of patient management.

Chemical analysis of sputum is less informative. A reaction to hemosiderin is carried out, which allows us to talk about an impurity of blood. Also, evaluates the acidity of the biomaterial.

Types of sputum

Sputum can be classified according to several criteria. The main parameter is its character. There are such types of sputum:

It is observed in asthma and inflammatory processes. Has a viscous consistency, transparent color, glassy character.

Accompanies the breakthrough of an abscess or empyema into the lumen of the bronchus. Has a white color with a tint of yellow or green, opaque, thick, has a characteristic odor.

  • Mucopurulent sputum is produced in inflammatory processes with a bacterial pathogen. It is a viscous mass, cloudy, heterogeneous, interspersed with pus and mucus.
  • bloody

May contain blood streaks or formed clots.This happens during the oncological process, tuberculosis. The blood can be scarlet or crimson, depending on the type and age of the bleeding.

Sputum of a liquid consistency is the result of sweating of water from the capillaries into the lungs, it is observed with blood retention in the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary edema. May be pinkish.

How to prepare for laboratory sputum diagnostics?

It is necessary to collect material for analysis in the morning, on an empty stomach.Preparation for collecting sputum includes rinsing the oropharynx, spitting saliva. The task of correct collection is the selection of only the sputum that is coughing up, without impurities from the mouth or nose.

The patient is advised to draw more air into the lungs and start coughing. After that, the material is taken.

How is the material collected for analysis?

The material for research is collected in a sterile container. After coughing up the material, the container is sealed and sent to the laboratory.It is important that the sputum is fresh, otherwise the acidity changes, and some of the liquid dries out. Individual spittoon bowls are provided with a tight-fitting lid. Prior to transfer to the laboratory, the container with the collected material is stored in the refrigerator.

How are analysis indicators interpreted?

Evaluation of the results is always carried out in conjunction with the analysis of the clinical picture, symptoms and other studies of the patient.For example, a small amount of sputum is submitted for analysis, but it is important to know the amount of excreted substance per day.

The presence of mucus is observed in acute bronchitis, asthma. Mucus and pus are secreted during bronchiectasis, pneumonia, abscess formation, and various bronchitis. Blood in sputum is observed in severe disease, with pulmonary infarction, malignant growth, tuberculosis. A dark color and an unpleasant odor, the presence of decaying tissues speaks of lung gangrene.

Sputum microscopy can be used to exclude or confirm the presence of parasites. It can be roundworm, echinococcus. Purulent plugs are formed in sputum during decay processes. Areas of tumor or lung tissue may be observed, which indicates organ decay. If a large amount of squamous epithelium appears in the sputum, it is most likely that the material is mixed with saliva and a second analysis is required. Cylindrical epithelial cells in sputum accumulate during an acute inflammatory process in the respiratory tract, asthma or an oncological process.Leukocytes are part of purulent and mucous sputum and indicate inflammation of the corresponding nature. The presence of eosinophils is characteristic of asthma or the corresponding type of pneumonia. A study of cells for atypicality is carried out – if any are found, tumor growth may be present. Various fibers indicate tissue breakdown. Characteristic spirals and crystals are also found in asthma. These are casts of the airways that form the elements of mucus.

The presence of fungus, mycelium, bacteria indicates the presence of a corresponding infection.

What diseases are diagnosed by sputum analysis?

Sputum analysis is a key step in the diagnosis of a number of respiratory pathologies. Let’s take a closer look at these diseases.

Acute bronchitis
Sputum begins to stand out in the early stages of the disease. At first, it is slimy and viscous, but gradually acquires a mucopurulent character. The amount of material to be separated is gradually increasing.Under the microscope, you can find leukocytes, many epithelial cells, single erythrocytes.

Chronic bronchitis
Patients with chronic bronchitis note the regular expectoration of large amounts of mucopurulent sputum. Blood streaks are rare, especially after an intense cough. Alveolar macrophages, fibrinous casts of the airways, as well as representatives of the flora appear in the sputum.

Sputum in asthma is slimy and viscous, has a glassy character.There are spiral elements of Kurshman and crystal fragments of Charcot-Leiden, eosinophils.

This pathology is characterized by a large amount of sputum, which can reach 1 liter. The discharge has a dirty, gray-green hue. If you leave phlegm in a dish for a while, it will separate into several types: mucus, pus and serous fluid. Dietrich’s plugs, a significant number of leukocytes, biochemical impurities are observed.

