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Eczema on Scalp: Symptoms, Causes & Treatments

If you have a scalp, it’s going to itch at some point. But if the top of your head is severely itchy, you might actually have eczema on your scalp. Yup, it happens.

Eczema is a condition that can cause flare-ups of a red, scaly, itchy rash to appear on different parts of your body, according to the Mayo Clinic. The most common form of eczema is atopic dermatitis, which generally shows up on areas of your body like your hands, feet, ankles, wrists, neck, upper chest, eyelids, elbows, and knees, but it can be anywhere—including under your hair.

You might not think you can have eczema if you’re having issues only with your scalp, but it’s possible. While it’s likely that having scalp eczema also means that you have it elsewhere, it’s not a requirement. “Sometimes eczema can be seen only on the scalp,” Gary Goldenberg, M.D., assistant clinical professor of dermatology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, tells SELF.

Translation: If you’re dealing with intense scalp irritation, don’t assume you can combat it on your own—get to a dermatologist as soon as you can.

You would think you couldn’t miss having eczema on your scalp, but people with this condition often mistake it for something else. “Many times, patients just assume it is a consequence they have to live with from their hair products, or that they have a dry scalp,” Cynthia Bailey, M.D., a diplomate of the American Board of Dermatology and founder of Dr. Bailey Skin Care, tells SELF.

Here’s how to tell whether or not eczema is what’s really behind your irritated scalp.

What causes scalp eczema?

Eczema is a term that’s used to describe several different conditions, one of which is atopic dermatitis. All of these conditions are caused by a disruption in the skin barrier that usually keeps irritants out and hydration in. But if that barrier isn’t working properly, the skin can become dry, red, irritated, and sensitive to irritants and allergens. That barrier disruption may be driven by a gene variation, the Mayo Clinic says.

There are some triggers that your scalp is especially likely to come in contact with, like ingredients in your shampoo, conditioner, and hair styling products. If you brush your hair aggressively, wash your hair too frequently, or heat-style your hair often, those could also aggravate dry skin on your scalp or trigger eczema symptoms.

What are the symptoms of eczema on your scalp?

When your skin’s barrier is unable to function properly, that makes it difficult for the skin to keep moisture in. It also makes the skin more sensitive to potential irritants. So, according to the Mayo Clinic, the symptoms of eczema often include:

  • very dry skin
  • patches of reddish or brownish skin
  • intense itching that gets especially bad at night
  • sensitive or swollen skin after scratching
  • flakes on your clothes or shoulders after scratching
  • small bumps that might leak fluid
  • thickened or cracked skin

What’s the difference between scalp eczema and scalp psoriasis?

There are a surprising amount of conditions that can cause an itchy scalp, so it’s important to be sure you know what you’re really dealing with. Seborrheic dermatitis, for example, is a major cause of dandruff and has an entirely different treatment plan than eczema.

Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis – American Family Physician

BETTY ANNE JOHNSON, M.D., PH.D., and JULIA R. NUNLEY, M.D., Medical College of Virginia Campus of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia

Am Fam Physician. 2000 May 1;61(9):2703-2710.

 
Patient information: See related handout on seborrheic dermatitis, written by the authors of this article.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting areas of the head and trunk where sebaceous glands are most prominent. Lipophilic yeasts of the Malassezia genus, as well as genetic, environmental and general health factors, contribute to this disorder. Scalp seborrhea varies from mild dandruff to dense, diffuse, adherent scale. Facial and trunk seborrhea is characterized by powdery or greasy scale in skin folds and along hair margins. Treatment options include application of selenium sulfide, pyrithione zinc or ketoconazole-containing shampoos, topical ketoconazole cream or terbinafine solution, topical sodium sulfacetamide and topical corticosteroids.

The etiology of seborrheic dermatitis remains unknown, although many factors, including hormonal, have been implicated. This chronic inflammatory skin disorder is generally confined to areas of the head and trunk where sebaceous glands are most prominent. When seborrheic dermatitis occurs in the neonatal period, it usually disappears by six to 12 months of age, suggesting that it may be a response to maternal hormone stimulation.1

Seborrheic dermatitis frequently affects persons in postpuberty. Additional evidence of hormonal influence is provided by research demonstrating that the human sebocyte responds to androgen stimulation.2

Pityrosporum ovale, a lipophilic yeast of the Malassezia genus, has been implicated in the development of this condition. 3 It has been suggested that seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory response to this organism, but this remains to be proved.4 P. ovale is present on all persons. Why some persons develop seborrheic dermatitis and others do not is unclear. The colonization rate of involved skin by this organism may be lower than that of uninvolved skin.3 Nonetheless, the fact that seborrheic dermatitis responds to antifungal medications is strongly suggestive of the role of yeast in this disorder.

Genetic and environmental factors, as well as other comorbid diseases, may predispose specific populations to the development of seborrheic dermatitis. Although seborrheic dermatitis affects only 3 percent of the general population, the incidence in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome may be as high as 85 percent. The exact mechanism whereby human immunodeficiency virus infection promotes an atypical and explosive onset of seborrheic dermatitis (and other common inflammatory skin disorders) is unknown, but many factors have been explored, including CD4-positive T lymphocyte counts,5 P. ovale density6 and nutritional factors.7

Persons with central nervous system disorders (Parkinson’s disease, cranial nerve palsies, major truncal paralyses) also appear to be prone to the development of seborrheic dermatitis, tend to develop more extensive disease and are frequently refractory to treatment. It has been postulated that seborrheic dermatitis in these patients is a result of increased pooling of sebum caused by immobility. This increased sebum pool permits growth of P. ovale, which induces seborrheic dermatitis.8

Clinical Manifestations

Seborrheic dermatitis typically affects areas of the skin where sebaceous glands appear in high frequency and are most active. The distribution is classically symmetric, and common sites of involvement are the hairy areas of the head, including the scalp (Figure 1), the scalp margin (Figure 2), eyebrows, eyelashes, mustache and beard. Other common sites are the forehead (Figure 3), the nasolabial folds (Figure 4), the external ear canals (Figure 5) and the postauricular creases. Seborrhea of the trunk may appear in the presternal area (Figure 6) and in the body folds, including the axillae, navel, groin, and in the inframammary and anogenital areas. Figure 7 illustrates the typically symmetric distribution of seborrheic dermatitis.


FIGURE 1.

Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.


FIGURE 2.

Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp margin.


FIGURE 3.

Seborrheic dermatitis of the forehead.


FIGURE 4.

Seborrheic dermatitis of the nasolabial folds.


FIGURE 5.

Seborrheic dermatitis of the external ear canal.


FIGURE 6.

Seborrheic dermatitis of the presternal area of the chest.

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FIGURE 7.

Typical symmetrical distribution of seborrheic dermatitis on the head (top), and on the body (bottom).


FIGURE 7.

Typical symmetrical distribution of seborrheic dermatitis on the head (top), and on the body (bottom).

One of the characteristics of seborrheic dermatitis is dandruff, characterized by a fine, powdery white scale on the scalp. Many patients complain of the scalp itching with dandruff, and because they think that the scale arises from dry skin, they decrease the frequency of shampooing, which allows further scale accumulation. Inflammation then occurs and their symptoms worsen.

More severe seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by erythematous plaques frequently associated with powdery or greasy scale in the scalp (Figure 8), behind the ears (Figure 9) and elsewhere in the distribution described above. Besides an itchy scalp, patients may complain of a burning sensation in facial areas affected by seborrhea. Seborrhea frequently becomes apparent when men grow mustaches or beards and disappears when the facial hair is removed. If left untreated, the scale may become thick, yellow and greasy and, occasionally, secondary bacterial infection may occur.

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FIGURE 8.

Severe seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp manifested by plaques of dense scale.


FIGURE 8.

Severe seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp manifested by plaques of dense scale.

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FIGURE 9.

Seborrheic dermatitis behind the ear, manifested by a plaque of scale.


FIGURE 9.

Seborrheic dermatitis behind the ear, manifested by a plaque of scale.

Seborrheic dermatitis is more common in men than in women, probably because sebaceous gland activity is under androgen control. Seborrhea usually first appears in persons in their teens and twenties and generally follows a waxing/waning course throughout adulthood.

UV-A and UV-B light inhibit the growth of P. ovale,9 and many patients report improvement in seborrhea during summer.

Treatment

GENERAL TREATMENT OVERVIEW

Hygiene issues play a key role in controlling seborrheic dermatitis. Frequent cleansing with soap removes oils from affected areas and improves seborrhea. Patients should be counseled that good hygiene must be a lifelong commitment. Outdoor recreation, especially during summer, will also improve seborrhea, although caution should be taken to avoid sun damage.

