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Darker than normal stools: Stool Color Chart, Meaning, Texture Changes, Size & Unhealthy


Rectal Cancer Symptoms and Signs

Being able to recognize the signs and symptoms of rectal cancer—colorectal cancers found in the lower portion of the colon near the anus—is more important than ever following a 2017 study.

Researchers discovered that colorectal cancer is increasing significantly in people under the age of 50. This uptick prompted the American College of Gastroenterology to suggest in its 2021 guidelines that colorectal cancer screenings begin at age 45 for people who are considered average risk.

Unfortunately, whether the disease occurs in younger or older adults, a delay in the diagnosis of this disease is a problem. Frequently, this results in these cancers being found at more advanced stages of the disease, when the outlook isn’t as good.

The signs and symptoms of rectal cancer are nonspecific, meaning they could have a number of causes—many, though not all, of which are less serious. While the chance that you might have rectal cancer is higher if more than one of the following are present, experiencing just one of these signs or symptoms is reason enough to see your doctor.

Verywell / Gary Ferster

Bloody Stools

Rectal bleeding (either bright red or dark red in color) is a common symptom of rectal cancer. This bleeding may be associated with the passage of mucus in the stool as well.

Bleeding may not always be apparent, however, and sometimes it occurs only on a microscopic scale (meaning you can’t see it with the naked eye). A test called a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) detects blood in the stool that cannot be seen.

While rectal bleeding is a symptom of rectal cancer, it is also associated with less severe health problems, such as internal hemorrhoids and anal fissures. There are also some foods, like beets and red licorice, that can cause changes in stool color that resemble blood.

To be safe, always report any suspect changes in stool color to your doctor.

While bleeding due to rectal cancer usually causes bright red or dark red blood (hematochezia), don’t dismiss darker stools. Bleeding higher in the colon, as well as in the stomach, often appears black and tarry (melena), or resembles coffee grounds. This symptom can also be a warning sign of serious medical conditions.

Changes in Bowel Habits

Another common symptom of rectal cancer is a change in bowel habits. This can be diarrhea, constipation, or an increase or decrease in the frequency of bowel movements. With rectal cancer, diarrhea is quite common.

The important point with bowel habits is to be alert for a change that represents a change for you personally. Everyone has different bowel habits, and what is normal for one person may not be for another.

Certainly, there are many causes of this, and your symptoms could be due to something as minor as your diet. That said, it’s still best to consult with your doctor if you notice any change.

Rectal Pressure

Another common symptom of rectal cancer is the presence of rectal pressure or fullness, or the sensation that you have to empty your bowels, even if you’ve just finished. A mass in the rectum can give the sensation of incomplete emptying (tenesmus), even if you no longer need to pass stool. 

Thin Stools

A change in the pattern of a bowel movement to thin or ribbon-like stools may indicate a problem. A growth in the colon or rectum that is partially obstructing the bowel can change the size and shape of the stool as it exits the body. Other conditions may also cause thin stools, such as a large benign polyp or hemorrhoids.

While some sources describe thin as “pencil thin,” there really isn’t an accepted definition. If you notice that your stools are thinner than normal for you, see your doctor.

Cramping and Constipation

When a tumor in the rectum is large, it may obstruct the rectum partially or completely. This can lead to severe constipation and progressively worsening cramping. Small amounts of liquid stool may be able to pass through the obstruction, but the sensation of constipation will persist.

If you are passing liquid stool and feel like you need to expel more waste, but can’t, urgent medical care is needed.

Symptoms of Anemia

Microscopic bleeding due to rectal cancer often causes anemia. Anemia, in turn, can cause fatigue (commonly the first symptom people note) or weakness; shortness of breath, often just with activity at first; dizziness; headaches; and an irregular heartbeat.

Most people feel tired at times, but fatigue that is interfering with your ordinary activities could be a symptom of an underlying medical problem.

Unexplained Weight Loss

Many people welcome unexpected weight loss, but if you’re losing weight and haven’t changed your diet or exercise, there is cause for concern.

Unintentional weight loss is defined as the loss of more than 5% of your body weight over a six- to 12-month period without trying. An example would be a 200-pound person losing 10 pounds over a six-month period.

Rectal cancer is only one of the possible causes of this symptom, however, so unexplained weight loss always deserves a visit to your doctor.

A Word From Verywell

Colorectal cancer is increasing in people under age 55, with a significant increase in 30- to 39-year-olds being noted since 1995, and an increase in 40- to 54-year-olds noted since 2005. Experts cannot pinpoint the reason. At the same time, the diagnosis of these cancers is often delayed. Consequently, the tumors are often more extensive, making treatment more difficult.

Having an awareness of the signs and symptoms of rectal cancer, and seeking attention if you note any of them, is important in order to detect and treat these cancers as early as possible.

Is It Normal to See Mucus in Your Poop?

You may think of mucus as the slimy stuff you cough up when you’re sick. But it can also show up at the other end: in your poop.

Many parts of your body make mucus, including your intestines. It lines your digestive tract, creating a protective layer against bacteria. It also helps waste pass smoothly through your colon. Some of it can stick to poop as it leaves your body.

Mucus in Stool Signs and Symptoms

If you feel fine and there’s only a little mucus, you probably don’t need to worry. But it may be a sign of a problem when:

  • There’s a lot of mucus.
  • You notice it often.
  • You also see blood.
  • You have diarrhea.
  • You have belly pain.

If you have any of these symptoms, call your doctor.

Causes of Mucus in Stool

Different digestive problems can make more mucus show up in your stool. Some are serious and long-lasting. Others can clear up quickly. Problems that can cause mucus include:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The main symptoms may be constipation (IBS-C), diarrhea (IBS-D), or alternating diarrhea and constipation (IBS-M). It’s typical to see mucus in your poop if you have this condition.

Crohn’s disease is another type of IBD that can cause mucus in your poop.

Ulcerative colitis. This type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes sores in the intestines. They can bleed and make pus and mucus, which you might see when you go to the bathroom. It also often causes diarrhea, belly pain, and cramping.

Proctitis. This is inflammation of the lower part of your large intestine, called the rectum. Sexually transmitted infections, foodborne illnesses, and IBD can cause it.

C. difficile (c. diff ). Infection with this type of bacteria can cause severe, even life-threatening diarrhea. It smells very bad and often has mucus.

Food poisoning. If you get flu-like symptoms and your poop has blood or mucus in it, you may have food poisoning. It usually clears up within days.

Other infections. An infection with other bacteria or parasites can also cause the problem. Dysentery is one example.

Rectal cancer. One of the main signs of rectal cancer is bleeding, but you may also have mucus.

Anal fistulas or rectal ulcers. Anal fistuals are infected tunnels between the skin and the anus. They can form after an abscess. They can sometimes cause bad-smelling mucus to drain from the anal area. Rectal ulcers are open sores inside your rectum that can also cause mucus.

Allergic colitis. This reaction babies can have to cow’s milk can cause mucus in their poop.

Mucus in Stool Diagnosis

If your doctor thinks the mucus is related to a health problem, you may get a stool test. It’s also called a stool culture or stool sample, and it can show whether you have an infection.

You don’t need any special prep for this test. You simply put a small sample of your poop in a container that your doctor gives you.

Your doctor may also order a few other tests, too. The ones you get will depend on other symptoms you’re having. Some additional tests include:

  • Blood tests and stool tests
  • Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Your doctor uses a thin, flexible tube with a camera to look inside your colon.
  • Upper endoscopy to check your esophagus, stomach, and the upper part of your small intestine  
  • Capsule endoscopy (a camera in a capsule you swallow) can check for signs of Crohn’s disease
  • X-rays to look at internal organs
  • CT scans of your bowels and tissues
  • MRIs take detailed pictures of your organs and tissues

Treatment and Home Care for Mucus in Stool

The treatment you get for mucus in your poop depends on the problem that’s causing it. Some conditions will need medicine and others won’t. For example, changes in diet that help you avoid certain foods may help you manage symptoms of IBS.

With mild food poisoning, you may only need to drink more fluids. On the other hand, you need antibiotics to treat infection with C. diff.

Once you have a diagnosis, you and your doctor should talk about the best treatment for that condition.

Stool color: When to worry

Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are considered normal. Only rarely does stool color indicate a potentially serious intestinal condition.

Stool color is generally influenced by what you eat as well as by the amount of bile — a yellow-green fluid that digests fats — in your stool. As bile pigments travel through your gastrointestinal tract, they are chemically altered by enzymes, changing the pigments from green to brown.

Consult your doctor if you’re concerned about your stool color. If your stool is bright red or black — which may indicate the presence of blood — seek prompt medical attention.

Stool quality What it may mean Possible dietary causes
Green Food may be moving through the large intestine too quickly, such as due to diarrhea. As a result, bile doesn’t have time to break down completely. Green leafy vegetables, green food coloring, such as in flavored drink mixes or ice pops, iron supplements.
Light-colored, white or clay-colored A lack of bile in stool. This may indicate a bile duct obstruction. Certain medications, such as large doses of bismuth subsalicylate (Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol) and other anti-diarrheal drugs.
Yellow, greasy, foul-smelling Excess fat in the stool, such as due to a malabsorption disorder, for example, celiac disease. Sometimes the protein gluten, such as in breads and cereals. See a doctor for evaluation.
Black Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as the stomach. Iron supplements, bismuth subsalicylate (Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol), black licorice.
Bright red Bleeding in the lower intestinal tract, such as the large intestine or rectum, often from hemorrhoids. Red food coloring, beets, cranberries, tomato juice or soup, red gelatin or drink mixes.

Oct. 10, 2020

Show references

  1. Suneja M, et al., eds. The abdomen, perineum, anus, and rectosigmoid. In: DeGowin’s Diagnostic Examination. 11th ed. McGraw Hill; 2020. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.
  2. Feldman M, et al., eds. Gastrointestinal bleeding. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 11th ed. Elsevier; 2021.https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.
  3. What is celiac disease? Celiac Disease Foundation. https://celiac.org/about-celiac-disease/what-is-celiac-disease/. Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.

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12 Things Your Poop Color Says About Your Health

It’s not something that’s usually talked about — unless, of course, you’re in the midst of potty training — but the color, smell, and size of your bowel movements can reveal a lot about your diet and how healthy you really are. Before we dive into the details, remember that you should always consult a doctor if you notice anything irregular happening. But in the meantime, this helpful guide gives you a better idea of what your poop may be trying to tell you. Without further adieu, if your …

1. … poop is hard and in small pellets.

“You’re dehydrated and don’t have enough fiber in your system to flush everything out, [so] stool stays in your body longer than it should and your colon extracts water out of it, resulting in hard pieces,” says Brenda Watson, C.N.C., digestive care expert and author of The Fiber 35 Diet. The solution is usually simple: be sure to drink the recommended eight glasses of water a day, and slowly incorporate more fiber into your diet via oats and flax seed. The keyword there is slowly, otherwise Watson says you could end up feeling bloated.