The characteristic sputum is produced in lobar pneumonia. It has a viscous consistency, rusty color, and stands out in small quantities. With the development of the disease, its quantity increases, and a mucopurulent character is acquired. Of the impurities, fibrin, altered erythrocytes are observed. Gradually, the number of erythrocytes becomes smaller, the number of leukocytes rises.

Lung abscess
The sputum is two-layered, contains a large amount of pus and mucus impurities.Microscopic examination allows detecting leukocytes, tissue fibers, elements of fatty acids, hematoidin and cholesterol. Bacteriological analysis allows you to assess the nature of the flora.

Sputum is produced in the cavernous form of the disease. This is accompanied by purulent discharge, with impurities of blood and mucus. Microscopy allows you to determine the presence of oxa lenses, fibers, acid crystals. If calcified areas are observed, this indicates the decay of the old tuberculous focus.

Malignant tumor

The appearance of phlegm is observed during decay. It contains tissue sections, fibers, blood, atypical cells. The character is bloody, slimy.

As you can see, many diseases have common indicators of sputum. This once again reminds of the need for a holistic assessment of the clinical picture, in combination with symptoms and the results of other studies.

90,000 what to look at and how to understand

Most women are familiar with the “flora” smear as the “simplest” gynecological analysis.However, research is far more “useful” than it might seem. And only a few (or even one) deviations can highlight significant problems, even before any symptoms appear. So how do you understand the results obtained? We will tell you point by point.

1. Epithelium

As you know, any living object in nature has a limited life span, after which it dies “from old age.”

The epithelium in a gynecological smear is exactly the desquamated “old” cells of the mucous membrane of the vagina, cervical or urethra (depending on the evaluated locus).Which may be present in the material in moderation.

Exceeding regulatory limits (“many” or “abundant”) may indicate:

  • inflammation, due to which cells are destroyed in an “increased volume”,
  • or an excess of estradiol, which stimulates the proliferation (division and growth) of epithelial cells, thereby increasing their total number.

Reduction or absence of epithelium in the smear – atrophic changes, lack of estradiol or excess of androgens.

In addition, due to the dependence of the epithelium on the level of sex hormones, its amount in the material can vary greatly depending on the day of the cycle, starting from a single “in the field of view” at the very beginning – to a moderate and even large amount closer to ovulation and during it …

And the appearance in the smear of the so-called “key cells” (epithelium “covered” with small coccal bacteria) is a marker of bacterial vaginosis.

2. Leukocytes

The “norm” of leukocytes in a smear also strongly depends on the stage of the cycle and the level of sex hormones, as well as the investigated locus.

So, for the “maximum” for:

  • vagina accepted 10,
  • cervical canal – up to 25,
  • and in the urethra – no more than 5 leukocytes in the field of view.

An increase in the indicator obviously indicates inflammation, and a complete absence may occur normally at the very beginning of the cycle.


The result “absent”, “little” or “moderate” for this indicator is the norm, which is also associated with the individual characteristics of the hormonal background and the cycle.

But “a lot” of mucus in the smear – may indicate that the smear was taken in the middle of the cycle, dysbiotic changes or excess estrogen. Therefore, it requires the attention of a specialist or, at least, control over dynamics.


The predominant flora of the female genital tract in normal women of reproductive age is known to be lactobacilli (or Dederlein’s bacillus). The amount of which can be from moderate to abundant, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle.

Detection of “mixed, mainly rod-like” flora in a smear is also a variant of the norm. True, if these very rods are “small, polymorphic”, that is, they morphologically correspond to lactobacilli.

The predominance of coccal flora in the smear, and, especially, if its amount is “abundant” – a sign of pronounced dysbiotic disorders. This requires a more detailed assessment of the quality of microflora and, what is important, the ratio of its representatives to each other (for example, the analysis of “Femoflor-16”.Since it is associated with a variety of reproductive pathologies (including latent ones).

Pathological elements

The presence of mycelium of fungi, Trichomonas, diplococci (including the causative agent of gonorrhea), leptotrix, mobiluncus and other pathogenic microorganisms in a normal smear is not allowed, even in a minimal amount. And their identification is a serious reason to immediately seek treatment.