Pharmacologic treatment options for seborrheic dermatitis include antifungal preparations (selenium sulfide, pyrithione zinc, azole agents, sodium sulfacetamide and topical terbinafine) that decrease colonization by lipophilic yeast and anti-inflammatory agents (topical steroids). Suggested products are listed in Table 1. For severe disease, keratolytics such as salicylic acid or coal tar preparations may be used to remove dense scale; then topical steroids may be applied. Other options for removing adherent scale involve applying any of a variety of oils (peanut, olive or mineral) to soften the scale overnight, followed by use of a detergent or coal tar shampoo.

As a last resort in refractory disease, sebosuppressive agents such as isotretinoin (Accutane) may be used to reduce sebaceous gland activity.

View/Print Table

TABLE 1

Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis
Products Over-the-counter? Scalp Beard Face Body Instructions Cost*

Shampoos

Selenium sulfide, 1% (Selsun Blue)

Yes

X

X

X

X

5- to 10-minute application daily initially; then twice weekly as needed

$3 per 120 mL bottle

Selenium sulfide, 2. 5% (Exsel, Selsun)

No

X

X

X

X

Same as above

15 per 120 mL (Exsel)

12 per 120 mL (Selsun)

Pyrithione zinc, 1% (Dandrex, Zincon, Head and Shoulders)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Same as above

5 per 240 mL (Dandrex)

3 per 120 mL (Zincon)

3 per 450 mL (Head and Shoulders)

Pyrithione zinc, 2% (DHS Zinc, Sebulon, ZNP Bar, Theraplex Z)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Same as above

7 per 240 mL (DHS Zinc)

11 per 240 mL (Sebulon)

6 per 135 g (ZNP Bar)

7 per 240 mL (Theraplex Z)

Coal tar

May be irritating, especially on the face

Crude coal tar:

5- to 10-minute application daily initially, then as needed

DHS Tar (0. 5%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

5 per 120 mL (DHS Tar 0.5%)

Zetar (1%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

14 per 180 mL (Zetar 1%)

Ionil T Plus (2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

12 per 240 mL (Ionil T Plus 2%)

Coal tar combinations:

Same as above

10 per 210 mL (Sebutone)

Sebutone (0. 5% with salicylic acid, 2%, and sublimed sulfur, 2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Coal tar distillate:

Doak-Tar (3%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Same as above

7 per 60 mL (Doak-Tar)

Coal tar extract:

Same as above

Neutrogena T/Gel (2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

4 per 132 mL (Neutrogena T/Gel)

Tegrin Dandruff (7%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

5 per 210 mL (Tegrin Dandruff)

Pentrax (7. 71 %)

Yes

X

X

X

X

7 per 120 mL (Pentrax)

Coal tar topical solution:

Denorex Medicated (9%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Same as above

4 per 120 mL (Denorex Medicated)

Denorex Extra Strength (12. 5%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

4 per 120 mL (Denorex Extra Strength)

Coal tar solution combinations:

Same as above

Ionil T (5% with salicylic acid, 2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

8 per 120 mL (Ionil T)

X-Seb T Plus (10% with salicylic acid, 3%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

12 per 120 mL (X-Seb T Plus)

Tarsum (10% with salicylic acid, 2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

7 per 120 mL (Tarsum)

Chloroxine

No

X

3-minute application twice weekly

20 per 120 mL

Capitrol, 2%

Ketoconazole

Nizoral, 1%

Yes

X

X

X

X

5- to 10-minute application to scalp before rinsing clear; use daily initially, then twice weekly

7 per 120 mL (Nizoral 1%)

Nizoral, 2%

No

X

X

X

X

21 per 120 mL (Nizoral 2%)

Steroid shampoo

No

X

X

5- to 10-minute application to scalp before rinsing clear; use daily initially until inflammation clears, then as needed

15 per 120 mL

FS Shampoo (0. 01% fluocinolone acetonide)

Topical Preparations

Corticosteroids

Yes

X

X

X

X

Apply once or twice daily until inflammation clears, then as needed For scalp preparations, apply to scalp nightly until inflammation clears, then 1 to 3 times weekly as needed

3 per 15 g (Cortaid, 1%) 3 per 15 g (Cortizone 10) 12 per 15 g (Tridesilon) 25 per 30 g (Hytone) 18 per 120 mL (Derma-smoothe/GS Topical oil)

Cortaid, 1%; Cortizone 10 (hydrocortisone cream, 1%)

Tridesilon (desonide, 0. 5%)

No

X

X

X†

X

Hytone (hydrocortisone cream, 2.5%)

No

X

X

X†

X†

Derma-smoothe/FS Topical oil (fluocinolone acetonide, 0. 01% in oil)

No

X†

Antifungals

Apply once or twice daily

5 per 15 g (Micatin)

Miconazole cream, 2% (Monistat)

Yes

X

X

Clotrimazole cream, 1% (Lotrimin)

Yes

X

X

6 per 12 g (Lotrimin)

Terbinafine solution, 1% (Lamisil)

Yes

X

X

X

X

33 per 15 g (Lamisil)

Ketoconazole cream, 2% (Nizoral)

No

X

X

17 per 15 g (Nizoral)

Other preparations

Sodium sulfacetamide

Apply once or twice daily

Sebizon (10% lotion)

No

X‡

X‡

X

X

24 per 85 g (Sebizon)

Novacet (10% sodium sulfacetamide plus 5% sulfur)

No

X‡

X‡

X

X

28 per 30 g (Novacet)

Sulfacet R Lotion (10% sodium sulfacetamide plus 5% sulfur)

No

X‡

X‡

X

X

34 per 25 g (Sulfacet R Lotion)

Benzoyl peroxide washes

Apply to affected area for 5 to 10 minutes; then rinse off; may bleach clothing or hair

Benzac AC Wash (2. 5%, 5%, 10%)

No

X

X

21 to 26 per 240 mL (Benzac AC Wash)

Benzac W Wash (5%, 10%)

No

X

X

21 to 23 per 240 mL (Benzac W Wash)

Desquam-X Wash (5%, 10%)

No

X

X

15 to 16 per 150 mL (Desquam-X Wash)

TABLE 1

Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis
Products Over-the-counter? Scalp Beard Face Body Instructions Cost*

Shampoos

Selenium sulfide, 1% (Selsun Blue)

Yes

X

X

X

X

5- to 10-minute application daily initially; then twice weekly as needed

$3 per 120 mL bottle

Selenium sulfide, 2. 5% (Exsel, Selsun)

No

X

X

X

X

Same as above

15 per 120 mL (Exsel)

12 per 120 mL (Selsun)

Pyrithione zinc, 1% (Dandrex, Zincon, Head and Shoulders)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Same as above

5 per 240 mL (Dandrex)

3 per 120 mL (Zincon)

3 per 450 mL (Head and Shoulders)

Pyrithione zinc, 2% (DHS Zinc, Sebulon, ZNP Bar, Theraplex Z)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Same as above

7 per 240 mL (DHS Zinc)

11 per 240 mL (Sebulon)

6 per 135 g (ZNP Bar)

7 per 240 mL (Theraplex Z)

Coal tar

May be irritating, especially on the face

Crude coal tar:

5- to 10-minute application daily initially, then as needed

DHS Tar (0. 5%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

5 per 120 mL (DHS Tar 0.5%)

Zetar (1%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

14 per 180 mL (Zetar 1%)

Ionil T Plus (2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

12 per 240 mL (Ionil T Plus 2%)

Coal tar combinations:

Same as above

10 per 210 mL (Sebutone)

Sebutone (0. 5% with salicylic acid, 2%, and sublimed sulfur, 2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Coal tar distillate:

Doak-Tar (3%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Same as above

7 per 60 mL (Doak-Tar)

Coal tar extract:

Same as above

Neutrogena T/Gel (2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

4 per 132 mL (Neutrogena T/Gel)

Tegrin Dandruff (7%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

5 per 210 mL (Tegrin Dandruff)

Pentrax (7. 71 %)

Yes

X

X

X

X

7 per 120 mL (Pentrax)

Coal tar topical solution:

Denorex Medicated (9%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

Same as above

4 per 120 mL (Denorex Medicated)

Denorex Extra Strength (12. 5%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

4 per 120 mL (Denorex Extra Strength)

Coal tar solution combinations:

Same as above

Ionil T (5% with salicylic acid, 2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

8 per 120 mL (Ionil T)

X-Seb T Plus (10% with salicylic acid, 3%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

12 per 120 mL (X-Seb T Plus)

Tarsum (10% with salicylic acid, 2%)