2. … poop is black.

This poop color could signal some sort of internal bleeding high in your GI tract, says Charles Austin, author of The Toilet Book. According to Austin, the blood is darker than the usual red hue because it has been processed and moved through the digestive system with your food.

That said, dark poop could also just be a harmless side effect of taking iron supplements (the mineral is naturally black in color) or prescribed medications, like anti-depressants, codeine, or oxycontin. If you’re unsure, it’s best to call the doc.

3. … poop is very loose, but not diarrhea.

This usually is nothing more than a sign of food sensitivity, Watson says. Having a sensitivity doesn’t mean you’re allergic, but food is irritating your digestive system and causing your body to create mucus that makes your poop more liquid-y than usual. Some of the common culprits include dairy, eggs, and gluten. Watson says in some cases, taking a probiotic supplement may help.

4. … poop smells worse than usual.

If you notice a significant difference in stench, it could mean you’re constipated and stool is sticking around longer than it should. When that happens, more natural digestive gasses — think methane, sulfur, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen — are produced and bacteria in your colon ferments. The fix: Integrate more high-fiber foods into your diet and stay hydrated, Watson says.

That said, if you’ve traveled to an international destination recently and your poop smells really foul, Watson says to see a doctor right away, as it could be indicative of a parasitic, viral, or bacterial infection.

5. … poop color is light.

You probably need to get your liver checked, Watson says.” Bile is produced in the liver and it’s what gives your poop the brown color that it should be. When your poop is light, the liver isn’t producing enough bile, which means your body is not detoxifying well.” After consulting with a doctor, Watson says to try adding dandelion root into your diet, as preliminary research has suggested the plant can help boost liver function.


… poop has blood in it.

This could signal a bunch of different things. One is that you may have pushed poop out too hard, which can lead to a small tear in the lining of the anal canal that’s NBD so long as the bleeding doesn’t persist. Or, if there’s less than a half teaspoon of blood and it’s accompanied by some pain and discomfort down there, Watson says the bleeding could be caused by internal hemorrhoids, in which case you need to see the doctor. It could also mean that there’s bleeding somewhere in your colon or lower digestive tract, so Austin suggests getting checked out either way.

7. … poop is seaweed green.

A green poop color could mean that you’re eating a lot of leafy green veggies, but if it’s a deeper hue, that could mean food is moving too quickly through your digestive system, Austin says. “Bile’s natural color has a green tint to it, so when it’s coming out in your stool, that means the body didn’t have enough time to process it into the brown color that it should be.

8. … poop is brown and a banana shape.

Good news: This is the ideal stool situation. Watson says you’re in good shape when poop has about 75% water and 25% bacteria and fiber, and when it does, it generally exits as a rich brown color, is approximately one foot long, and has a toothpaste consistency. It also indicates that you’re getting all the fiber you need, so things are running smoothly in the digestive department, he adds.

9. … poop color is bright blue or purple.

You probably got a hold of a Burger King whopper, some intense food coloring, or you ate a bunch of beets recently. Despite the freaky look, there’s nothing to worry about here.

10. … poop is pencil-thin.

If your poop went from normal to pencil-thin, it might not be because of your diet. According to the Cleveland Clinic, the bowel (and its movements) gets really narrow with some types of colon cancer, so it’s best to set up an appointment with your doctor to rule out anything severe.

11. … poop is yellow.

Seeing yellow poop in the toilet isn’t pleasant. It typically smells foul because it’s made up of excess fat, possibly due to a malabsorption disorder like celiac disease, according to the Mayo Clinic. To find out if gluten is causing your bowel issues, contact your doctor for testing. Celiac affects 1 in 100 people worldwide, and it may require following a gluten-free diet.

12. … poop floats.

When poop floats to the top of the bowl, it’s usually due to a change in diet and you being more gassy, says the Cleveland Clinic. It could also mean your body isn’t absorbing nutrients properly, or even be a sign of a gastrointestinal infection. If it doesn’t return to normal after a few days, check with your doctor to make sure everything is in proper order.

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*NOTE: These are possibilities, not diagnoses. The best course of action is always to talk with your doctor about any health concerns you may have.

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Foods That Can Cause Dark Stool

Dark-colored produce like beets might be the cause of your dark stools, but that shouldn’t prevent you from eating it!

Image Credit: istetiana/Moment/GettyImages

Your bowel movements suddenly changing to a very dark color can be, understandably, alarming. But a change to the color of your poop rarely indicates a serious health problem and it’s likely caused by something you ate, the Seattle Children’s Hospital Research Foundation states.

That is, it’s possible a serving of beets, a snack of black licorice or some other food you noshed on that day could have caused a color change to your stools. Take a look at some supplements and foods that can potentially turn your poop dark.

Read more: 7 Weird Facts About Poop

1. Iron Supplements

Iron supplements can cause bowel movements to become dark, even black, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. If you are being treated for iron-deficiency anemia or are a pregnant woman taking prenatal vitamins that are high in iron, you may have darkened stools.

2. Antacid Medications

The medication bismuth subsalicylate (found in Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate, among others), which is used to treat diarrhea, indigestion, heartburn and nausea, may turn your stool black, according to the Mayo Clinic. And in some people, these medications can lead to lighter white or clay-colored stools as well. These medications can also turn your tongue black!

Taking activated charcoal, which is sometimes used as a home remedy to treat heartburn, may also cause a dark stool, per the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

3. Colorful Foods

We’re totally commending you for “eating the rainbow” — but don’t be alarmed if your healthy habits show up in your stool.

Dark leafy greens can cause stools to be tinged with green pigment, according to the Mayo Clinic, while tomato products, beets, cranberries and grape juice may lead to a hue that ranges from bright red to almost black.

Black licorice, blueberries and dark chocolate cookies can darken stools to almost black. Artificial food coloring, common in drink mixes or ice pops, can tint your poop a range of colors, from red to green.

Read more: Top 10 Healthiest Fruits and Vegetables

It Might Be Because You Have Diarrhea

If you are experiencing diarrhea, your stools may be greener than usual regardless of what you’ve been eating. That’s because bile, a fluid your liver produces to digest fat, starts off a yellow-green color, according to the Mayo Clinic.

As bile travels through your digestive system, its pigments are chemically altered by enzymes and change from green to brown, which is why normal stools are generally brown. But when you have diarrhea, food is moving through your system so quickly that bile didn’t have time to turn brown, resulting in green-tinted stools.

When to See a Doctor

While there are many foods that can cause dark stools, a change in color can also indicate an underlying medical condition, including a peptic ulcer, certain cancers and gastritis, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Stools that are brown, tan, yellow or green are normal — and people should only worry about stools that are black, red or white, notes the Seattle Children’s Hospital Research Foundation. But stools that are red or black may be the result of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease.

“Black stool or bright red stool (in any amount — specks, streaks, etc.) should prompt medical attention,” says Lindsey Albenberg, DO, spokesperson of the American Gastroenterological Association and an attending physician in the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Along with noting blood in your stool, other warning signs that merit a trip to the doctor include vomiting blood or feeling dizzy or lightheaded, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Read more: What Could Cause Loose, Dark Stools?

What Are the Causes of Black Dog Poop?

When it comes to your pet’s health, sometimes the proof is in the poop. Most pet parents will schedule a visit with the veterinarian if their pet’s droppings suddenly change size or consistency. But what about when your dog’s poop suddenly turns an unusual color, like black? Is black dog poop normal or a cause for concern?

Why Black Dog Poop Happens

What might cause black dog poop? Photography © winyoo08 | iStock / Getty Images Plus.

“A normal stool for a dog should be firm and dark brown in color … and the color of the stool should be fairly consistent from day to day, providing the dog eats a regular diet,” explains Dr. Dawn M. Spangler, assistant professor of shelter medicine at Lincoln Memorial University College of Veterinary Medicine in Tennessee.

Though it’s a relatively rare occurrence, when the color of your pet’s poop suddenly takes on a black, tarry appearance, it can actually point to a number of digestive conditions. According to Dr. Ramon Nieves, owner of Del Mar Veterinary Hospital in Florida, that tarry black dog poop is known as melena, and is typically a result of digested blood in your dog’s poop. Though it’s not actually a condition itself, melena is a symptom of some other underlying health issue, such as a blood clotting disorder or an ulcer.

“A common complaint by pet owners is that they’ve spotted some blood in their pet’s stool, and as veterinarians we can pinpoint where the bleeding is occurring in the GI tract based upon the color they describe … whether it’s dark or bright red, or even black,” Dr. Nieves explains. He notes that black dog poop typically occurs as a result of bleeding in the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract; the dark color and tarry consistency of the feces signifies the digestion of blood as it has passed through the intestinal tract. It may also occur if your dog has ingested a significant amount of blood from the respiratory tract — such as if he’s been coughing and swallowing blood from his lungs, or even if he’s had a nosebleed.

So, Why Is Black Dog Poop … Black?

Whatever the cause, black or tarry stools indicate that there is bleeding in the stomach or small intestine of the dog, Dr. Spangler confirms. “The stool is black because the blood has been digested, causing it to change color,” she says. The causes of melena vary widely, and can mean anything from exposure to toxins or a foreign body in the gastrointestinal system to pancreatitis and kidney failure. “A few of the more common causes of black dog poop are cancer, foreign bodies, parasites, and viral or bacterial pathogens,” Dr. Spangler adds.

What to Do About Black Dog Poop

That’s why if you notice black dog poop — or you suspect that your dog is experiencing any sort of gastrointestinal upset — call your veterinarian as soon as possible. Symptoms such as your dog refusing his food or water for more than 24 hours — or if he or she is experiencing persistent vomiting or diarrhea — are always a cause for concern, Dr. Spangler notes. “Dogs can quickly become dehydrated, so it’s better to see a veterinarian sooner rather than later to get them the care and treatment they need,” she adds.

Pet owners should also tune in to their dog’s overall behavior, such as if your normally perky pooch is suddenly spending the entire day on the sofa. “Another symptom to notice is if you pick up your pet and they whine or cry … dogs and cats get stomach cramps and pains just like we do when something isn’t right,” Nieves says.

If you’ve discovered that your pet’s droppings have turned from their usual brown to black, Spangler explains that your pet’s veterinarian may check your dog’s stool samples for intestinal parasites, assess abdominal x-rays, and run blood work to help determine the definitive cause of the black color in your dog’s poop. “Treatment will depend upon the diagnosis,” she says, “but could include things such as anti-parasitics, antibiotics, antacids or anti-nausea drugs.”

Tell us: Has your dog ever experienced black poop? What was causing that black dog poop?