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90,000 Stretching discharge – norm or pathology

Number of views: 616 468

Date of last update: 25.08.2021

Average reading time: 4 minutes

Which discharge in women is considered the norm
Why do lingering discharge appear
Signs of pathology
Importance of high-quality intimate hygiene

with stretching discharge

Stretching vaginal discharge often frightens women and makes them think about the presence of inflammatory processes. In fact, viscous mucus from the genital tract does not always indicate any pathological conditions, if there are no additional complaints.The sticky vaginal discharge is protective and clears the genital tract. The mucous discharge maintains an optimal level of moisture, as well as comfort during intimate contacts. Depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle and the hormonal background of a woman, vaginal discharge can have a different volume and consistency.

Which discharge in women is considered the norm

Normal discharge has the following signs and characteristics:

  • no unpleasant odor, a slight sour smell is allowed;
  • at the beginning of the cycle, there is a sticky vaginal discharge, which becomes drawn closer to the day of ovulation, abundant and thinner 3-4 days before menstruation;
  • Allocations are insignificant in volume.

Why does lingering discharge appear

Stretching discharge of increased viscosity appears as a result of changes in the body associated with preparation for conception. Increasing the amount of cervical mucus allows the sperm to reach the egg and fertilize faster. The nature of vaginal discharge is influenced by the amount of estrogen and progesterone – female sex hormones. Immediately after menstruation, the discharge is slight, sticky. The first phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by scanty transparent discharge.Shortly before ovulation, the mucus liquefies, becomes stringy and elastic. Such discharge also appears within 1-2 days after unprotected sexual intercourse. This is also considered the norm. If a woman is very worried about viscous vaginal discharge, it is better to consult a gynecologist and undergo an examination. Some diseases, especially inflammatory ones, can lead to increased production of vaginal secretions, but other health complaints are usually present.

Most often, the nature of vaginal discharge changes with urogenital infections.They can appear not only due to unprotected intimate contacts, but also as a result of changes in the microflora of the vagina under the influence of unfavorable external and internal factors. Hormonal disorders, prolonged use of antibiotics and a general weakening of immunity contribute to a change in the microbial balance.

Signs of pathology

When vaginal discharge is associated with gynecological diseases, additional pathological signs appear:

  • pain in the lower abdomen and in the lower back;
  • copious yellow-green discharge with an unpleasant odor or curdled consistency;
  • discomfort during urination and intimate contact;
  • redness of the vulva, swelling of the external genital organs;
  • menstrual irregularities, etc.

In the presence of the above signs, a woman should be alert. It is recommended to make an appointment with a gynecologist, tell a specialist about your problems and undergo a comprehensive examination. Based on the results of the examination and tests, the doctor can diagnose and, if necessary, select the appropriate treatment.

The importance of maintaining good intimate hygiene in case of lingering discharge

Stretching vaginal discharge should not cause significant discomfort.But mucus often stains laundry. Plus, sticky vaginal discharge is a breeding ground for many bacteria and fungi. In order to prevent the development of infectious and inflammatory diseases, it is necessary to monitor the quality of personal hygiene, wash regularly and use special protective equipment. This will allow you to maintain maximum comfort in the intimate area throughout the day. When choosing personal care products, choose products with a natural and safe composition that do not irritate the skin and support a healthy vaginal microflora.

Carefree® panty liners help solve the problem of non-menstrual flow, which can be quite heavy, especially in the middle of a woman’s cycle. The delicate surface immediately absorbs mucus, allowing you to feel comfortable.

Microscopic examination of a smear from the nasal mucosa

A rhinocytogram is a study of mucus from the nasal cavity under a microscope. It allows you to determine the presence in the nasal mucus of cells characteristic of allergic or infectious diseases that cause rhinitis – inflammation of the nasal mucosa.With a prolonged runny nose, in some cases, it is difficult to determine the cause that caused it. For this purpose, a rhinocytogram is performed, which allows to identify an increased number of eosinophils, which serves as an additional argument in favor of the allergic nature of the common cold. Allergic rhinitis and infectious rhinitis are treated differently, which is why it is important to determine the cause of the common cold.
No reference values ​​provided.
The result is a description of the general cytological picture with counting the number of leukocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, ciliated epithelium, lymphocytes, macrophages, mucus, erythrocytes, yeasts, flora.The doctor interprets the result (differential diagnosis of rhinitis), evaluating the ratio of the number of cells.

Synonyms Russian

Rinocytogram, cytological examination of secretions from the nasal cavity, smear for eosinophilia, examination of scrapings from the nasal mucosa, examination of nasal secretions.

Synonyms English

Cytologic study of respiratory tract, Nasal Smear, Nasal smear for eosinophils, Eosinophil smear.

Research method


Which biomaterial can be used for research?

Nasal swab.

How to properly prepare for the study?