Yes

X

X

X

X

7 per 120 mL (Tarsum)

Chloroxine

No

X

3-minute application twice weekly

20 per 120 mL

Capitrol, 2%

Ketoconazole

Nizoral, 1%

Yes

X

X

X

X

5- to 10-minute application to scalp before rinsing clear; use daily initially, then twice weekly

7 per 120 mL (Nizoral 1%)

Nizoral, 2%

No

X

X

X

X

21 per 120 mL (Nizoral 2%)

Steroid shampoo

No

X

X

5- to 10-minute application to scalp before rinsing clear; use daily initially until inflammation clears, then as needed

15 per 120 mL

FS Shampoo (0. 01% fluocinolone acetonide)

Topical Preparations

Corticosteroids

Yes

X

X

X

X

Apply once or twice daily until inflammation clears, then as needed For scalp preparations, apply to scalp nightly until inflammation clears, then 1 to 3 times weekly as needed

3 per 15 g (Cortaid, 1%) 3 per 15 g (Cortizone 10) 12 per 15 g (Tridesilon) 25 per 30 g (Hytone) 18 per 120 mL (Derma-smoothe/GS Topical oil)

Cortaid, 1%; Cortizone 10 (hydrocortisone cream, 1%)

Tridesilon (desonide, 0. 5%)

No

X

X

X†

X

Hytone (hydrocortisone cream, 2.5%)

No

X

X

X†

X†

Derma-smoothe/FS Topical oil (fluocinolone acetonide, 0. 01% in oil)

No

X†

Antifungals

Apply once or twice daily

5 per 15 g (Micatin)

Miconazole cream, 2% (Monistat)

Yes

X

X

Clotrimazole cream, 1% (Lotrimin)

Yes

X

X

6 per 12 g (Lotrimin)

Terbinafine solution, 1% (Lamisil)

Yes

X

X

X

X

33 per 15 g (Lamisil)

Ketoconazole cream, 2% (Nizoral)

No

X

X

17 per 15 g (Nizoral)

Other preparations

Sodium sulfacetamide

Apply once or twice daily

Sebizon (10% lotion)

No

X‡

X‡

X

X

24 per 85 g (Sebizon)

Novacet (10% sodium sulfacetamide plus 5% sulfur)

No

X‡

X‡

X

X

28 per 30 g (Novacet)

Sulfacet R Lotion (10% sodium sulfacetamide plus 5% sulfur)

No

X‡

X‡

X

X

34 per 25 g (Sulfacet R Lotion)

Benzoyl peroxide washes

Apply to affected area for 5 to 10 minutes; then rinse off; may bleach clothing or hair

Benzac AC Wash (2. 5%, 5%, 10%)

No

X

X

21 to 26 per 240 mL (Benzac AC Wash)

Benzac W Wash (5%, 10%)

No

X

X

21 to 23 per 240 mL (Benzac W Wash)

Desquam-X Wash (5%, 10%)

No

X

X

15 to 16 per 150 mL (Desquam-X Wash)

TREATMENT OF SCALP AND BEARD AREAS

Many cases of seborrheic dermatitis are effectively treated by shampooing daily or every other day with antidandruff shampoos containing 2. 5 percent selenium sulfide or 1 to 2 percent pyrithione zinc. Alternatively, ketoconazole shampoo may be used.10 The shampoo should be applied to the scalp and beard areas and left in place for five to 10 minutes before rinsing. A moisturizing shampoo may be used afterward to prevent dessication of the hair. After the disease is under control, the frequency of shampooing with medicated shampoos may be decreased to twice weekly or as needed. Topical terbinafine solution, 1 percent, has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of scalp seborrhea.11

If the scalp is covered with diffuse, dense scale, the scale may first be removed by applying warm mineral oil or olive oil to the scalp and washing several hours later with a detergent such as a dishwashing liquid or a tar shampoo.12 An alternative is an overnight application of a coal tarkeratolytic combination or phenol-saline solution with or without occlusion with a plastic shower cap followed by shampooing in the morning.13

Extensive scale with associated inflammation may be treated by moistening the scalp and then applying fluocinolone acetonide, 0. 01 percent in oil, to the entire scalp, covering overnight with a shower cap and shampooing in the morning. This treatment may be done nightly until the inflammation clears and then decreased to one to three times weekly as needed. Topical corticosteroid solutions, lotions or ointments may be used once or twice daily for one to three weeks in place of the overnight application of fluocinolone acetonide and may be stopped when itching and erythema disappear. Corticosteroid application may be repeated daily for one to three weeks until itching and erythema disappear, and then used as needed. Maintenance with an antidandruff shampoo may then be adequate. Patients should be advised to use potent topical steroids sparingly because excessive use may lead to atrophy of the skin and telangiectasis.

Infants frequently have seborrheic dermatitis, commonly known as “cradle cap.” Areas of possible involvement include the scalp, face and intertriginous areas. Involvement may be extensive, but this disorder frequently clears spontaneously by six to 12 months of age and does not recur until the onset of puberty.

A scaly scalp in a prepubertal child is usually caused by tinea capitis, not seborrheic dermatitis. Therapy for infantile seborrheic dermatitis includes frequent shampooing with an antidandruff shampoo. If scale is extensive in the scalp, the scale may be softened with oil, gently brushed free with a baby hairbrush and then washed clear.

Daily shampooing may not be reasonable for some populations, such as black persons or persons who are institutionalized. In general, weekly shampooing is recommended for black persons. As a substitute for daily washing, fluocinolone acetonide, 0.01 percent in oil, may be used as a scalp pomade. Other options include application of a moderate- to mid-potency topical corticosteroid in an ointment base. As with other modes of therapy, these agents are used every day or twice daily until the condition improves. Thereafter, topical corticosteroids are used as needed to keep the condition under control. After initial control is attained, fluocinolone acetonide, 0. 01 percent shampoo (FS Shampoo), can be used as an alternative to or in addition to fluocinolone acetonide, 0.01 percent in oil (Derma-Smoothe/FS), for maintenance.

TREATMENT OF THE FACE

Involved areas of the face may be washed frequently with shampoos that are effective against seborrhea as detailed above. Alternatively, ketoconazole cream, 2 percent, may be applied once or twice daily to affected areas. Often, 1 percent hydrocortisone cream will be added once or twice daily to affected areas and will aid with resolution of erythema and itching. Sodium sulfacetamide, 10 percent lotion, is also an effective topical agent for seborrheic dermatitis.

TREATMENT OF THE BODY

Seborrhea of the trunk may be treated with frequent application of zinc or coal tar containing shampoos or by washing with zinc soaps. Additionally, topical ketoconazole cream, 2 percent, and/or a topical corticosteroid cream, lotion or solution applied once or twice daily will prove useful. Benzoyl peroxide washes are also helpful in controlling seborrhea of the trunk. Patients should be cautioned to rinse thoroughly after application of these agents as they will bleach clothing and bed linens. These agents may be drying, and the patient may benefit from application of a moisturizer after treatment.

TREATMENT OF SEVERE SEBORRHEA

An occasional patient with severe seborrhea that is unresponsive to the usual topical therapy may be a candidate for isotretinoin therapy.14 Isotretinoin can induce up to a 90 percent reduction in sebaceous gland size, with a corresponding reduction in the production of sebum. Isotretinoin also has anti-inflammatory properties. Treatment with daily doses of isotretinoin as low as 0.1 to 0.3 mg per kg may result in improvement in severe seborrhea after four weeks of therapy. Thereafter, a dose as low as 5 to 10 mg per day may be effective as maintenance therapy over several years. However, isotretinoin has potentially serious side effects and few patients with seborrhea are appropriate candidates for therapy. The most devastating side effect is teratogenicity, but other serious side effects include hyperlipidemia, neutropenia, anemia and hepatitis. Mucocutaneous adverse effects include cheilitis, xerosis, conjunctivitis, urethritis and hair loss. Long-term use has been associated with the development of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). This agent must be used cautiously and only by physicians who are well versed in all of its adverse effects.

A more practical approach to the refractory patient may be to first try different combinations of the usual agents: a dandruff shampoo, an antifungal agent and a topical steroid. If this fails, short-term use of a more potent topical steroid in a “pulse fashion” may put some refractory patients into remission and actually decrease the total steroid exposure. Therapeutic choices for pulse therapy may include a nonfluorinated class III steroid such as mometasone furoate (Elocon) or an extra-potent class I or class II topical steroid such as clobetasol propionate (Temovate) or fluocinonide (Lidex). The class III topical steroid should be tried first, but if the condition remains unresponsive, the clinician may then choose to use a class I agent. These more potent agents may be applied once or twice per day, even on the face, but must be stopped after two weeks because of the increased frequency of side effects. If the patient responds before the two-week limit, the agent should be stopped immediately. Adjuvant therapy including use of a dandruff shampoo, an anti-fungal agent, or both, is essential during the “pulse” period and should be continued as maintenance therapy after each pulse.