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Read more about dog poop on Dogster.com:

Why is my poop black? 5 possible causes of black stool


Our stools change colour according to what we eat. They’re usually varying degrees of brown with the occasional pink poo if we’ve had beetroot in our salad. But what about black? Are black stools normal? Black poo can definitely be a cause for concern and it’s important that you don’t ignore it as there’s a risk it may indicate serious underlying medical conditions.

Black stool causes

It can be alarming to see a black stool, they often appear unexpectedly but may be associated with abdominal pain and generally feeling unwell.

Here are the common causes of black poop:

1. Foods you eat

The food we eat is digested and broken down as it travels through our gastrointestinal tract. Dark or black foods can stain our stools and also appear as dark specks or lumps within a brown stool. Common culprits include blueberries, dark chocolate and black liquorice. The blackness is simply due to the colour of the food.

2. Iron tablets

Commonly taken for anaemia and often used as an everyday dietary supplement, as well as sometimes causing constipation and diarrhoea, iron has the potential to cause black stools. Don’t assume this is the cause though if the stool is sticky and black or has streaks of blood in it too; speak to your doctor.

3. Bleeding from the stomach

In the same way that bruises gradually turn black as they resolve, blood in the gut darkens in colour as it travels through the bowel. A black stool therefore can be a sign of bleeding further up the gastrointestinal tract. The commonest site is the stomach and inflammation of the lining of the stomach from gastritis, a stomach ulcer or stomach cancer can cause bleeding. This blood takes on a sticky, tarry consistency by the time it leaves the body, usually has a very offensive smell and can be hard to flush away; it is called melaena. Seek an urgent medical opinion if this happens to you.

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4. Other causes of bleeding

Swallowed blood from a heavy nose bleed may result in black stools. People who take blood thinning medication such as warfarin or aspirin are at higher risk of bleeding generally so should speak to their doctor if they notice black stools in case medication needs to be stopped or adjusted and the cause of the bleeding identified.

5. Bowel problems

Blood loss from the colon is usually seen as a fresher red loss but if the blood is from high up in the colon the stools may become deep red or black by the time they leave the body. This can occur if there is bleeding in the bowel wall from polyps, inflammatory bowel disease or diverticulitis.

    Black stools treatments

    If the black stools are due to the food you have eaten then there is no need to worry, it won’t cause harm and you can carry on eating the foods you enjoy.

    Similarly, if iron is colouring your stools then there is no need to stop the tablets but do speak to your doctor if you have any concerns or associated symptoms.

    The treatment for black stools from medical causes depends on the cause and your doctor will arrange investigations to discover the source of the bleeding. These may include, blood tests, stool sample tests and scans such as a CT or MRI scan. It’s likely that you will need an endoscopy, where a camera on a long flexible tube is inserted into your gut for the doctor to directly visualise what is going on. If the tube is inserted via your mouth, to look at your stomach, it is called a gastroscopy. If the purpose is to look at the lower bowel it is called a colonoscopy and the camera is inserted via your anus. Biopsies (samples) of tissue from the lining of the gut may be taken for examination under a microscope.

    If you are very unwell or have heavy blood loss, then you may be admitted to hospital to stabilise your condition and whilst investigations are carried out.

    Last updated: 21-07-2020

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    90,000 What does the color of the chair say? – HealthInfo

    Conversations on this topic can confuse anyone. However, it is precisely by the color of feces, the regularity of the stool and intestinal motility that it is easiest to suspect a pathology in the body. We will tell you how a normal stool should look like, and what diseases its changes can indicate.

    What color should the feces be?

    Normally it is brown or golden brown. Stercobilin gives this color to feces – a coloring pigment that depends on several factors:

    • Products: Some natural colors in vegetables and fruits can give it their color.For example, green vegetables contain the coloring chlorophyll, and beets contain beta-carotene.
    • Dyes. For example, ferrocyanide, which is used to treat poisonings , can give a blue coloration.
    • Gastrointestinal function – on the way to the rectum, food is converted by the action of digestive juices, enzymes and bacteria. Therefore, the color of the stool also depends on the work of the internal organs.

    What diseases can changes in stool color speak of?

    The gallbladder, pancreas and liver are involved in the formation of color, therefore most of the pathologies are associated with disorders in these organs. This is what the color can talk about:

    • Dark brown – about the presence of digestive disorders – colitis, putrid dyspepsia. And also this color predominates with constipation and excessive consumption of meat.
    • Light brown occurs with increased intestinal peristalsis, as well as with a large amount of dairy products in the diet.
    • Red color occurs with bleeding from the lower intestines. If you are sure that this shade is not related to food, you need to urgently consult a doctor: blood in the stool can be the cause of polyps, inflammation, diverticulitis, or even colon cancer .
    • Yellow feces may indicate problems with the digestion of fat. Yellow, oily stools may indicate chronic pancreatitis or celiac disease.
    • Green color occurs with increased intestinal motility.
    • Black happens after taking absorbents. However, if you have not drunk them, this color may indicate bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.
    • White stools can be caused by bile problems – when the bile duct is blocked by a stone or tumor, it cannot reach the intestines and the stool becomes lighter. Also, this shade is typical for liver diseases.

    What consistency should the stool be?

    It is normally soft because it is 70% water and 30% processed food residues. Here’s what density changes can tell about:

    • Gruel-like stools occur with increased peristalsis, inflammation or increased intestinal secretion.
    • Very tight – for spasms and stenosis of the colon, as well as constipation.
    • Ointment – for diseases of the pancreas or problems with bile.
    • Loamy stools (usually gray in color) occur in liver diseases.
    • Liquid – for digestive disorders and diarrhea.

    How much is considered normal?

    From 150 to 400 g per day. If it is less or more, it is possible that the person has the following pathologies:

    • Digestive disorders;
    • Enhanced peristalsis, in which nutrients do not have time to be absorbed;
    • Eating too much or not enough fiber;
    • Chronic pancreatitis;
    • Insufficient bile due to cholelithiasis or cholecystitis.

    How to normalize stool?

    If for a long time you notice one of the signs of an abnormality, see your doctor. He will prescribe a stool analysis – a coprogram and select a treatment.

    However, everyone should live a healthy and eat right: The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends eating a minimum of 9 servings of high fiber foods per day. Coarse fiber is found in vegetables, fruits, and legumes.You also need to drink plenty of water – The intestines need moisture, which softens the stool and improves its permeability.

    You can learn more about how to determine pathology by the color of the stool from the plot of the program “Living Healthy”

    Changing the color of feces – causes, diagnosis and treatment

    Changing the color of feces is the appearance of atypical staining of stool, which can be observed both in completely healthy people and against a background of various diseases. Sometimes the symptom has physiological prerequisites – the use of certain food or medication, but more often the change in staining indicates the pathology of the digestive tract. To identify the causes of the symptom, ultrasound, endoscopic, radiological, laboratory research methods are used. To return the normal color of feces, drugs are used to eliminate the root cause of the color change.

    General characteristics

    The appearance of an unusual stool color is an objective symptom that patients always notice.The coloration of feces is different – from grayish-white to black. In this case, the process of defecation is sometimes accompanied by pain, discomfort in the abdomen. With a visible change in the characteristics of feces, patients often have negative psychoemotional sensations caused by the fear of a serious illness. If the color change is of a physiological nature, the person does not experience any unpleasant symptoms either during bowel movements or during the day.

    Discoloration of feces is often accompanied by other dyspeptic disorders: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abnormal stool frequency and fecal consistency, which indicates the development of diseases of the digestive tract.A combination of pale gray stools and dark urine is usually indicative of hepatitis and other acute inflammatory liver diseases. The appearance of black, brick or red feces during bowel movements is characteristic of bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract of varying intensity and requires an immediate visit to the gastroenterologist.

    Development mechanism

    Stool is normally brown in color, which can vary from light to dark depending on eating habits. This color is due to the presence of bilirubin metabolism products – stercobilin and mesobilifuscin.A change in the color of feces occurs when dyes are ingested in the composition of food or drugs, the presence of pathological impurities (blood, bile pigments). With diarrhea, feces turn golden yellow, since their accelerated passage prevents the conversion of direct bilirubin to stercobilin.

    Colorless or gray stools are typical for the occurrence of mechanical obstacles on the pathways of the outflow of bile into the intestine (gallstone disease, masses of the pancreas, duodenum 12), as a result of which there are no dyes in the feces, which are normally formed from conjugated bilirubin.Feces acquire a grayish tint and clay consistency with oral administration of barium sulfate contrast, which is due to chemical reactions in the stomach and intestines.

    Feces may turn greenish, which is more common and is caused by eating large amounts of fresh green vegetables. These products are rich in chlorophyll pigment, which is not destroyed by digestive enzymes and provides characteristic coloration. The change in the color of feces to green also occurs with pathological diarrhea, when biliverdin, a precursor of bilirubin, which does not have time to go through all the stages of chemical transformations in the intestine, is massively secreted along with bile.

    Black coloration of stool appears when taking bismuth salts, which, under the influence of saliva, form insoluble complexes with black gray. A dark color also occurs when iron salts enter the stool. Tarry black stools (melena) develop with bleeding from the stomach and upper small intestine. The dark coloration is due to the conversion of hemoglobin into hematin hydrochloric acid under the action of enzymes and intestinal flora. When bleeding from the colon and rectum, hemoglobin is not destroyed, so the stool is red.


    Distinguish between physiological changes in the staining of feces associated with certain eating habits or the use of a number of medications, and pathological, caused by various inflammatory and destructive processes in the digestive tract, biliary system. To make a preliminary syndromological diagnosis, a classification is used taking into account the nature of the color of feces:

    • Grayish-white feces . Grayish “clayey” faeces are often shed for several days after oral administration of barium sulfate contrast agent.Pale coloration of feces is associated with a violation of the flow of bile into the duodenum with biliary pathology, hepatitis, pancreatic neoplasia.
    • Yellow feces . Yellow coloration is usually observed when food is not digested due to enzyme deficiency. This color is typical for diseases of the pancreas, malabsorption syndrome, celiac disease. A golden yellow color often indicates an excess of unchanged bilirubin.
    • Green feces .A change in coloration appears with a large number of lettuce leaves and green vegetables in the diet, the greenish-black color is associated with the intake of iron supplements. The color changes to green with diarrhea of ​​various origins and severe dysbiosis, when the rate of transit of feces through the intestines is disturbed.
    • Red feces . The appearance of a brick-red color is normally associated with excess consumption of tomatoes, red berries and vegetables. A change in the color of feces to bright red usually occurs with profuse bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract, which occurs with anal fissures, hemorrhoids, ulceration of neoplasms.
    • Black feces . Feces become black when taking preparations of activated carbon and bismuth, blueberries and black currants. Black tarry feces (melena) is a dangerous symptom that indicates profuse bleeding from the stomach and upper small intestine.
    • 90,020 90,000 What the color of an adult’s stool will tell you about: norms and pathologies

      What the color of feces will tell you about


      The color of the stool may be the result of some food eaten, or it may indicate health problems. What color is the norm for an adult, and when do you need to see a doctor urgently?