Avoid the use of nasal sprays, drops containing corticosteroids within 24 hours before the study.

General information about the study

Rhinocytogram – examination of nasal discharge under a microscope.With its help, you can identify changes characteristic of allergic reactions of the body or for infection. Thus, the cause of the inflammation of the nasal mucosa (rhinitis) is established.

Normally, all the walls of the nasal cavity are covered with a mucous membrane with a secretion that helps to remove dust and microbes. The secret has this property due to the presence of ciliated epithelium, which has cilia that are able to vibrate and move mucus along with dust and microbes.

Nevertheless, normally a large number of microbes (some types of staphylococci, streptococci, etc.) live in the nasal cavity, which do not harm a person due to the body’s immune response.If, for any reason, the local immunity decreases, microbes can lead to inflammation, acute rhinitis occurs – a disorder of the nasal function, accompanied by inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane and a runny nose. In addition, rhinitis can be caused by viruses transmitted by airborne droplets, including the causative agents of acute respiratory infections.

A decrease in local immunity can be caused by hypothermia of the body, a decrease in the general immunity of a person. The development of the common cold is also facilitated by the slowing down of the movement of the ciliated epithelium.

As a result of the response of the immune system, the number of leukocytes – white blood cells – increases in the nasal mucosa. There are several varieties of them; in bacterial infections, neutrophils play the main role in the defense of the body, and in viral infections, lymphocytes. Macrophages may also appear.

In case of allergy, the body is exposed to a certain substance (allergen), for example pollen, wool, dust, etc., to which the immune system becomes more sensitive. This reaction leads to the release of certain substances (histamine, bradykinin) in the nasal mucosa, which cause allergy symptoms.At the same time, such cells of the immune system as eosinophils (one of the varieties of leukocytes) are of greater importance in this process. With allergies, they can appear in large quantities in the blood, and also accumulate in the nasal mucus.

In addition, there is vasomotor (neurovegetative) rhinitis, in which exposure to cold, taking certain medications, exposure to other physical or psychoemotional factors causes an acute swelling of the nasal mucosa and a change in the vascular tone of the nasal cavity.

At the same time, in all cases of rhinitis, a large amount of fluid is formed and released, which we call a runny nose.

The allergic nature of rhinitis often remains undetected, although it is quite common. A rhinocytogram can help in diagnosis: a feature of eosinophils that appear in allergic rhinitis is that with a special stain (according to Romanovsky – Giemsa) they turn red and become available for counting under a microscope.

What is the research used for?

With prolonged rhinitis in some cases, it is difficult to determine the cause that caused it. For this purpose, a rhinocytogram is performed, which allows to identify an increased number of eosinophils, which serves as an additional argument in favor of the allergic nature of the common cold. Allergic rhinitis and infectious rhinitis are treated differently, which is why it is important to determine the cause of the common cold.

When is the study scheduled?

With prolonged runny nose (several weeks or more), accompanied by nasal congestion, sneezing of unknown origin.

What do the results mean?

Reference values ​​for different types of microorganisms depend on their localization (point of sampling of biological material).

Increased performance

  • Eosinophils. A significant increase (more than 10% of the total number of leukocytes in a smear and more) in the number of eosinophils testifies in favor of the allergic origin of the common cold. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the absence of a large number of eosinophils in the smear does not allow to reliably exclude the allergic nature of the disease.Eosinophil levels can also be elevated in non-allergic eosinophilic rhinitis, a condition in which there are no other signs (besides an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood and nasal mucus) of allergy. The disease is often accompanied by polyps and a lack of response to antiallergic (antihistamines) drugs.
  • Neutrophils. An increase in the number of these cells in the smear may indicate that infectious agents (bacteria or viruses) are the cause of the common cold.An increase in the level of neutrophils is especially characteristic of the acute stage of the disease.
  • Lymphocytes. The increased lymphocyte count may be associated with chronic infectious inflammation of the nasal mucosa.
  • Erythrocytes. The appearance of erythrocytes in the smear may indicate an increased permeability of the vascular wall of the nasal mucosa, which is characteristic of some types of rhinitis, in particular those caused by diphtheria or influenza.

It should be noted that an increase in the level of neutrophils and lymphocytes is not specific for infection.

Decrease in indicators

The absence of eosinophils, neutrophils, other types of leukocytes in the smear may indicate:

  • Vasomotor rhinitis – runny nose, not associated with allergy or infection;
  • 90,066 rhinitis associated with abuse of vasoconstrictor nasal sprays;

  • rhinitis caused by other reasons (hormonal disorders, disorders of the psychoemotional state, disorders of the anatomy of the nasal passages, etc.).