Most corticosteroids are available as solutions, lotions, creams and ointments. Which vehicle to use is often determined by the patient and the treatment site. Lotions and creams are frequently used on all areas of the face and body, whereas solutions and ointments are more commonly used on the scalp. In general, application of a scalp solution is preferred by white and Asian patients but may be too drying for black patients. Ointments may be a better option. The vehicle affects the potency of a topical steroid. In most circumstances, the same steroid in an ointment is more potent than the steroid in a cream, which, in turn, is more potent than the same chemical in a lotion.

When to Refer

Patients should be referred to a dermatologist if the diagnosis is in doubt or if they are not responding to treatment. Seborrhea may be difficult to distinguish from atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea or superficial fungal infections. Chronic treatment with topical corticosteroids may lead to permanent skin changes, such as atrophy and telangiectasia. The explosive onset of seborrheic dermatitis in a young patient should give rise to consideration of underlying human immunodeficiency virus infection. One should consider referral to a dermatologist for patients with severe seborrhea in whom treatment with oral isotretinoin is contemplated, particularly if long-term therapy will likely be required.

Seborrheic Dermatitis | Cedars-Sinai

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What is seborrheic dermatitis?

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common type of rash. It causes red,
scaly, greasy skin. It occurs on skin that has oil glands, such as the face, scalp,
ears, back, and upper chest. A common type of scalp seborrheic dermatitis is
dandruff. It tends to last a long time, or go away and come back. It is often made
worse by cold weather, hormonal changes, and stress. Seborrheic dermatitis is not
spread from person to person.

How to say it

seh-boh-REE-ihk der-mah-TI-tihs

What causes seborrheic dermatitis?

The cause is not yet known. It may be partly caused by your body’s
response to a type of yeast that grows on skin, along with extra oil production.
Experts are still learning more. Seborrheic dermatitis may run in families.

Who is at risk for seborrheic dermatitis? 

It’s more common in:

  • Men
  • People with oily skin or hair
  • People with HIV/AIDS, Parkinson disease, alcoholic
    pancreatitis, hepatitis, or cancer

What are the symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis?

Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each person. They can
include skin that is:

  • Bumpy
  • Covered with flakes (dandruff on the scalp, eyebrows, facial
    hair)
  • Covered with yellow scales or crusts
  • Cracked
  • Greasy
  • Itchy
  • Leaking fluid
  • Painful
  • Red or orange

These symptoms can occur on skin:

  • Around the nose
  • Behind the ears
  • In the beard
  • In the eyebrows
  • On the scalp, also known as dandruff
  • On the upper chest

The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis can be like other health
conditions. Make sure to see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is seborrheic dermatitis diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and health
history. They may also ask about your family’s health history. They will give you
a
physical exam. The physical exam will include looking closely at your rash. Your
provider may do a biopsy, but this is usually not needed.

How is seborrheic dermatitis treated?

Treatment will depend on your symptoms, your age, and your general
health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

Treatment can reduce symptoms. Treatments often include:

  • Antifungal shampoo, body wash, or
    cream.
    These contain medicines such as ketoconazole, fluconazole,
    selenium sulfide, or ciclopirox.
  • Corticosteroid cream or
    ointment.
    These contain medicines such as hydrocortisone or
    fluocinolone acetonide.
  • Calcineurin inhibitor cream or
    ointment.
    These contain medicines such as pimecrolimus or
    tacrolimus.
  • Shampoo or cream with other
    medicines.
    These contain medicines such as coal tar, salicylic acid, or
    zinc pyrithione.
  • Sodium sulfacetamide creams and
    washes.
    These may also help reduce symptoms.

Talk with your healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and
possible side effects of all medicines.

What can I do to prevent seborrheic dermatitis?

Researchers don’t know how to prevent seborrheic dermatitis.

How to manage seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is an ongoing (chronic) condition. It can go
away and then come back. You will likely need to use shampoo, cream, or ointment
with medicine once or twice a week. This can help to keep symptoms from coming back
or getting worse. Wash your skin gently. You can remove scales with oil and gentle
rubbing or a brush.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Call the healthcare provider if you have:

  • Severe, thick scales on your scalp
  • Symptoms that don’t get better, or get worse
  • New symptoms

Key points about seborrheic dermatitis

  • Seborrheic dermatitis is a common type of rash. It causes
    red, scaly, greasy skin. It occurs on skin that has oil glands, such as the
    face, scalp, and upper chest.
  • It tends to last a long time, or go away and come back. It
    is often made worse by cold weather, hormonal changes, and stress.
  • Symptoms can include skin that is bumpy, scaly, greasy, and
    itchy.
  • Treatment such as medicine in shampoo, body wash, and lotion
    can reduce symptoms.
  • Seborrheic dermatitis is an ongoing (chronic) condition. It
    can go away and then come back. You will likely need to use shampoo, cream, or
    ointment with medicine once or twice a week.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare
provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to
    happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want
    answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and
    remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis and any
    new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your
    provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how
    it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the
    results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have
    the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date,
    time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have
    questions.

Medical Reviewer: Michael Lehrer MD

Medical Reviewer: Marianne Fraser MSN RN

Medical Reviewer: Raymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

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Cradle Cap (Seborrheic Dermatitis) in Infants (for Parents)

What Is Cradle Cap?

Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic dermatitis (seb-eh-REE-ik dur-muh-TYE-tis) of the scalp in infants.

Seborrheic dermatitis, also called seborrhea (seb-eh-REE-uh), can show up:

  • on the forehead and face
  • behind the ears
  • in the diaper area, armpits, and other skin folds and creases

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Cradle Cap (Seborrheic Dermatitis)?

Babies can develop seborrheic dermatitis when they’re between 2 weeks and 12 months old. It usually starts with cradle cap. A baby with cradle cap will have slightly red scaly or crusty yellow patches on the scalp. It may also start on the face or diaper area and spread to other parts of the body.

Seborrhea looks:

  • red and moist in skin creases and folds (like the neck and behind the ears)
  • yellowish with greasy patches or crusts
  • scaly or flaky

Seborrheic dermatitis might look uncomfortable or irritating to the skin. But it usually isn’t itchy and doesn’t seem to bother infants.

What Causes Cradle Cap (Seborrheic Dermatitis)?

The exact cause of cradle cap isn’t known. It’s likely due to a combination of things. Too much skin oil (sebum) in the oil glands and hair follicles and a type of yeast found on the skin called Malassezia may play roles in the development of seborrheic dermatitis.

How Is Cradle Cap (Seborrheic Dermatitis) Diagnosed?

Health care professionals can diagnose cradle cap and seborrheic dermatitis by the way the skin looks and where the rash is. Babies with seborrheic dermatitis are usually well and the condition should get better on its own or with treatment.

How Is Cradle Cap (Seborrheic Dermatitis) Treated?

Cradle cap and seborrheic dermatitis in infants usually clears up on its own in weeks or months. In the meantime, you may want to loosen and remove the scales on your baby’s scalp:

  • Wash your baby’s hair once a day with mild, tear-free baby shampoo.
  • Gently remove scales with a soft brush or toothbrush.
  • If the scales don’t loosen easily, apply a small amount of mineral oil or petroleum jelly to your baby’s scalp. Let the oil to soak into the scales for a few minutes to several hours, if needed. Then use a soft brush or toothbrush to remove scales. Shampoo your baby’s hair as usual.

If regular shampooing doesn’t help, your doctor may recommend a mild steroid cream or antifungal shampoo.

For seborrhea on other parts of the body, your doctor may recommend a mild steroid or antifungal cream.

Do not use over-the-counter steroid or antifungal creams or anti-seborrhea shampoos without checking first with the doctor.

What Else Should I Know?

Sometimes seborrheic dermatitis in the diaper area or skin folds can get infected. Talk to your doctor if the rash gets worse or there are any signs of infection (the skin looks red, starts to drain fluid, or feels warm).

Cradle cap and seborrheic dermatitis in infants usually get better by 12 months of age. Seborrhea may come back around puberty as dandruff.

Seborrheic Dermatitis: Symptoms and Treatments

Symptoms of seborrhoeic dermatitis

Symptoms in teenagers and adults

Seborrhoeic dermatitis causes red, flaky or scaly patches on your skin. The affected area may be itchy and sore. The most commonly affected areas include the following.