      Read also Legs cramps: what serious problems does your body hide?
      First, let’s explain what feces are. These are the remnants of digested food, from which, in the process of metabolism, the body has taken all the useful substances.And this remaining mass of the intestinal musculature moves to the anus for removal from the body. It is logical that the color and composition of stool can change depending on what we eat.

      The color of the stool of a healthy person can depend on many factors and it varies from light brown to dark brown. It depends on the presence of a product in the feces, produced as a result of the processes of pigment metabolism and bile secretion. Why can the feces change their color, and which of them should cause concern, and which simply changes color from nutrition?

      What are the reasons for the discoloration of feces

      What problems will the color of feces tell about / istockphoto.com

      • The use of various food products, especially when it comes to such products that are saturated with natural food colors. For example, beets, broccoli, spinach, and so on.
      • Taking medications
      • Disorders of the digestive system
      • Changes in the color of feces may also be evidence that pathological processes have begun to develop in the body, such as:
      • Presence of malignant and benign neoplasms
      • Rectal bleeding
      • Ulcer or erosion of the stomach
      • Hepatitis
      • Cirrhosis of the liver
      • Hemorrhoidal bleeding

      Read alsoHow to say goodbye to tonsillitis: causes, symptoms and prevention of the disease

      In case of any changes in the color of feces, apart from obvious reasons for this, you should immediately contact your doctor, since a timely diagnosis can prevent the problem even in its early stages.

      What can the different color of feces indicate?

      Stool color norm / istockphoto.com

      Light color of feces. This shade of excrement may appear due to the fact that:

      • Large quantities of potatoes or rice were consumed the day before
      • Also, this color of feces always appears after a person undergoes an X-ray study, in which barium sulfate is used
      • excrement may have a light gray tint due to the use of certain medications associated with the elimination of diarrhea.

      On the other hand, pale feces indicate that bile does not enter the intestines and this may be a sign of the development of diseases associated with blockage of the bile ducts, such as:

      • cholecystitis;
      • pancreatitis;
      • hepatitis;
      • stones in the gallbladder or in the bile ducts;
      • development of liver cancer or cirrhosis.

      Read Also 9 Health Problems You Can Identify From Your Legs

      Red color of feces. In this color, feces can be stained with foods eaten the day before, such as beets, tomatoes, watermelon and the like.
      In other cases, such a shade may indicate:

      • about the presence of bleeding, which is sometimes caused by taking potassium tablets or other drugs
      • about hemorrhoids and fissures in the anus, which can also “stain” feces in the appropriate color
      • on intestinal inflammation, which is additionally accompanied by diarrhea and severe cramps
      • about a malfunction of the large intestine
      • about colon cancer
      • on the presence of intestinal infection
      • on the presence of parasites in the intestine

      Normal stool color in an adult / istockphoto.com

      Yellow color of feces. Yellow, light yellow and golden color of feces may indicate such ailments as:

      • pancreatic insufficiency
      • Poor digestion of food in the large intestine.

      Read also Prostatitis: causes, symptoms and prevention of male disease

      It should also be noted that in breastfed babies, the color of feces can also have shades from pale yellow to deep yellow, and sometimes with a greenish tint.

      Green color of feces. Green is evidence:

      • Certain diseases of the intestinal tract;
      • pathological processes occurring in the small intestine;
      • presence of dysbiosis;
      • 90,012 intake of certain groups of antibiotics;

      • dysentery;
      • development of ulcers;
      • manifestations of malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract;
      • diseases of the hematopoietic organs.

      What foods turn stool black / istockphoto.com

      Dark color of feces. Despite the fact that the appearance of black stool is much more frightening than the bloody discharge in it, this is not always a pathology, since the black color of the stool can be evidence:

      • receiving activated carbon;
      • 90,012 medications containing iron;

      • Consumption of blueberries in the diet

      But if you find black feces, which has a viscous tarry consistency, you should immediately consult a doctor.
      Black feces can be caused by:

      • chronic use of alcoholic beverages;
      • use of certain medications;
      • taking drugs that provoke bleeding of the esophagus;
      • gastritis;
      • duodenal and gastric ulcer;
      • colon cancer

      It should always be remembered that suspicious changes in the color of stool should be the reason for immediate medical attention.This can prevent further serious consequences. Be healthy!

      Expert’s word

      Doctor-gastroenterologist Olga Lyannaya especially focuses on the sharp change in stool quality after 45-50 years:

      If you have always had a regular, normal bowel movement, and suddenly there is a sudden constipation or diarrhea, this is a reason to urgently go to an appointment with a gastroenterologist. Such changes can be symptoms of very serious diseases, including bowel cancer.

      Read also What the color of an adult’s stool will tell you about: norms and pathologies

      You are also interested to know about what is leaky gut syndrome and whether it needs to be treated

      Stool for newborns

      The problem of stool in newborns and infants worries almost all parents now.Especially many questions and doubts arise for those who became a mom and dad for the first time.

      If it seems to you that something is wrong with the baby, do not panic – it is better to first tell the doctor about the reasons for concern.

      What should be the stool of a newborn?

      The first stool in newborns appears within the first twelve hours after birth and is called meconium, or original feces. It is a thick, viscous mass of dark green (olive) color.Meconium is released for one or two, less often – three days. Further, the nature of the stool of a newborn baby changes. It becomes more frequent, heterogeneous in consistency (lumps, mucus, liquid part) and in color (dark green areas alternate with greenish-yellow and even whitish), more watery. Stool frequency can be up to six or more times a day. Such a stool is called transitional, and the state is called transient intestinal catarrh

      After two to seven days, the stool becomes uniform in consistency (mushy) and in color (yellow), ceases to contain mucus and occurs somewhat less frequently.Such a rapid extinction of inflammation in the intestines is facilitated by breastfeeding, the joint stay of the mother and the child, the refusal of bottles and nipples in the hospital. It is very important that the first and only food for an infant is breast milk. The first drops of colostrum received by a child immediately after birth and during the first days of life are invaluable for the formation of normal intestinal microflora. For a good development of lactation in a mother, it is important to attach the baby to the breast as often as possible from the first days of life, not to limit the time and number of feedings.It is undesirable to add water to the child from a bottle, and even more so to feed him with a mixture. This will disrupt the process of normal intestinal adaptation and may further lead to a protracted course of the inflammatory process.

      Nutritional habits and newborn stool

      The nature of a newborn’s stool depends on several factors, and first of all, on the type of feeding. Stool in breastfed newborns is more frequent and in the first months may be after each feeding (up to seven to eight times a day).It is usually quite liquid, yellow in color, may contain white lumps and has a characteristic sour smell. As the child grows and his intestines mature, the stool becomes thinner, thicker, and homogeneous in consistency. By three to four months, it often acquires a certain regularity throughout the day. The stool of a breastfed baby depends on the food that the breastfeeding mother eats herself. This dependence decreases as the child grows up.

      Artificial baby’s chair is rarer.By the end of the first month, it can be once or twice a day. It is thick, dark yellow and has a characteristic fecal odor. Both with natural and artificial feeding, there should be no admixtures of mucus or blood in the stool.

      After the introduction of complementary foods, the character of the stool begins to change. It may contain remnants of vegetables and fruits that a child eats (slices of carrots, cabbage, banana threads), its frequency and color may change. The less milk the baby gets, the less yellow his stools.By the year, provided that a varied diet is formed in a child, his stool approaches in appearance to that of an adult.

      Problems with stool in a newborn

      Unfortunately, now babies have bowel problems quite often. The first signs of trouble are usually the anxiety of the baby, his high-pitched cry. At the same time, the baby is usually not hungry and latching on to the breast does not bring him relief. The child has a swollen belly, he twists his legs, screams loudly.He may calm down for a short time, and then everything starts all over again. The baby calms down only after the gas outlet tube is set: at the same time, a large amount of gas leaves, a chair appears, and then the tummy becomes soft and the child falls asleep.

      Another common symptom of unhappiness is crying while feeding .

      When latching on to the breast, the child begins to suck greedily, but after a few minutes he drops the breast, worries. This is due to increased intestinal motility when food enters the stomach, which leads to the appearance of intestinal colic.The reason for the malaise usually lies in the fact that the child’s process of formation of normal intestinal microflora is disrupted. Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms appear in the intestine, which leads to an increase in fermentation processes and to increased gas production. Gases stretch the intestinal walls, peristalsis is disturbed, cramping pains in the abdomen appear. As a result, an inflammatory process develops in the intestines. All this leads to a change in the nature of the chair. It becomes watery, with an admixture of green or just green, with mucus, sometimes you can see streaks of blood.

      In the future, the child may regurgitate, rashes on the skin, and a decrease in the rate of weight gain will begin. This indicates the development in the child of an acute inflammatory process in the intestine, accompanied by dysbiosis, and is the reason for the mandatory visit to the doctor. The situation may look different. The child is not worried about anything, he eats well, does not regurgitate, gains weight well. He rarely cries and mostly when he is hungry. In this case, the stool is liquid, watery, with an admixture of mucus and white lumps.As a rule, this condition does not require active treatment. The reason for the “bad” stool is the protracted process of adaptation of the intestine to the conditions of extrauterine life. The doctor may prescribe preparations of normal intestinal microflora (for example, bifidumbacterin) to facilitate and accelerate the adaptation processes. As the child grows, after the introduction of solid food (complementary foods) into the diet, the stool will return to normal.

      Constipation in newborns

      Usually it affects children who are bottle-fed.The frequency of stool in an infant receiving formula is once or twice a day. The older the child gets, the less often he has stools. However, it is impossible to judge the presence or absence of constipation in the baby only by the frequency of the stool. With constipation, the stool is dry, has a dense consistency, leaves with difficulty, the baby is pushing hard, worried, crying. Sometimes, without a gas tube, he cannot empty the intestines. This situation should alert parents, it in itself is the reason for the mandatory visit to the doctor.

      Experts say that if you notice in time violations of the gastrointestinal tract in infants and take the necessary measures, then the child will be spared a number of chronic diseases in the future.

      Answers of specialists to questions about medicine (page 26)


      For adults

      For children

      Leading doctors of medical institutions of Chelyabinsk answer your questions.

      Total questions 663
      displayed by 5 10 15 25


      Hello! According to FGES, I have insufficient cardia function, erythematous-papular gastropathy of the antrum. Congestive duodenopathy. I have such a question: in the description of a cardiac fold of 2-3 degrees, what does this mean? Please reply. Anna

      Hello Anna! You have inflammation in the antrum of the stomach against the background of the throwing of bile into the stomach.It is necessary to carry out treatment, antacids, ipps (omez, pariet, nexium), to sanitize the intestines.

      This is an indicator of the severity of stomach atony.