What can influence the result?

The use of nasal sprays, especially corticosteroids, may produce false negative results for eosinophilia.

The same effect is sometimes observed with the use of tablets containing corticosteroids and antihistamines (antiallergic) drugs.

Cough in a child – all about the symptom: types, causes, treatment

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  • Types of cough in a child

  • Treatment methods

Cough is a sudden release of air from the respiratory tract, a natural reflex and a defensive reaction to the action of irritating factors.It helps to free the respiratory tract from foreign objects, mucus, microorganisms. In most cases, a child’s cough is a symptom of some pathological processes occurring in the body, and this logically makes parents worry. There are many types of cough, and in this article we will give their characteristics – this will help parents better navigate and understand when a thorough diagnosis is required, and in which it is possible to observe his child’s condition without serious concern.

Types of cough in a child

First of all, it should be divided into natural and pathological.

Natural cough – reflex cleansing of the upper respiratory tract from external (dust) or internal (mucus) irritants. It appears mainly in the first half of the day, it is not paroxysmal, does not cause discomfort to the child – it is more likely to cough up. Rare episodes of coughing can occur in a healthy child, for example, during sleep due to the accumulation of mucous discharge in the larynx.A natural cough can occur with a sharp change in air temperature, for example, when moving to a warm room from frost. In infants, a reflex reaction may appear when saliva or mother’s milk gets “in the wrong throat”; at night, a cough can be triggered by increased production of saliva due to teething.

A pathological cough is a symptom of a disease. It has many subspecies:

  • Dry. In another way, it is called unproductive, since there is no sputum with it.This type of cough is obsessive and does not bring relief. It is a sign of the initial phase of many colds and infectious diseases of the respiratory tract. Sometimes a foreign body in the respiratory system.
  • Wet. This type of cough is productive, accompanied by the discharge of sputum, which brings relief. It occurs after the dry cough phase during the course of most colds.
  • Paroxysmal. Painful for a person, since the attacks are accompanied by a deep breath with a whistle, tears, redness of the face, sometimes ends with vomiting.It occurs in acute bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, pleurisy, whooping cough.
  • Laryngeal. Cough “barking”, hoarse, appears in diseases of the larynx (laryngitis, diphtheria). With diphtheria, it can become almost silent.
  • Bitonal. It is characterized by a low hoarse sound at the beginning and a high sibilant sound at the end. It occurs with bronchitis, sometimes due to a foreign body.
  • Cough. These are not very disturbing, short coughing fits due to the accumulation of mucus in the larynx.They can accompany all types of colds, sometimes they form as a habit after an already suffered illness.
  • Whooping cough. It is a paroxysmal, heavy, chest cough with thick, viscous expectoration, with wheezing and wheezing during inhalation. Accompanies the infectious disease whooping cough.
  • Spastic. It is an obsessive, dry cough with a wheezing sound that gets worse with deep breathing. Appears in obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma.
  • Allergic. It is caused by a negative reaction of the body to some kind of allergen. You can distinguish a cold cough from an allergic one by the following signs: there is no sputum separation, the cough appears suddenly, it can last for several weeks, intensifies at night, is accompanied by a runny nose, but without fever, no antitussive drugs stop it.
  • Night. Cough appears mainly at night and may indicate increased production of mucus in the nose due to sinusitis or adenoiditis.A stuffy nose makes the child breathe through the mouth, and this greatly dries the mucous membranes and irritates the cough receptors. In rare cases, a child may be allergic to the filler in the blanket or pillow. You should try to change the sleeping conditions – the cough may stop. In other cases, it is a symptom of a respiratory illness.
  • Psychosomatic. This variety can be developed in a child as a way to attract the attention of adults in situations that bring him stress – for example, before a doctor’s appointment.This will work as long as adults focus on it and indulge the whims of the child. In some cases, you may need to consult a psychologist.

Methods of treatment

The doctor needs to determine the pathology in question and treat the identified root cause of the disease. Only an experienced ENT doctor and with the presence of diagnostic equipment can correctly assess the condition of the child. To make a diagnosis, you may need: blood tests, laboratory diagnostics (allergy, bronchodilatory and bronchodilatory tests, sputum examination), X-ray and CT of the chest.