  • Your scalp – symptoms range from mild, flaky skin (dandruff) to a more severe, scalier, itchy rash which may weep.
  • Your face – especially between your eyebrows, on your cheeks and in the folds at the sides of your nose. It can also affect your eyelids, making them red, swollen and flaky. This is known as blepharitis.
  • Your ears – the skin inside your ear may become inflamed, as well as your outer ear and the skin behind your ear.
  • Your upper chest and your back, between your shoulder blades, may have round, pink or red patches with mild scaling.
  • Skin folds – these are areas that tend to stay moist and include your armpits, under your breasts and your groin. Your skin here might appear pink, shiny and cracked.

You’ll usually be able to deal with mild symptoms such as dandruff by yourself. You can also get advice from a pharmacist. If your symptoms are more severe or cover a lot of your skin, contact your GP for advice.

Symptoms in babies

Babies often get a short-lived form of seborrhoeic dermatitis on their scalp, known as cradle cap. This causes greasy, yellow-brown, scaly patches on their scalp. Seborrhoeic dermatitis can sometimes also affect other parts of your baby’s body, including their face, behind their ears and in skin folds. In these areas, the affected skin usually has drier, whiter scales than those on their scalp. It can also develop in your baby’s nappy area. Any itching in babies is usually mild, and is unlikely to bother your baby.

Cradle cap usually gets better by about four months of age, but your baby may have it for up to a year.

If your baby just has cradle cap, you won’t normally need to see a doctor for a formal diagnosis. Your health visitor may be able to give you some advice on dealing with it. But if it’s affecting other areas of your baby’s body or they have cradle cap that doesn’t seem to be responding to normal treatments, contact your GP.

Atopic eczema – NHS

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is the most common form of eczema, a condition that causes the skin to become itchy, dry and cracked.

Atopic eczema is more common in children, often developing before their first birthday. But it may also develop for the first time in adults.

It’s usually a long-term (chronic) condition, although it can improve significantly, or even clear completely, in some children as they get older.

Information:

Coronavirus advice

Get advice about coronavirus and eczema from the National Eczema Society

Symptoms of atopic eczema

Atopic eczema causes the skin to become itchy, dry, cracked and sore.

Some people only have small patches of dry skin, but others may experience widespread inflamed skin all over the body.

Inflamed skin can become red on lighter skin, and darker brown, purple or grey on darker skin. This can also be more difficult to see on darker skin.

Although atopic eczema can affect any part of the body, it most often affects the hands, insides of the elbows, backs of the knees and the face and scalp in children.

People with atopic eczema usually have periods when symptoms are less noticeable, as well as periods when symptoms become more severe (flare-ups).

When to seek medical advice

See a GP if you have symptoms of atopic eczema. They’ll usually be able to diagnose atopic eczema by looking at your skin and asking questions, such as:

  • whether the rash is itchy and where it appears
  • when the symptoms first began
  • whether it comes and goes over time
  • whether there’s a history of atopic eczema in your family
  • whether you have any other conditions, such as allergies or asthma
  • whether something in your diet or lifestyle may be contributing to your symptoms

Typically, to be diagnosed with atopic eczema you should have had an itchy skin condition in the last 12 months and 3 or more of the following:

  • visibly irritated red skin in the creases of your skin – such as the insides of your elbows or behind your knees (or on the cheeks, outsides of elbows, or fronts of the knees in children aged 18 months or under) at the time of examination by a health professional
  • a history of skin irritation occurring in the same areas mentioned above
  • generally dry skin in the last 12 months
  • a history of asthma or hay fever – children under 4 must have an immediate relative, such as a parent, brother or sister, who has 1 of these conditions
  • the condition started before the age of 2 (this does not apply to children under the age of 4)

Causes of atopic eczema

The exact cause of atopic eczema is unknown, but it’s clear it is not down to one single thing.

Atopic eczema often occurs in people who get allergies. “Atopic” means sensitivity to allergens.

It can run in families, and often develops alongside other conditions, such as asthma and hay fever.

The symptoms of atopic eczema often have certain triggers, such as soaps, detergents, stress and the weather. 

Sometimes food allergies can play a part, especially in young children with severe eczema.

You may be asked to keep a food diary to try to determine whether a specific food makes your symptoms worse.

Allergy tests are not usually needed, although they’re sometimes helpful in identifying whether a food allergy may be triggering symptoms.

Treating atopic eczema

Treatment for atopic eczema can help to relieve the symptoms and many cases improve over time.

But there’s currently no cure and severe eczema often has a significant impact on daily life, which may be difficult to cope with physically and mentally.

There’s also an increased risk of skin infections. 

Many different treatments can be used to control symptoms and manage eczema, including:

  • self-care techniques, such as reducing scratching and avoiding triggers
  • emollients (moisturising treatments) – used on a daily basis for dry skin
  • topical corticosteroids – used to reduce swelling, redness and itching during flare-ups

Other types of eczema

Eczema is the name for a group of skin conditions that cause dry, irritated skin.

Other types of eczema include:

  • discoid eczema – a type of eczema that occurs in circular or oval patches on the skin
  • contact dermatitis – a type of eczema that occurs when the body comes into contact with a particular substance
  • varicose eczema – a type of eczema that most often affects the lower legs and is caused by problems with the flow of blood through the leg veins
  • seborrhoeic eczema – a type of eczema where red, scaly patches develop on the sides of the nose, eyebrows, ears and scalp
  • dyshidrotic eczema (pompholyx) – a type of eczema that causes tiny blisters to erupt across the palms of the hands

Page last reviewed: 05 December 2019
Next review due: 05 December 2022

Seborrheic Dermatitis – Treatment & Causes

Seborrheic dermatitis treatment

Treatment depends on your age and location of the symptoms. Several over-the-counter and medicated shampoos can relieve the flaking and dryness. You do not  need a prescription for these products. Look for a product that says it treats seborrheic dermatitis. Important ingredients include salicylic acid, coal tar, zinc, resorcin, ketoconazole and selenium sulfide.

  • Adult and adolescent scalp (dandruff): Effective shampoos that contain salicylic acid and zinc include the brand names: Scalpicin, X-Seb, Exsel, Selsun Blue, DHS Zinc and Head & Shoulders. These shampoos can be used twice a week. Shampoos that contain coal tar include DHS Tar, Neutrogena T/Gel and Polytar. These may be used 3 times a week. If you have dandruff, start by using one of these shampoos daily until your dandruff is controlled. The use it two or three times a week. Rub the shampoo into your hair thoroughly and let it stay on your hair and scalp for at least 5 minutes. Then rinse. If the shampoo alone doesn’t help, your doctor might want you to use a prescription steroid lotion once or twice daily.
  • Adult and adolescent skin creases:Steroid lotions may be used in adolescents and adults.
  • Infant scalp (cradle cap): Baby products are not as strong as those used for adults. Start with a mild, nonmedicated baby shampoo. Use mineral oil, olive oil or petrolatum jelly to loosen the flakes. Brush your baby’s scalp with a soft brush, like a toothbrush to loosen flakes. But be gentle when massaging or brushing your baby’s scalp. A break in the skin could lead to an infection. If a nonmedicated shampoo doesn’t work, talk to your doctor about switching to a shampoo that contains tar. Your doctor may recommend a prescription shampoo such as Nizoral.
  • Infant skin creases: Mild steroid lotions or creams may be used to treat seborrheic dermatitis in the skin creases of babies. Talk to your family doctor about the correct steroid strength.

Other treatments that could help include phototherapy. This is a medical procedure in which your skin is carefully exposed to ultraviolet light. Moderate sunlight is helpful.

90,000 Treatment of eczema in the Es Class Clinic Ulyanovsk at an affordable price

Eczema occupies a special place among non-communicable chronic skin diseases. It is characterized by the appearance of an itchy rash that is rarely located in only one area of ​​the body. Sometimes the rash covers the entire body, but even if the rash is minor, you need to see a doctor as soon as possible and register for dispensary. There are several forms of the disease, among them: true, microbial, seborrheic, childhood, varicose, etc.The causes are divided into external (irritation from chemical, mechanical, thermal effects) and internal (diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, nervous and endocrine systems). Often there is its appearance on a nervous basis, its treatment, as in all cases, should be complex.

Regardless of where eczema appears: on the legs, arms or all over the body, it is extremely important to observe hygiene so that fungal or microbial damage does not join the disease – this will complicate recovery.If the doctor confirms the diagnosis, treatment will be prescribed depending on the form of the disease and the degree of its complexity. Typically, it includes the use of topical hormonal, antimicrobial, antihistamines, and sedatives. Smoking cessation, diet and other measures that your doctor will tell you about are important.