      Good afternoon. According to the conclusion of the ultrasound, my daughter (age, 6 years old) has an ADF. Superficial gastritis. EFZ is accelerated. At the beginning of the year, we drank de-nol, creon and phosphalugel on drink. Six months passed, and before the control ultrasound in September, we had pains again. The conclusion is the same. Now we were prescribed Creon, Liv-52 and Phosphalugel – it did not help.He still complains of pain in the morning. The gastroenterologist of the children’s clinic sends us to the hospital. Tell me, is it possible to do without hospitalization? It seems to me that the gastroenterologist has a standard treatment regimen, and since it did not help, then go to the hospital? In addition, the instructions for those drugs that were attributed to us (except for phosphalugel) do not contain a word about gastritis. How to be, tell me, please. Anastasia

      Hello, Anastasia! I think your child has biliary dyskinesia.After taking fatty and fried foods, it is imperative to drink hot tea, it is necessary to prescribe antacids (phospholugel, maalox), duspatalin 1 to 2 times, ursofalk for up to 1 month, if there is intestinal bloating, take a course of enteroseptics (intetrix, ersefuril).


      Good afternoon. I am writing to you with my problem. For 3 years now I have been plagued by the problem of constipation. I now have a sedentary job. For 4-5 days I can not go to the toilet, and only a laxative saves me.Tell me how you can get rid of constipation? Elena

      Elena! Trivial advice – liquids at least 1.5, increase physical activity (at least walking), fruits, vegetables, cereals. You can add duphalac or normase, mukofalk in bags, if there is swelling – a course of enteroseptics. The cause of constipation can be hypothyroidism, pelvic pathology. You need to have an additional bowel examination.

      Good afternoon, Elena! The stool problem is a very important problem.It is possible to get rid of it, but for this it is necessary to know the cause of this ailment. This requires a full consultation with a gastroenterologist. Who to be observed is up to you. But before resolving this issue, I recommend starting to take the following drugs: 1. Duphalac or Normase 1/2 teaspoon (DO NOT INCREASE THE DOSE !!!) in the morning on an empty stomach for 3-4 months. 2. Creon 10.000 IU x 4 r / day, with meals, 4-5 weeks.
      3. Water load 2-4 sips of simple, raw, not boiled water – no more, every 30 minutes.4. If possible, increase physical activity a little – at least 3-10 squats during the working day, walk. But this is not a treatment, but a way to slightly improve metabolic processes in the body before visiting a gastroenterologist.

      Dear Elena! There can be many reasons for constipation. This can be both a pathology of the intestine and other organs (for example, with hypothyroidism – a decrease in the function of the thyroid gland). Therefore, you need to contact a gastroenterologist or therapist and undergo a comprehensive examination.The scope of the examination is standardized, it is owned by all doctors.

      The only way to get rid of constipation is to start eating medicinal porridge Zdravitsa 3, 33 and 41 and 43, go to the site ZZZ74.ru, I wish you recovery.


      Good afternoon! Is dyskinesia of the gallbladder and biliary tract treated according to the hyperkinetic-hypotonic type, and what is the threat? The diagnosis was made on the basis of: 1. Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity: deformed in the cervical region, the echogenicity of bile is increased due to dispersed suspension, the location and size are typical.2. Cholecystography (using sorbitol): the initial volume of the gallbladder – 18.9. The volume of the gallbladder after 5 min. after taking sorbitol – 16.1 cm3 for 20 min. – 6.7. for 45 min. – 3.4. Also worried about heartburn, belching of air, nausea. Prescribed Hofitol and Creon 25. I did not notice much of the effect. Maybe a different approach is needed? Thank you. Elena

      Dear Elena! To correct the treatment regimen, it is necessary to carry out an additional examination: a general blood test, a biochemical blood test with the determination of the level of ALT, AST, GGTP, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, amylase and blood sugar; examination for parasitosis – lamblia, opisthorchiasis, ascariasis.If there are signs of bacterial infection or parasitosis with deviation of liver function tests, a course of treatment with antibacterial drugs is necessary. If not, then I recommend taking duspatalin 1 capsule 2 times a day before meals to restore the motility of the gallbladder and biliary tract, replace chophytol with ursosan (1 capsule 3 times a day after meals), continue taking Creon at the prescribed dosage. It is advisable to do FGS or fluoroscopy of the stomach to clarify the scope of treatment for heartburn.Before receiving the results of the examination, you can take Gaviscon 15 ml x 3 times a day after 40 minutes. after meal.

      Hello Elena. You have stage 1 of gallstone disease (echogenic suspension in the w / p). You need to take a course of antisecretory drugs (omez, nexium, pariet) in combination with antacids (phospholugel, maalox), a course of enteroseptics (alpha-normix, ciprofloxacin), then take a 2-month course of ursodex in order to remove sand from the gallbladder.

      Good afternoon, Elena! Dyskinesia of the gallbladder and biliary tract in the hyperkinetic-hypotonic type is, as a rule, not a diagnosis, but concomitant disorders.Probably, there is the presence of gastritis, dysbiosis – it is often found with dyskinesia. Therefore, they did not get a better effect from taking chophytol and creon. I recommend a more complete follow-up examination: antibodies to Helicobacter IgG, antibodies to lamblia IgM and IgG, Coprogram, feces for dysbiosis, FGDS with biopsy, and a full consultation of a gastroenterologist to determine the true cause of the disorder, but for now you decide which doctor you will see (you can choose at your discretion at the place of residence, through friends, in our center or in other centers), start taking the following drugs: 1.Pariet 20 mg., Or Lanzoptol 30 mg., Or Nexium 40 mg., 1 tab. at 15:00 hours, regardless of food, 2 weeks. 2. Creon 10.000 IU x 4 r / day, with meals, 4-5 weeks. 3. Normase or Duphalac 1/2 teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 months. 4. Laktofiltrum 2 tables. 2 r / day, before meals 10-20 minutes before meals, 4 weeks.


      Hello! The problem is that no later than yesterday, I felt weakness and a little muscle pain. They brewed an infusion of rose hips with honey in order to get rid of these symptoms, but no more than an hour later my stomach started to burn badly and I could not sleep.I drank cold milk and everything seemed to have calmed down (60% percent), but I was already able to fall asleep. But in the morning, again at 6 o’clock, I woke up not only from the fact that my stomach was burning, but I was also nauseous and my stomach ached. As a result, I vomited well and had diarrhea for two hours. Now I feel weak, it is unpleasant to touch the skin – painful, and most importantly, throughout this story and now there were pains in my stomach. Not strong, but unpleasant. Impulses or something, once it will become painful, once it will pass, and so on all the time.For dinner there was a pea soup with lentils, possibly influenced by it. But still, I can assume that this could have happened from the infusion of rosehip with honey, because it was old. Please help me, what do I have? Ilya

      Dear Ilya! Judging by the symptoms described, you have suffered a rotavirus infection (stomach flu). He does not need special treatment. A diet is recommended that restricts fatty, fried, spicy foods and foods that take a long time to digest in the gastrointestinal tract (nuts, mushrooms, legumes).For 2-3 days, smecta, enzyme preparations (mezim-forte) are prescribed during meals. If there is no improvement, see your doctor.

      Hello, Ilya! In my opinion, your poisoning is not very severe. It is necessary to take adsorbents – smecta, polysorb – and enteroseptics – intetrix or alpha-normix.

      Good afternoon, Ilya! What happens to you is possible with various violations: ranging from banal food poisoning to duodenal ulcer, therefore, of course, additional examination is necessary, pass the following tests: OAC, B / x blood test: AST, ALT, ALP, GGTP, total bilirubin and direct, total protein, cholesterol, amylase, iron, CRP, coprogram, feces for dysbiosis, EGD with biopsy, as well as initial consultation with a gastroenterologist.In the meantime, start taking the following medications for help before consulting a doctor: 1. Pariet 20 mg., Or Lanzoptol 30 mg., Or Nexium 40 mg., 1 table. at 15:00 hours, regardless of food, 2 weeks. 2. Creon 10.000 IU x 4 r / day, with meals, 4-5 weeks. 3. Normase or Duphalac 1/2 teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 months.


      Hello! Tell me, can the color of feces change (to black) due to taking antibiotics (fromilid, klacid, omez, amocyclin, denol), they were prescribed to me for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori, the pressure is normal, the smell of feces is normal, not harsh.Should I keep taking the pills, what should I do? Anastasia

      Hello, dear Anastasia! Many drugs can change the color of the stool. In particular, black color can be when taking de-nol (contains bismuth nitrate), iron preparations. In this case, after the end of treatment, the color of the stool will be restored. Melena (black stool against the background of gastrointestinal bleeding) is usually liquid, repeated, accompanied by a drop in blood pressure, dizziness, dry mouth, there may be black vomiting (coffee grounds), abdominal pain.If such symptoms appear, you must urgently seek medical help.

      Hello, Anastasia! The color of the chair changed to black while taking de-nol.

      Good afternoon, Anastasia! The black stool could be Denol’s. Therefore, there is no need to stop treatment and no need to be afraid. Of course, it is better that you resolve these issues with your doctor, because it is a dialogue between you and a complete understanding for both you and the doctor. Good luck!

      On taking de-nol, the stool changes color to black (contains bismuth!).


      Hello! I am 45 years old, weight 104 kg. I am worried about a feeling of heaviness in the upper abdomen, heart palpitations up to 110 beats / min, weakness, sweating, slowing down of thought processes, a feeling of heat or sweating that occurs immediately after eating. Weakness worries so much that you have to lie down and lie down for 1-1.5 hours. Only after that the working capacity is restored. Therefore, at work I try not to eat. I eat only in the evening, but sometimes 2-3 times, and I can’t help myself, that’s why the weight is the same.There are no severe abdominal pains, although sometimes heartburn worries. On FGS – Reflux esophagitis 1 tbsp, superficial gastroduodenitis. Periodically I drink omez, almagel. There is any stool, sometimes shortly after eating – mushy. I was told that it looks like a dumping syndrome, but this is a disease of the operated stomach. What examinations do I need to do? What treatment should I receive? Could a person with a non-operated stomach have dumping syndrome? Natalia

      Dear Natalia! The health problems that you describe are associated with both excess weight and possible disorders in the neuro-endocrine sphere.To clarify all the details, you need to know what blood pressure you have at the time of an attack of weakness and palpitations, it may be possible to determine the blood sugar level at this moment with a glucometer. From instrumental examinations, it is necessary to make an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, fluoroscopy of the stomach with an assessment of the motor and evacuation function, the location of the stomach, as well as an MRI of the abdominal cavity with a targeted examination of the liver, pancreas, kidneys and adrenal glands. Since your situation is not ordinary, I recommend contacting a gastroenterologist with the results of the examination.

      Hello, Natalia! You need to check blood sugar, and also take a course of enteroseptics (alpha-normix, intetrix). You have manifestations of herd, duodenal hypertension syndrome, bacterial overgrowth in the intestines.