The choice of treatment method depends on the nature of the disease. Among the drugs are prescribed: antitussives, expectorants, mucolytic, enveloping, antihistamines. Physiotherapy has proven itself well in treatment:

  • ultraviolet irradiation;
  • halotherapy;
  • warming up;
  • use of the Milta apparatus.

The complex treatment prescribed by the pediatric otolaryngologist will surely give results soon. Doctors at the Ear, Throat and Nose Clinic will achieve quick and effective relief from your child’s cough.Call us for an appointment!

90,000 Can you eat ice cream when your throat hurts?

  • Claudia Hammond
  • BBC Future

Photo author, Getty Images

Everyone knows that you can’t eat ice cream if you have a cold. And some people believe that milk can worsen the unpleasant symptoms in the throat. The BBC Future columnist decided to find out if you really need to deny yourself the pleasure when you get sick.

You have a stuffy nose, watery eyes and a headache. Appetite for sure is not, but if you do decide to eat something, it turns out that there are many rules of what is allowed and what is not. Among the foods that are usually not advised to eat for colds, dairy is most often called.

Some people recommend avoiding ice cream, cheese, and above all milk, arguing that dairy products supposedly increase mucus production. But is it?

Although mucus is disgusting, this secretion plays an important role in our physiology.The mucous membranes protect tissues from irritation and damage in many parts of our body, particularly the trachea, lungs, esophagus and stomach. But during a cold, mucus begins to be produced in excess.

The idea that milk increases mucus production has been around for centuries. This was written about in treatises on traditional Chinese medicine and was mentioned in his writings by the 12th century physician Moses Maimonides. And a 2004 study found that more than half of people still believe in this theory, with some having heard it from their doctor.

Author of the photo, Getty Images

Signs to the photo,

Some people are sure that it is enough to drink only a glass of milk to increase the secretion of mucus in the throat

You do not need much for this – you just have to drink a glass of milk, and mucus in the throat will immediately become more, said two-thirds of those surveyed in the 1993 study. Its participants noted that after milk in the throat there was a feeling of stickiness, congestion, it was more difficult to swallow.

These symptoms, however, are not like an allergic reaction to milk, which only a very small number of adults have.With allergies, symptoms can be much more serious – vomiting, rashes, and shortness of breath.

It also has nothing to do with lactose intolerance – a lack of certain enzymes needed to digest lactose in milk. People with this syndrome have a feeling of heaviness in the stomach, flatulence or diarrhea after consuming dairy products.

What do those who have increased secretion in the throat from milk actually feel? To find out, researchers at a hospital in South Australia asked some participants to drink regular cow’s milk and others to drink soy.

Because cocoa-mint flavor was added to both drinks, it was impossible to tell the taste between them. After a while, those who drank cow’s milk did notice that they felt a lump in their throats, their saliva became thicker and it was more difficult for them to swallow.

Everything is clear, you will think, except for one thing – those who drank soy drink reported exactly the same symptoms.

Interestingly, it was those people who were sure that there was a connection between milk and mucus production that felt these symptoms more acutely.Their feelings did not depend on what kind of milk they drank.

Photo Credit, iStock

Signs to Photo,

In a recent study, both groups of participants who drank soy milk and regular cow’s milk reported feeling a lump in their throat

However, the participants in this study did not have a cold. Can cow’s milk make the situation worse if your throat and nose are already blocked? It is better not to read about the next experiment while eating.

This time, the researchers deliberately infected the volunteers with ARVI, and when they had unpleasant symptoms of a cold, they gave them milk.The subjects were asked not only to write down any of their feelings, but also to collect nasal discharge and weigh it (hopefully, not on a kitchen scale).

It turned out that those participants who believed in the connection between milk and mucus described worse symptoms, but in fact had the same amount of discharge as those who did not believe in such a connection.

So, there is really no evidence that dairy products increase mucus secretion. But some people do have a feeling of discomfort in their throat after drinking milk.Although the reason is quite different.

Since milk does not dissolve well, drops of milk combine with saliva to create a viscous sensation in the throat. By the way, the same thing happens with soy milk. But why some people feel it and others do not, we do not know.

As for ice cream, the main problem here is that it is cold. If you have a cold, can ice cream cool your body even more? Unlikely. When food, even very cold food, enters the stomach, it kicks off the digestion process, which generates heat and warms your body anyway.

So, if you are sick, but you want to eat ice cream or drink milk, do not deny yourself the pleasure. These products have no medicinal properties, but you won’t get any worse either.

Medical disclaimer . The purpose of this article is to provide general information. It cannot replace specialist medical advice.