Special attention is required eczema during pregnancy . It signals that not everything is going well in the mother’s body. Treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor and taking into account so as not to harm the child.If the lesion is localized on the nipples of a nursing mother, it is better to express milk. Children’s eczema usually develops in children whose parents have allergic diseases. Young children with this diagnosis need to be protected from viral infections, since the consequences of such an infection can be very serious, even fatal.

An experienced dermatovenerologist will examine you, give you a referral for all the necessary tests and prescribe an effective and safe treatment. Make an appointment now.

90,000 Treatment of eczema in Kharkov – Center for European Dermatology

Eczema or weeping lichen: not contagious, but dangerous!

Eczema in dermatology is classified as a rather serious skin disease characterized by inflammation, skin rashes and debilitating itching.

Localized more often on the face, hands, feet, ears and scalp.

Main types of eczema

  • True – redness of the skin with a rash of bursting vesicles.
  • Dyshidrotic – a type of true eczema localized in certain areas – palms and soles of the feet (with possible damage to the nail plates)
  • Seborrheic – scaly patches of the scalp, ears, nasolabial folds that can coalesce and grow.
  • Microbial – suppuration with intolerable itching in the area of ​​ulcers, wounds, fistulas, covered with serous crusts.
  • Sycosiformis – itchy pustules on the scalp that may extend beyond this area and spread to the face and ears.
  • Pediatric – more about this in the section of the site “Pediatric Dermatology”.
  • Nipple eczema in lactating women is a weeping burgundy-red lesion of the areola zone associated with chronic irritation during the period of breastfeeding.

If you do not start treatment on time, then any type of eczema will go into a chronic stage with frequent relapses and exacerbations, and in the worst case – into a severe form of erythroderma, which can affect huge areas of the skin.

Therefore, at the first suspicious symptoms, a timely visit to a doctor is required. Competent diagnostics and effective treatment of eczema in Kharkov are successfully carried out by specialists of the European Dermatology Medical Center.

Causes that can cause eczema

Official medicine is unanimous in the opinion that the trigger (trigger) of this disease is the psychoemotional state of a person, and this is not only severe stress, but also prolonged depression and apathy.

  • Severe stress.
  • Deep nervous shock.
  • Prolonged nervous exhaustion.
  • Global breakdowns of the immune system.
  • Problems associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver.
  • Skin problems resulting from damage to this organ.
  • Dermatological lesions of the feet (in particular, mycoses).

External and internal symptoms of eczema

Skin symptoms

  • In an acute period, a blistering rash appears on the skin, containing serous fluid inside.
  • After the bursting vesicles dry up, the affected area of ​​the skin becomes covered with a grayish-yellowish crust.
  • The chronic form of eczema manifests itself in a slightly different way: the skin on the areas affected by eczema thickens noticeably, acquires a pale shade, then becomes covered with cracks, inside which peeling begins.

Concomitant symptoms

  • Constant itching.
  • Possible appearance of puffiness in the affected area.
  • Attachment of a secondary infection as a result of scratching.
  • Spread of the affected area throughout the body.
  • Nervous disorders.
  • Persistent insomnia.
  • Prolonged depression.

Diagnosis of eczema – a matter of qualifications for the doctor

The success of treatment, as you know, depends on the correct diagnosis, including the diagnosis of eczema. In Kharkov, a dermatologist will help you not to waste your precious time on self-medication.

Seek advice from experienced specialists of the medical center “European Dermatology” in Kharkov.

Here you will be guaranteed an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the only correct treatment for eczema in Kharkov (prices for which are affordable for everyone), suitable for the nature of the development of your particular type of disease.

  • In a confidential form of a casual conversation, the doctor will identify the reasons that led to your disease, make an anamnesis, give a comprehensive assessment of the state of your body as a whole, and make a visual examination of the affected areas.
  • Next, a number of laboratory tests will be assigned to clarify the diagnosis: general bacterial culture, sowing for the detection of parasitic fungi, identification of an excitatory allergen, analysis for antigen Ige.
  • If in doubt about the final diagnosis, a dermatologist may prescribe a biopsy to dispel all doubts and draw a final conclusion on the diagnosis.

Treatment of eczema in Kharkov in the medical center “European Dermatology” is convenient because all analyzes are carried out in their own laboratory and allow doctors to work on a comprehensive diagnosis, and the patient does not waste time on additional transfers to other laboratories to collect tests.

How is eczema treated in the medical center “European Dermatology”

Doctors of the highest category working in the medical center “European Dermatology” use the most progressive methods of treating dermatological diseases, including all types of eczema.

At the initial stage of treatment, the influence of the provoking factor is blocked and the patient develops a positive attitude towards reality and faith in a successful outcome of treatment.

Comprehensive therapeutic plan includes:

  • drug treatment: antihistamine therapy, antifungal therapy, antibiotics;
  • restorative complex of drugs: correction of the endocrine and immune systems, correction of the psycho-emotional background with the appointment of a course of sedative therapy, vitamin therapy, a course of detoxification;
  • therapeutic hypoallergenic diets;
  • Development of a scheme for maintaining a correct lifestyle and independent use at home of drying agents and emollient creams to restore the skin barrier.

Treatment of the diagnosis “eczema” in Kharkov is successfully carried out in the medical center “European Dermatology”.

An appointment for a consultation with a specialist dermatologist is carried out by calling the help desk and on the main page of the website of the medical center in the form of an online appointment.

Eczema / Diseases / Clinic EXPERT

Eczema is a chronic, often non-infectious, inflammation of the surface layers of the skin. This disease is characterized by rash and redness of the skin of the hands, feet (feet), face, itching and burning, as well as alternating periods of remission and exacerbations.Eczema is common and accounts for about 40% of skin diseases.

Main types (forms) of eczema:

  1. Idiopathic (true)
  2. Microbial
  3. Seborrheic
  4. Professional

Causes of eczema

The exact causes of eczema have not yet been precisely established. There are a number of hypotheses according to which eczema may appear, relapse or worsen due to:

  • various external and internal stimuli (stress, nervous tension; immune disorders; diseases such as diabetes mellitus, varicose veins, thyroid, gastrointestinal path and liver)
  • susceptibility to allergic reactions to food, house dust, pet hair, pollen
  • prolonged contact with chemical, antibacterial substances
  • infections, viral diseases, colds, fungus.

Symptoms of eczema

Eczema can manifest itself in different ways depending on the type and stage. However, there are general signs:

  • redness and thickening of a certain area of ​​the skin (inflammation)
  • itching, in some cases it can interfere with the normal rhythm of life and disrupt sleep
  • blisters of a rash, painful wounds and cracks
  • during an exacerbation – an increase in temperature , malaise
  • in remission – dry, inelastic skin.

Diagnosis

In most cases, the diagnosis of eczema with specific symptoms is limited to a skin examination by a qualified dermatologist. If it is determined that the patient often interacts with potentially allergenic substances, then the doctor may prescribe allergic skin tests.

Treatment of eczema

Treatment of eczema is prescribed only after establishing the most probable cause of its occurrence, determining the form of the disease and identifying concomitant diseases.In the treatment of eczema, antihistamines (antiallergic) drugs, glucocorticoid ointments and tablets (hormonal agents), sedatives, vitamins are used. Depending on the situation, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics as well as cryotherapy.

Important: all of the listed products have contraindications and side effects! Do not self-medicate under any circumstances!

During treatment it is recommended:

  • observe a hypoallergenic diet (a lactic-plant diet is often prescribed)
  • Pay attention to the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Do not wear clothes made of synthetic fabric, wool, flannel
  • Observe hygiene rules
  • Limit contact with chemicals, use gloves when working with household chemicals.

Forecast

Forecast of eczema treatment depends, first of all, on its type and stage of the disease. Some forms respond better to therapy than others. One way or another, eczema is a chronic disease, and the main goal of treatment is to achieve a stable remission and the lowest possible recurrences of eczema.

Recommendations

Patients with eczema are advised to regularly visit a dermatologist to monitor and correct the treatment of eczema. You should adhere to a balanced diet, limit interaction with chemicals (work in chemical industries, enterprises and laboratories is contraindicated).Being attentive to one’s own health, supporting the immune system and timely treatment also plays an important role in the fight against eczema.

Eczema – treatment, symptoms, causes, diagnosis

Types of eczema:

Eczema is an idiopathic disease. The reasons why it appears are not fully understood. Doctors are aware of several factors that, in combination or separately, can trigger a particular set of symptoms. For example, pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, dysfunction of the thyroid gland, varicose veins, psychoemotional stress can lead to the development of an eczema rash.