      Good afternoon, Natalia! The symptoms that you described are characteristic of the pathology of the digestive system and hormonal metabolism. Therefore, taking omez and almagel is justified, but there is still not enough enzyme preparations to help the pancreas, intestines, brain and stomach.Regarding OMEZA – it is better to forget about this drug, because 92-93% of Omez, Omeprazole are falsified in Russia (official data of the country’s pharmacologists), so the effectiveness of such treatment is reduced by 90%, and you could not get effective help. Regarding the dumping syndrome – Yes, this is typical for the disease of the operated stomach, so here, when you were told about the dumping syndrome you have, it meant reflux of bile from the duodenum into the stomach and from the stomach into the esophagus, the so-called. GERD 1-2 degrees.And also chronic pancreatitis (BUT this is only for those meager data that you described !!!). Therefore, in order to understand all the processes that occur in your body, you need a consultation with a gastroenterologist (full-fledged) to find out the main cause of the disease and select an individual treatment. It is up to you where and with which doctor to be observed: at the place of residence, through friends, at our place or in other centers, but while you are deciding this issue, start taking the following drugs – they will already alleviate your condition, and this will give you a calm decision with your doctor. : one.Pariet 20 mg., Or Lanzoptol 30 mg., Or Nexium 40 mg. 1 tab. at 15:00 hours, regardless of food. 2. Creon 25,000 IU x 3 r / day, with meals. 3. Normase or Duphalac 1/2 teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach, do not increase the dose! 4. Odeston 1 table. x 3 r / day, before meals in 20 minutes. Good luck!


      Good afternoon! I have elevated bilirubin, the problem arose 10 years ago, during pregnancy, recently I passed biochemistry, FPP, ultrasound, markers.The gastroenterologist suspected S. Gilbert. Advised hepatoprotectors. I am very worried about the drug Heptral in tablets. How effective is it in tablets? What are the indications for tablets? Thank you. Tatyana

      Hello, dear Tatiana! Gilbert’s syndrome is a congenital or acquired deficiency of a liver enzyme responsible for converting indirect bilirubin to direct bilirubin. To diagnose Gilbert’s syndrome, there is currently a very accurate test – genetic typing by a blood test.It is performed in the independent laboratory “Invitro” and in the laboratory of the regional blood transfusion station. If the test confirms Gilbert’s syndrome, then this explains the constant or periodic increase in the level of indirect bilirubin in the blood. Hepatoprotectors have no effect on the level of bilirubin in this situation. To reduce the level of bilirubin, phenobarbital preparations are used (in pure form or containing it). True, there is a practice of prescribing hepatoprotectors (Heptral, Ursofalk, essential phospholipids) in spring and autumn with a preventive purpose to improve the state of liver cells in general and the state of the liver enzyme system in particular.Therefore, Heptral, as a drug that stimulates one of the main metabolic cycles of the hepatic cell, can also be prescribed in tablets. But it may not lower the bilirubin level.

      Good afternoon, Tatiana! Increased bilirubin: it can be with Gilbert’s syndrome and not only (with other violations of liver function and hormonal disorders). Therefore, it is necessary to find the reason: now it has become easier to diagnose S.M. Gilbert – there is a genetic analysis that allows you to confirm or exclude this syndrome (they do it at INVITRO and the Regional Blood Transfusion Station (at a blood transfusion station – cheaper), and accordingly, if this is true Gilbert’s syndrome, then Geptral will be practically ineffective here, other drugs are needed.If we talk about tablets in general, Heptral is a very effective drug for liver pathology and the bioavailability of the tablet through the mouth is 95% – this is a very large percentage. But do not forget that the daily dose plays an important role in the effectiveness of treatment, at least 800 mg. (2 tablets) per day. Tatyana, the most important thing is to make the correct diagnosis: S. Gilbert, Chronic viral hepatitis B and C, Toxic hepatitis, Congenital liver diseases, etc., therefore, consultation with a hepatologist or gastroenterologist and a full-fledged individual examination and correct diagnosis is necessary, and only after that the selection of individual therapy.


      Hello! I have a polypoid formation on the wall of the gallbladder. Often there are attacks, accompanied by an increase in temperature, with the manifestation of obstructive jaundice, and hepatic transaminases in the blood also increase. Should you remove your gallbladder? rose flower

      Hello dear Rose! It is clear that it is necessary to remove the gallbladder. In your question, voluntarily or involuntarily, absolute indications for cholecystectomy sound (repeated attacks of biliary colic, inflammation of the biliary tract and transient liver dysfunctions).The operation must be performed without exacerbation of cholecystitis, then it can be minimally invasive (laparoscopic, mini-cholecystectomy). These operations are better tolerated and practically do not leave scars on the skin of the abdomen, which cannot be said about the consequences of an emergency operation with an incision on the entire right hypochondrium. After cholecystectomy, a histological examination of the polyp can also be done.

      Hello Rose! You have direct indications for removal of the gallbladder. I believe that, in addition to polyps, you have thick putty bile and small stones or sand in the gallbladder, and attacks with obstructive jaundice and reactive hepatitis are due to this.You can try to “save the w / n from the operation. To do this, you need to start a course of antisecretory drugs (nexium, pariet) + antibacterial agents (ciprole, makmiror) in combination with duspatalin, then start taking cholelitics (ursodex, ursofalk), start with 1 to at night, if there is no deterioration, increase the dose to 3-5 tons at night for up to 3 months.Then carry out an ultrasound control.You need to be further examined for parasites (lamblia, opisthorchis) before starting treatment.

      Good afternoon, Rose! Gallbladder polyps almost never lead to symptoms of obstructive jaundice, i.e.because they are attached to the wall of the bladder motionless and do not move anywhere, and the essence of obstructive jaundice is that something must get into the common bile duct (common bile duct and block it). So, most likely, these are either not polyps, but stones of the gallbladder (cholelithiasis), or some other disorders that cause obstructive jaundice. An increase in body temperature is characteristic of cholangitis – inflammation in the common bile duct, the causes of which are several: pathology of the pancreas, pathology of the duodenum, pathology of the BDS (large duodenal nipple through which bile leaves the bile ducts into the duodenum), therefore it is necessary to understand in great detail with your situation.Consultation of a gastroenterologist or hepatologist, or an abdominal surgeon is required. P.S. It is better not to delay the examination and consultation, because this is one of the indications (obstructive jaundice) for emergency surgery!


      Hello! I had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 weeks ago. My problems: sometimes there is heartburn, constipation. I do not take any drugs, I only follow a diet. Ala

      Hello, dear Alya! Coming digestive disorders after cholecystectomy are quite common.The body must adapt to life in new conditions. I recommend strict adherence to a diet with the exception of fatty, fried, spicy foods, carbonated drinks, citrus fruits, coffee abuse for the next month (within table number 5, the diet can be found on the Internet). Meals should be regular, in small portions, 4-5 times a day. Regarding drugs, I advise you to take prokinetics to restore the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract (motilium, ganaton) before meals, hepabene – to improve the outflow of bile for about a month.With the expansion of the diet and large food loads, it is recommended to take enzymes (Creon, mezim-forte). If there is no effect, a consultation with a gastroenterologist is indicated.

      Hello, Alya! You can add phospholugel -1 pack to the treatment. at night, pariet 10 mg – 1 ton. at night for 7-10 days, for 1-2 months – taking ursodex or ursofalk – 2 capsules after dinner. You need food – 4-6 times a day, mineral water. When bloating appears – a course of enteroseptics – alpha-normix, 1 to – 3 times a day for a period of 5 to 7 days.

      Good afternoon, Alya! And why don’t you take any medications, you need to take preventive medications and you need to be monitored, and a very dense constant with a gastroenterologist or hepatologist, because the operation is still half the battle, now, for 1.5 years, you need at least preventive treatment, the purpose of which is to accustom your body to work and life in the absence with the gallbladder, which occupies a very important place in the functioning of the whole organism.Therefore, until you decide on a doctor (it is better that it was one doctor who will guide you regularly throughout these 1.5 years), start taking the following drugs:
      1. Creon 10.000 IU x 4-5 r / day, with meals. 2. Rutacid: 1 tab. 60 minutes after eating and the 2nd table. right before bed. Do not drink, but chew! 3. Normase or Duphalac 1/2 teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach, Do not increase the dose! 4. Diet 6-8 times a day, often a little, do not bring to the feeling of hunger, every 1.5-2 hours.


      Good afternoon! The baby is 1 month old. For 2 weeks now he has had problems with stool. Every day, in order to go to the toilet at least once, the child pushes and even screams for the whole day and night, it hurts. And so every day. Sometimes it doesn’t work for two days, then we put an enema. But this is constant, every day there are such problems, there is not a single day to go to the toilet without problems. My stool is normal. The baby is on mixed feeding, but the problems began even before the introduction of the formula, so I cannot associate this with the formula.Please tell me what to do, the child is very tormented. Thank you. Anna

      Good afternoon, Anna! Sorry for the delay in answering. Of course, a full consultation with a pediatric gastroenterologist is better to determine the true causes of the disease. It is up to you to decide where and with which doctor to be observed: at the place of residence, through friends, at our place or in other centers. But until this issue is resolved, I recommend taking: 1. Duphalac or Normase 1 ml. (measure with an insulin syringe) in the morning on an empty stomach, do not increase the dose! 2.Creon 10.000 IU (pour 1/5 of the capsule into a teaspoon, pour or drain breast milk, if not, then at least water (not boiled) 2 r / day during feeding.
      P.S. Do not hesitate to consult a pediatric specialist!

      Hand over feces for dysbacteriosis, measure T at 19-00 with an ordinary thermometer for 10 minutes. and an appointment with a gastroenterologist!


      Hello, dear Doctor! Conclusion of gastroscopy: Insufficiency of the cardia (cardia does not close completely), axial hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm.Chronic diffuse gastritis, moderate, not associated with H. pylori. Duodenogastric reflux. Duodenitis, mild. I went to the doctor, prescribed a course of treatment, after which it became a little better, stomach pains and bloating disappeared, but the stool is still not regular. Please help with advice! My problems: stool retention (constipation is already 2 months, or even more). Andrew

      Hello Andrey! If you have recently developed constipation for no particular reason, you need to undergo an intestinal examination (irrigoscopy or FCS), it is important for you to eat right, use at least 1.5 liters of liquid per day, use foods containing fiber (cereals, vegetables, fruits) for food, take duphalac or normaze in combination with mukofalk up to 2-3 packets per day, if swelling appears – repeated courses of enteroseptics (with mandatory inclusion in the scheme treatment of trichopolum or ornidazole up to 5-7 days).

      Good afternoon, Andrey! Sorry for the delay in answering. It would be better to ask these questions to your doctor. he saw and advised you, and also knows what is happening to you and what medications he prescribed and you took.I don’t know that, so it’s difficult to answer your question. But regardless of this, I recommend starting to take the following treatment regimen until that time, until you resolve all issues with your doctor: 1. Pariet 20 mg., Or Lanzoptol 30 mg., Or Nexium 40 mg. 1 tab. at 15:00 hours, regardless of food for about 3 weeks. 2. Creon 10.000 IU x 4 r / day, with meals. 3. Normase or Duphalac 1/2 teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach, do not increase the dose! (At least 3 months – do not be intimidated by the term). 4. Phosphalugel 1 dose at bedtime.Do not drink it down! Good luck!


      Hello. Concerned about chronic pancreatitis, what modern examination methods do you have? I live in a small town, the analysis for biochemistry and ultrasound are always normal in 2007. there was an operation – acute pancreatitis, the gallbladder was removed, after that there was peritonitis, I constantly drink enzymes – mezim forte or ponzinorm, I often drink no-shpa, there is more pain in the middle and upper abdomen, and in the right hypochondrium. I’d like to know the exact diagnosis.Elena

      Hello, dear Elena! To clarify the diagnosis, you need to do: MRI of the abdominal cavity with examination of the liver, pancreas (to clarify whether there is a violation of the structure of these organs) and a test for fecal elastase (to clarify whether there is pancreatic insufficiency and to what extent, to select a dose of enzyme preparations) and FGS (exclude stomach pathology). The last two examinations can be done in our center, MRI – in any MRI center in Chelyabinsk.A gastroenterologist should see you with the results of the examination.

      Elena, hello! You, of course, have xp. pancreatitis, it is secondary, against the background of increased pressure in the 12-colon (duodenal hypertension syndrome), secondary gastritis against the background of the throwing of bile into the stomach, syndrome of bacterial overgrowth in the intestine, which always develops after cholecystectomy. You need to reorganize the intestines with enteroseptics (alpha-normix, makmiror, intetrix), with abundant food intake of enzymes (micrazim, creon), intake of antacids – phospholugel, maalox.For pain – duspatalin. It is necessary to pass tests (oak, amylase, bilirubin, ast, alt, alkaline phosphatase, ggtp) ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, fgs, coprogram. To correct the treatment, you can contact our center.

      Good afternoon, Elena! Sorry for the delay in answering. To make a correct and accurate diagnosis, a full consultation with a gastroenterologist is required. It is up to you to decide where and with which doctor to be observed: at the place of residence, through friends, at our place or in other centers. If you decide with us, then you need to make an appointment by phone.From the information that you showed me, I can say that the presence of pancreatitis is possible, but the presence of an inflammatory process in the stomach, duodenum, intestines, dysbiosis, dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi (the bile duct that goes into the lumen of the duodenum) is also possible. The fact that enzymatic preparations help is good, but you chose not the best and expensive drugs: I recommend the following drugs of choice: Creon 10.000 IU x 5 r / day, or Enzyme Complex plus 1 tab.3 r / day, or Ultrasim 1 tab. x 3 r / day, or Lycrease 1 tab. 4 r / day with meals, and if you already chose Mezim, then 7-8 tables. 4 r / day with meals (at least!)! This is an expensive and not entirely effective drug, I recommend taking the following drugs now: 1. Pariet 20 mg, or Lanzoptol 30 mg, or Nexium 40 mg. 1 tab. at 15:00 hours, regardless of food. 2. Normase or Duphalac 1/2 teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach, do not increase the dose! 3. Laktofiltrum 2 tables. x 2 p / day, before meals in 20 minutes.4. Creon 10.000 IU x 5 r / day, or the Complex of enzymes plus 1 table. 3 r / day, or Ultrasim 1 tab. x 3 r / day, or Lycrease 1 tab. 4 r / day with meals. Good luck!


      Hello. At the beginning of June, I underwent FGDS, I had a urease test: two pluses. I drank amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omez for 10 days. In September, I underwent FGDS again, they revealed superficial gastritis, but they refused to do the test, referring to the fact that now it will show a negative result, but now my symptoms are recurring.Can I re-drink these medicines for prevention? Julia

      Dear Julia! For prophylactic purposes, antibiotics are never prescribed. You can be diagnosed with a current Helicobacter pylori infection by serological tests. If the result is positive, then a second course of anti-helicobacter therapy and, most likely, other drugs is prescribed. Therefore, you need to contact a gastroenterologist and resolve these issues.

      Hello, Julia! You are better off repeating the Helicobacter pylori therapy, but with different antibiotics.Instead of omez, use another drug (pariet, nexium, sanpraz), use tetracycline and macmiror.

      Good afternoon, Julia! Sorry for the delay in answering. You cannot drink the same drugs for prevention again! First, there are antibiotics. And secondly, you were prescribed a not quite effective scheme for the eradication (destruction) of the Helicobacter. To begin with, the diagnosis of helicobacteriosis always follows the following path: 2 diagnostic methods (biopsy of the gastric mucosa with FGS and a blood test for antibodies to HP IgG before treatment, as well as after treatment, it is by no means possible to use Omez for this in the eradication scheme, t.because 92-93% of Omez, Omeprazole are falsified in Russia (official data of the country’s pharmacologists), so the effectiveness of such treatment is reduced by 90% and you could not get effective help. It is best used (it is recommended as a reliable method of treatment of Helicobacter pylori in the world of the Maastricht agreement). Pariet 20mg. 2 r / day from 7 to 14 days, depending on the individual condition of the patient. And use antibiotics only original and not Generic (analogs), namely klacid and flemoxin.Therefore, the clinical manifestations of your illness have reappeared. And the fact that you were refused to do a second test is confirmed by the above data. Unfortunately, Julia, you were simply not healed. Therefore, I recommend that for the future, if you are doing FGS, force endoscopists to always take a biopsy of the gastric mucosa, and only after the result is ready, only then select an individual treatment, and a second biopsy is also required after treatment to assess the effectiveness of treatment. Only this way and no more! Therefore, I recommend that you conduct additional research: OAK detailed, Biochemical blood test: AST, ALT, ALP, GGTP, protein, bilirubin and fractions, cholesterol, amylase, glucose, creatinine, electrolytes, CRP Iron, OZHSS.Coprogram + occult blood: Analysis of feces for dysbiosis. Markers of hepatitis B (HbsAg, HbeAg, antiHBcorIgM), pp. AT to Helicobacter IgG, to Giardia IgG and IgM. Ultrasound of the abdominal organs and kidneys. Ultrasound of the thyroid gland. FGS with biopsy. After all the results are ready, a full consultation with a gastroenterologist and the selection of individual therapy are required. Until you pass it all, it is forbidden to take antibiotics again! For your own benefit, and start taking the following drugs, this will alleviate your condition and give you the opportunity to calmly re-examine and proceed to the main course of therapy: 1.Pariet 20 mg., Or Lanzoptol 30 mg., Or Nexium 40 mg. 1 tab. at 15:00 hours, regardless of food. 2. Creon 10.000 IU x 4 r / day, with meals. 3. Normase or Duphalac 1/2 teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach, do not increase the dose! Good luck!


      Hello! I am 26. 3 years ago, an ultrasound scan revealed a polyp in the gallbladder, for 2 years it has grown a little. the ultrasound doctor said that the liver was a little sandy. For more than a year in the morning I have been feeling bitterness in my mouth, there are dull pains in the left hypochondrium, nausea (not severe).I went to a gastroenterologist and prescribed: Sanpraz, Hofitol. It didn’t get any easier at that time. In the summer I felt fine. And now it’s the same again. How to be treated, what to do next? And is it necessary to remove the bile? I’ve heard different opinions: someone says – it is imperative that he can develop into cancer cells, and someone says that it is not necessary – nothing will happen. And can polyps be inherited (planning a pregnancy). Thanks in advance. Elena

      Hello, dear Elena! To answer your question, you need a full description of the ultrasound of the liver and gallbladder (size, structure, condition of the gallbladder wall, the nature of the suspension in the gallbladder) and also information on how much the polyp has grown in 2 years.From an additional examination, it is necessary to carry out fibrogastroscopy (probably there is a throw of bile into the stomach and secondary gastritis). With the results of the examination, you can come to an appointment at our center.

      Hello Elena! You need to undergo a course of treatment with cholelitics (ursofalk, ursosan, ursodex), these drugs dissolve sand and thick viscous bile in the gallbladder, a course of at least 2-3 months, you also need a course of enteroseptics to relieve symptoms of bacterial overgrowth in the intestine.In my opinion, the removal of the gallbladder is not necessary at the present time. Polyps in the w / n very rarely turn into tumors. Apparently, you have a congenital deformity of the gallbladder, so it is inherited, but this occurs in 35-40% of the population. It is necessary to carry out treatment, to eat regularly without long breaks.

      Good afternoon, Elena! Sorry for the delay in answering. The worsening in the fall is possible because it is possible seasonal exacerbation. The fact that the polyp is in the gallbladder cannot lead to such complaints, of course, if the polyp does not occupy the entire area of ​​the bladder (you did not indicate the size and also did not describe how much it increased).According to the conclusion of the ultrasound, there are questions about what the liver with sand means. Sand is an object less than 1 mm, and such objects are not visible on ultrasound, if there are stones, then these are stones. Therefore, do not even get hung up about sand, there is no sand. Sanpraz is not quite the best drug, it is better to use Pariet 20 mg, or Lanzoptol 30 mg, or Nexium 40 mg. 1 tab. at 15:00 hours, regardless of food – this is the best choice. Hofitol is a necessary drug. It is necessary to be treated in your situation, but what kind of treatment is necessary for you, of course, you need to be consulted, i.e.That is, an examination, a full-fledged survey, a full-fledged follow-up examination, and only then it will be clear what is happening to you and what to do. Consultation of a gastroenterologist or hepatologist is required. There is no need to remove the gallbladder and there is no indication yet for this operation (from your data). Any formation can develop into cancer, but not as often, no matter how it seems. Observation and assessment of the dynamics of the process is necessary. Regarding pregnancy, this is not a contraindication, you can safely give birth. What to do now: I recommend taking the following medications: 1.Pariet 20 mg., Or Lanzoptol 30 mg., Or Nexium 40 mg. 1 tab. at 15:00 hours, regardless of food. 2. Creon 25,000 IU x 3 r / day, with meals. 3. Normase or Duphalac 1/2 teaspoon in the morning on an empty stomach, do not increase the dose! 4. Talcid 1 tab. before going to bed, do not drink! But this is not a treatment – this is emergency help until you find which doctor you will see, preferably one doctor with whom you could solve absolutely all your health issues. Good luck!

      90,000 12 kinds of baby poop and what they mean

      Types of infant poop

      Newborn stool
      In the first days of a baby’s life, his stool is significantly different from that of an adult.Newborn poop has a sticky, green-black consistency, reminiscent of motor oil. This is meconium or original feces. It consists of amniotic fluid, mucus, skin cells, water, and bile.