True eczema

True eczema proceeds chronically, manifests itself in cyclical development from exacerbations to relapses. A distinctive feature of the disease is the presence of symmetrical inflammation on the body. Such a diagnosis can be made by the indicated symmetrical spread of the rash, the presence of small bubbles (small-papular rash), polymorphism. Identifying allergies and past stress increases the accuracy of the diagnosis.

Stages:

  • erythematous – the skin is visibly reddened;
  • papulovesicular – bubbles appear;
  • oozing – bubbles burst and microerosions form in their place;
  • crusts appear.

As a rule, all stages are observed simultaneously.

Inflammation with this type of edematous, reddened, the surface gets wet from the exudate secreted. A characteristic manifestation is the syndrome of “serous wells”, when the secretion lies in drops, resembling dew. Within the focus of inflammation are vesicles with contents and crusts. In addition to foci of inflammation on the body, there are scattered dry eruptions. If a person has been suffering from this disease for a long time, the quality of the skin gradually changes.Such patients are characterized by infiltration, hyperemia, hyperpigmentation. The skin pattern is more and more manifested, the skin thickens.

Microbial eczema

The causes of microbial eczema are factors associated with varicose veins (varicose eczema), trauma (paratraumatic), fungal infections (mycotic). The reason for the development is the basis for the selection of treatment.

The outbreaks are asymmetrical, as in the case of the previous species. As a rule, the foci of inflammation are located in the lower part of the body – in the projection of the veins.The second option is skin folds where intense sweating is observed. The basis for the diagnosis is history, symptoms, microscopy, bacteriological, histological examination:

  • with microscopy, you can find signs of mycosis in the form of mycotic cells;
  • in a bacteriological study, the type of fungus and the drug to which it is sensitive are determined;
  • histology reveals widespread lymphoid infiltration with plasmacytic elements, epidermal localization of vesicles, sclerotic skin changes (if microbial eczema lasted a long time).

The spots have uneven edges, the skin around is thickened, red with blue. The spots have weeping crusts. On the periphery, the formation of dry single rashes is possible. This type is often complicated by additional diseases.

Seborrheic eczema

Eczema is localized in a characteristic way – on the head, in the anatomical folds, behind the ears, on the folds. On the territory of hair growth, dry skin, redness are noticeable, peeling is separated from the spots, the patient experiences itching.Inflamed spots have delineated borders. They are dry, but sometimes there are serous-purulent or serous crusts, after removal of which eroded weeping spots appear.

With inflammation in the folds, cracks of great depth, edema, swelling appear. Sometimes lesions appear on the body, mainly in the lower part. They are clearly delineated, have a yellowish-pink color, scaly, and a rash is observed in the middle part. Some doctors consider seborrheic eczema as seborrheic dermatitis or true complicated eczema.However, these diseases can be distinguished histologically.

Occupational eczema is caused by regular contact with irritating substances. The trigger for the onset of the disease can be microtrauma, chemical and aggressive drugs, dust. In combination with existing allergies or a violation of vascular permeability, this gives a rash. The clinical picture is similar to true eczema. Rashes are localized in places of contact with the allergen, but are also possible throughout the body.

The diagnosis is made taking into account the clinical picture and data that exacerbations appear upon contact with certain substances.Also, this view can be indicated by the fact that the symptoms disappear during the vacation.

Dyshidrotic eczema

The causes of dyshidrotic eczema is a violation of the activity of the sweat glands. Additional reasons are contact with substances that are known to be allergic. Exacerbations are characteristic of summer time or periods of high stress. As a rule, the first symptoms affect the fingers – rashes begin to appear on the sides, after which they diverge to other areas.

Tylotic eczema

The soles of the feet and palms are the preferred location for this type. At the location of the bubbles, calluses are gradually formed. The disease becomes noticeable at the vesicular stage – the erythematous stage is poorly expressed due to the fact that there is dense skin on these surfaces. Because eczema is a systemic disease, the patient may develop rashes elsewhere.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of eczema is carried out in several stages:

  • Initial examination by a dermatologist;
  • research on allergies;
  • laboratory blood / urine tests;
  • skin scraping;
  • immunofluorescence study.

Diagnosis is usually clinical. Identification of atopic diseases in relatives helps to confirm the diagnosis. The disease is similar to similar ones – contact, nummular, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, the location of spots and the reasons for their appearance are important for differential diagnosis.

Principles of Treatment

Treatment begins with the installation and elimination of provoking factors, which are partially listed at the beginning of the article. It will not be possible to cure the disease, being in stress and psychophysical overstrain, constantly in contact with substances that cause allergic manifestations, without eliminating microbial or fungal infection.

For any type of eczema, the following have a positive effect:

  • drug treatment – taking sedatives and antihistamines;
  • plasmapheresis and other methods of extracorporeal hemocorrection;
  • vitamin therapy (local and internal) for cell regeneration.

In case of exacerbation, generalized nature and inability to stop the recurrence of the disease, glucocorticosteroids can be added to treatment. For local treatment, ointments and pastes with keratolic properties are effective.They save the patient from itching and contain anti-inflammatory ingredients. To facilitate the drying of inflammations, special powders, talkers, ointments are used. The spots should be covered from aggressive external influences – wind, frost, sun.

A wide range of physiotherapy procedures are used for treatment:

  • ozone therapy – flow-through gassing with a special mixture of gases or irrigation and lotions with ozonized water;
  • magnetic therapy – the patient is exposed to a magnetic field in a special apparatus;
  • laser treatment;
  • cryotherapy – the use of a cryosauna or cryo-treatment of affected areas;
  • ultraviolet irradiation;
  • 90,023 baths.

Physiotherapist selects a set of procedures on an individual basis.

In most cases, treatment can be carried out at home, but for some types of disease (phlegmon, herpetic eczema, exfoliative dermatitis), a doctor may recommend hospitalization. It is necessary to add to the treatment procedures a special diet, cessation of smoking and alcohol, enhanced hygiene in order to avoid infection of wounds, the correct selection of detergents and creams.

The diet is selected on an individual basis.As a rule, smoked foods, spicy dishes, pickles, canned food, coffee, citrus fruits, bakery and confectionery products are completely excluded. Porridge, dairy products, vegetable soups help to cope with exacerbations with balanced therapy.

Make an appointment at NEARMEDIC

Doctors carry out effective complex treatment using the latest discoveries in the field of dermatology and long-established classic methods that are still relevant.

Treatment at NEARMEDIC has a number of advantages:

  • complexity – drug therapy, individually developed diet, taking vitamins;
  • modern techniques – physiotherapy, ozone therapy, innovative equipment;
  • own laboratory, which allows you to quickly get a study for fungi and bacteriological infection;
  • professional doctors with work experience and internships in the best foreign clinics.

Treatment tactics depend on the type of disease diagnosed, laboratory and clinical data.The program is made individually each time. Since the disease sometimes provokes problems with the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels and heart, it may be necessary to consult an additional specialized specialist. Complex treatment using laser irradiation, ointments, glucocorticoids relieves inflammation, after which the disease enters a long stage of remission.

In its early stages, untreated eczema can be treated with minimal cost. If primary symptoms appear, do not self-medicate, but immediately seek advice from a dermatovenerologist (specialist, candidate or doctor of medical sciences) in the selected department of the NEARMEDIC network of clinics.

90,000 Eczema: Medicines Used in the Treatment

Eczema is an allergic non-contagious disease in which rashes appear on the skin in the form of small blisters.

General

Recently, the prevalence of allergic diseases, including eczema, has increased dramatically. Despite the fact that this pathology is of an allergic nature, a large number of different factors are involved in its development.

Causes of eczema

The causes of eczema can be associated with both the state of the body itself and with external influences:

  • Skin contact with various metals.It can be nickel (eyeglass frames, buckles, jewelry, keys, coins), chrome (varnishes, cement, dyed fur and leather), cobalt (plastic, jewelry, ceramics, paints, cement).
  • Contact with synthetic substances that are part of cosmetics, paints and varnishes, household chemicals.
  • Long-term use of certain medications, eg patches, antibiotics.
  • Contact with certain plants: tulips, primrose.
  • Contact with various bacteria and fungi.
  • Rubber, various adhesives, formalin, oils, epoxy and other resins, turpentine, oil and various petroleum products.
  • Frequent and severe nervous stress. Often eczema occurs precisely after the next nervous shock.
  • Heredity. A person can receive genes from their parents that cause an overreaction of the immune system to antigens. If both parents are sick with eczema, then there is a 50% chance that the child will also be sick.