      Feces of a breastfed baby
      If a baby is breastfed, poop turns mustard yellow, green or brown a few days after birth. This is considered the norm. In consistency, the feces of a healthy baby are granular and pasty, sometimes liquid.In babies on HB, normal stool has a sweetish odor.

      Feces of a baby with a mixture
      In healthy babies who are bottle-fed, feces should be yellowish or brown in color with a pasty consistency similar to peanut butter. Artificial babies usually poop less frequently, but their stool is larger and less pleasant smelling than breastfed babies.

      Food particles in baby poop
      During the first months of life, the baby’s digestive system continues to form.The intestine does not always have time to completely digest the food entering it. Therefore, food remains can be found in the feces of babies. Sometimes because of this, the color of the baby’s poop takes on an unusual shade. And this is absolutely normal.

      Types of baby poop by color

      Green feces
      Typical for babies from 4 to 6 months. During this period, complementary foods usually begin with “green” foods, such as broccoli, spinach or peas. Such food causes the poop to become discolored.Green feces are also found in babies who are given iron supplements.

      Yellow, orange and brown stool
      Orange, yellow and brown poop is considered normal for breastfed and formula-fed babies. In a healthy baby, on different days, feces can acquire one of these shades. It depends on the digestive process and the nutrients that enter the child’s body.

      Black blood in the baby’s stool
      You may notice small droplets of black blood in the baby’s stool.This means that during feeding, the baby swallowed the mother’s blood, which appeared through the cracks in the nipples.

      Although this is not a danger to your baby, you should still see a doctor to make sure it is not a symptom of something more serious.


      Call your pediatrician right away if you notice any of these symptoms in your baby:

      Baby’s loose stools
      If the baby’s poop becomes thin (watery) with a greenish, yellow or brown tinge, he has diarrhea.This is a signal of a possible infection or food allergy. Diarrhea must be treated from day one because loose stools can quickly dehydrate a child’s body.

      Poop in the form of hard pellets
      If the baby goes to the toilet with hard and round poop, he may have constipation. Most often this happens with babies who have begun to be fed with “adult” food. Constipation may indicate an increased sensitivity to milk, soy, certain types of food, or one of the components in the formula or mother’s milk.

      Red blood in infant feces

      If streaks of red blood appear in the baby’s poop, this may be one of the symptoms of a food allergy to cow’s milk protein or inflammatory processes in the intestines. If at the same time the child has diarrhea, then we are talking about a bacterial infection. True, a baby’s poop can turn red due to food or drugs that he has recently used (syrups with dyes, various red or burgundy foods, for example, beets or tomatoes).

      Mucus in infant feces

      If you see viscous streaks of green or cloudy color in the baby’s poop, this is mucus. It is often a symptom of a food allergy or intestinal infection.

      White feces
      If the baby’s poop is white, like chalk, or gray, this indicates that the child does not digest food well. A white color may mean that there is not enough bile in the baby’s liver to digest food.

      Summary: By the color, smell and consistency of feces, you can determine if your baby has health problems.

      90,000 Chairs made of wood – types of models and features / How to choose?

      More and more people are trying to use chairs made of wood, they are characterized by increased environmental friendliness, as well as ease of use. Let’s consider the main features of this type of furniture.

      Wooden chairs in the interior

      The main advantage of these chairs is their durability and increased attractiveness. All models have a pleasant appearance, many are versatile and can be used in a variety of designs.It should be borne in mind that they can be colored or retain the color of the natural material.

      Wooden furniture can be used in almost any room, there are no special restrictions here. Here is a general list of rooms where these chairs can be used:

      • canteens;
      • kitchens;
      • living rooms;
      • bedrooms and nurseries;
      • hallways;
      • garden furniture.

      It is worth choosing the right chairs for every room and style in the interior.

      It is worth considering separately the features of wooden chairs, here we will analyze only the most basic nuances that are inherent in all such furniture. Individual models may have additional pros and cons.

      These are the main advantages.

      • Environmentally friendly. The tree has almost complete safety. It does not emit harmful substances, which makes it possible to use it even for people with allergies and in children’s rooms.
      • Chairs made of solid wood have a high level of durability.It is not easy to break such furniture, it serves for a long time.
      • Attractive appearance. Even without the special effort of finishing, these chairs look great. Therefore, they can be used almost everywhere. Wood is easy to process, this allows you to customize furniture for the most complex styles and design solutions.


      • High price. Wood is now highly valued, so furniture made of it costs a lot. It also affects that designer chairs are often made from solid wood.They are more expensive than regular bulk furnishings.
      • Need for care. It is necessary to periodically update the protective coating, otherwise cracks and other damage will appear, which worsen the appearance of the product.
      • Propensity to attack by pests or rodents.

      How important the pros and cons are, each owner decides for himself. The main thing is that there is no discomfort while using the chairs.

      Types of models, their purpose and features

      It is also worth dividing the chairs by variety.This helps you find good options for your room and needs. Usually divided into the following groups:

      • Classic chairs. They have standard legs, seats and backrests. Sometimes they can be completed with armrests. The classic ones include kitchen and dining models, here they are most often found. They can also be used for almost any purpose and task.
      • Bar. There are practically no completely wooden models in this category, a combination of metal and wood is used.Variations made entirely of wood are very rare. The bar stool differs in height, it is also often decorated with carvings and other decorative elements.
      • Foldable. The best option for small apartments, they can always be folded and so save space. They differ in the presence of a mechanism, this is their main drawback. The folding mechanism should be looked after carefully. There are options, called transformers, which can not only fold, but also change the angle of the backrest up to horizontal.Usually made with a minimum of embellishment, the main goal is functionality.
      • Garden. They can have different shapes, but the main difference is the mandatory processing of the material. This extends the life of the chair. Ideal for use on verandas and terraces.
      • Chair-chair. It differs from the classic one with armrests, which are equipped with sidewalls, this makes such furniture more convenient to use. There are a large number of models, often designed for dining rooms or expensive living room interiors.

      It is also worth noting that all of the listed varieties are also divided into soft and hard. The former have a seat made of upholstery with filling, the latter are completely made of wood.

      What breeds are wooden chairs made of

      Wooden chairs are made from a wide variety of species. This allows you to provide the consumer with different characteristics and cost. Let’s consider the most popular types of wood.

      • Ash. It distantly resembles an oak, but lighter.Has original texture. Not too well polished, requires mandatory treatment with antiseptics. It is not recommended to use it for garden furniture, as it is afraid of moisture.
      • Oak. The most resistant to decay, so it can be used everywhere. It has a high density, so the mass of oak weighs quite a lot. Chairs from it are solid. It has a nice texture, but it does not polish too well.
      • Maple. It has a homogeneous structure. The wood pattern is beautiful, especially the “sugar” and “bird’s eye” species.Furniture from them is highly decorative. The main disadvantage is considered to be instability to moisture, therefore processing is required.
      • Walnut. It is varied in shades, usually the older the tree, the darker the color of the material. It dyes well, therefore it is often used for painting “under expensive breeds”. It has a soft structure, so it cannot withstand heavy loads.
      • Alder. The breed does not have a pronounced texture. It is usually used in a dyed form. The main plus is the low cost.
      • Cherry. It has almost the same density as oak, but is more plastic and easier to process. Has a clear structure that is not lost during grinding. With prolonged exposure to the sun, this tree can crack.
      • Rattan. One of the lightest wood-based materials. Therefore, it is often used for garden furniture, because it is regularly moved. Not resistant to moisture, requires antiseptic treatment for protection.

      Any wood, regardless of species, requires protection from decay or a bug.

      Types of decor for chairs made of solid wood

      To optimally fit the wooden chair into the interior, a variety of decor is used. Natural wood does not always look good enough, so it must be varnished or painted. Now a popular solution is white varnish, which is used to decorate furniture. Such chairs fit perfectly not only in the kitchen or dining room, but also in any room. Moreover, it practically does not matter what style the designer used.When choosing a varnish, preference is given to varieties with antiseptic properties.

      There are many options for chairs upholstered in fabrics or leather. Much depends on what kind of room the furniture is intended for. It is necessary to take into account its compatibility with other elements of the environment. There are inexpensive options with leatherette.

      Carvings and other wood ornaments may be used. Chairs like these look very good. Most often, armchairs are decorated with carvings.


      The base of the chair is a frame. It can be done in a variety of ways. The simplest option is considered to be a wooden frame made of dies. They are connected to each other in a groove. It is a solid construction. In some cases, another cross bar can be added.

      The joints must be glued. This provides protection against drying out and loosening. Sometimes, instead of grooves, a spike connection is used.

      It is possible to find wooden chairs with a metal frame. This provides additional strength and durability to the product. Caracas can be made entirely of metal or combined with wood. In the latter case, only corners are made of metal, which make the connection more durable.

      All metal elements must be regularly treated against corrosion.

      Back and seat

      The backrest can be high, medium or low.Low chairs include chairs with backs to the waist or slightly higher. Standard or medium-sized backrests reach the shoulder blades. Tall ones can go up to the level of the neck or even higher.

      The backs are also divided according to the shape. They can be:

      • straight;
      • corsetry;
      • orthopedic;
      • through.

      Seats are soft and hard. Almost always, rigid ones are made of the same material as the frame. In more detail it is worth considering soft seats, there is a wide variety of materials.

      The following materials can be used as filler.

      • Sintepon. One of the cheapest materials, but it does not last long, wears out quickly.
      • Foam rubber. Similar to the previous material, but more durable.
      • Horsehair. To increase the service life, it must be treated with silicone. It is a durable filler that is also environmentally friendly.

      Seat depth usually 450-470 mm.Width 420-500 mm.


      Wooden chairs are used in a wide variety of styles. Let’s consider the main directions of design.

      • Country. All chairs support the principle, the simpler or more natural the better. The seats are square in shape, branches, driftwood, stumps can be used as decor. Designers strive to get closer to nature.
      • Rococo / Baroque. Chairs have curved legs, asymmetrical backs, hanging armrests are made.Such furniture is always soft. They can be decorated with carving and gilding. Chairs are more like armchairs.
      • Provence. Another rustic style, but with the manners of a palace. The legs are made only curved, the backs are oval with a soft insert. The seating is often in the form of a low square chair.
      • Modern The base material is wood. There are no specific rules. All models are distinguished by the presence of designer decor. Floral, plant ornaments, as well as elven-style ornaments are often found.

      Criteria for the selection of wooden chairs

      Now let’s figure out how to choose the right chair for your home. There are several rules.

      • Choose varnished models. They last longer and also look more impressive.
      • The frame must be strong and reliable. The use of metal inserts is possible.
      • The legs must be at least 25 mm in diameter. This will make it more convenient to use the chairs.
      • Be sure to consider product design.It should completely match the rest of the interior.


      Wooden chairs are a great option for any space.