Symptoms

Usually, eczema begins on the skin of the face.Then it spreads to the neck, shoulders, arms, chest, back. The rash is always symmetrical: the right and left parts of the body are affected in approximately the same way.

The skin in the affected area becomes edematous and reddens. Later, bubbles filled with liquid appear in these places. They open, and ulcers remain in their places, abundantly weeping. After the wetness dries up, yellowish crusts are formed. Meanwhile, new bubbles form on the healed areas. Due to the fact that the process takes place constantly, bubbles, ulcers, weeping, and crusts can be seen on the skin at the same time.In this case, the patient experiences severe itching.

This is how acute eczema manifests itself. Quite quickly, it becomes chronic. In this case, the skin becomes edematous, thickens, and peeling occurs. Vesicles continue to appear, which undergo the same changes as in the acute form of the disease. A large number of them appear during exacerbations. At the same time, itching increases.

Complications of eczema

Infection can be associated with eczema. In this case, pustules form on the skin.Due to severe itching, the patient becomes nervous, irritable, does not sleep well at night.

What can you do

If rashes resembling eczema appear on the skin, you should immediately consult a dermatologist. It is necessary to start treatment in a timely manner.

What a doctor can do for eczema

Usually the doctor has no doubts: the dermatologist makes the diagnosis after an external examination. But sometimes a skin scraping may be prescribed.
Treatment of eczema is carried out on an outpatient basis, involves the use of antiallergic drugs, enzymes, immunomodulators, sedatives, diuretics (with severe edema), lotions and baths with various drugs.When an infection joins, the doctor prescribes antibiotics.

It is important to identify allergens to which the patient has a reaction and to exclude contact with them. The diet should be hypoallergenic, with the exception of foods that can cause a reaction. If the patient has dysbiosis, then he must be treated.

In the development of eczema, the state of the nervous system is of great importance. Therefore, during treatment, stress and conflict situations must be avoided, a sufficient amount of time to sleep and rest.

Attention! Symptom chart is for educational purposes only. Do not self-medicate; for all questions regarding the definition of the disease and methods of treatment, contact your doctor. Our site is not responsible for the consequences caused by the use of information posted on the portal.

Eczema

IMPORTANT!

The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication.In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct treatment, you should contact your doctor.

Eczema: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Eczema is an inflammatory non-infectious skin disease prone to a chronic course with relapses. It is characterized by the appearance of rashes and blisters, itching, burning, peeling.

The main problem with eczema (especially in children) is the high probability of bacterial infection of the affected skin areas, which leads to the development of purulent complications.

Causes of eczema

The causes of eczema are not fully understood, but the factors that provoke this disease are clearly defined.

Of great importance in the development of eczema is the state of the nervous and endocrine systems, the well-coordinated work of which is the key to healthy skin.

Risk factors for developing eczema include:

  1. The presence of eczema in close relatives.
  2. Presence of allergic diseases such as allergic urticaria, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, hay fever and others.
  3. Neuroendocrine diseases.
  4. Immunological diseases.
  5. Deficiency of B vitamins (in particular, B 6 ) and microelements.
  6. Intestinal dysbiosis, helminthic invasion (more often in children) and gallbladder disease.
  7. Kidney pathology.
  8. Lack of intake of unsaturated fatty acids or impaired absorption.
  9. Unfavorable psycho-emotional environment: stress, lack of sleep.
  10. Unfavorable environmental conditions, frequent contact with irritating agents (occupational eczema).

Classification of the disease

Based on the clinical picture of the disease, dermatologists use the following classification of eczema:

  1. Idiopathic (true) eczema is characterized by acute inflammatory edematous erythema followed by the rash of small vesicles.
  2. Microbial eczema develops on damaged skin (around wounds).Allocate mycotic (fungal), near-wound (arising around wound skin defects) and varicose eczema.
  3. Seborrheic eczema develops in the same areas as seborrheic dermatitis.
  4. Occupational eczema occurs in people who have frequent exposure to irritants. It is possible that eczema may appear in people wearing tight, uncomfortable clothing, which contributes to the disruption of microcirculation and the appearance of microtraumas on the skin.

Eczema can be either an independent disease or a symptom.

In this case, cure without eliminating the cause is impossible – eczema will constantly recur, treatment will be ineffective, and the underlying disease can become chronic.

Symptoms of eczema

True eczema affects exposed areas of the body, with the formation of erythematous rashes. In the center of the focus, vesicles filled with serous contents first form. After opening the bubbles, areas with a profusely weeping surface are formed.The process is accompanied by severe itching. Gradually, the serous fluid dries up, forming grayish-yellow crusts, under which epithelization occurs. These areas of the skin are highly flaky, coarse, and over time become hyperpigmented. The triggering factors for the development of idiopathic eczema are considered to be nervous stress, the use of potentially allergenic products, frequent contact with household chemicals, etc.

Microbial eczema develops at the site of chronic foci of pyoderma (purulent skin lesions).Areas of inflammation can grow, a secondary infection often joins, and suppuration develops. The borders of the spots are uneven, red in color, the arrangement is continuous, without layers of healthy skin. The process is accompanied by itching.

Seborrheic eczema develops only on the scalp, behind the ears, in the natural folds of the skin, on the face and on the extensor surfaces of the limbs. It is characterized by dry skin, itching, the appearance of gray scaly scales, when removed, an eroded, weeping surface with clear boundaries is exposed.

Occupational eczema occurs as a result of exposure to occupational hazards and has a sluggish chronic course. The clinical picture is almost identical to true eczema, a characteristic feature is the presence of a provoking factor.

Diagnosis of eczema

Diagnose eczema by clinical manifestations, taking into account the presence or absence of provoking factors in the anamnesis.

If allergic eczema is suspected, an allergist is involved in the examination of the patient.For the convenience of doctors and patients, complex allergy panels have been developed to identify the most common allergens: food, dust or respiratory.

In the clinical analysis of the blood of a patient with eczema, as well as with allergic diseases, the number of eosinophils will be increased; also characterized by an increase in the level of immunoglobulins of class E.
With eczema, scrapings are made from the affected area, which is the standard for diagnosing skin diseases.
A general urine test, ultrasound of the kidneys, determination of creatinine and urea in the blood will help to identify abnormalities in the functioning of the kidneys, which could lead to skin problems.In the treatment of such pathologies, both the therapist and the nephrologist are competent.
Varicose veins of the lower extremities, which led to the development of eczema, is diagnosed by a phlebologist or surgeon, and ultrasonography of the veins of the lower extremities is additionally performed.
To determine the causative agent of mycosis, a microscopic examination of the skin and nails is carried out.
For diseases of the neuroendocrine system, joint work
neurologist and
an endocrinologist will allow you to quickly and effectively identify the cause of eczema, carry out timely and complete diagnostics, as well as develop treatment tactics.In particular, in diabetes mellitus, the basis of skin manifestations is a violation of metabolic processes. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe a screening and / or extended examination.
Certain diseases of the adrenal or pituitary gland can indirectly lead to eczema. To diagnose them, it is necessary to determine the level of hormones produced by these organs, for example, ACTH and cortisol.
If there is a suspicion of disorders of the autonomic nervous system, CT or MRI of the brain is performed, in some cases EEG.
To diagnose diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ultrasound of the abdominal organs is performed, if indicated, gastro- and colonoscopy.
These examinations can be carried out both in combination and with sedation.
Ultrasound will reveal the pathology of the gallbladder (for example, gallstone disease), and endoscopic manipulations – structural changes in the wall of the stomach or intestines.
If neoplasms or pathology of the gastrointestinal mucosa are detected, a biopsy is performed.
Diseases of the biliary organs will be indicated by an increase in the biochemical blood test of such indicators as bilirubin (free and bound), alkaline phosphatase and, in some cases, ALT and AST.
To detect dysbiosis, a microbiological study of feces is prescribed, which allows one to assess the composition of the intestinal microflora, taking into account its sensitivity to bacteriophages.
To confirm the deficiency of vitamins and trace elements, it is necessary to donate blood for vitamin B 6 and for studies included in the profile, which will help determine the state of vitamin and mineral metabolism and identify possible imbalances.
To diagnose worm infestation, feces are analyzed for eggs of worms.
An increase in the number of eosinophils in the general blood test is also an indirect sign of helminthiasis.
Which doctor should you contact

Undoubtedly, the first doctor when a skin rash occurs will be a dermatologist who can help determine if eczema is a purely skin process or a symptom. In some cases, he can refer the patient for consultation to narrow specialists: an allergist-immunologist,
therapist,
surgeon,
neurologist,
endocrinologist, nephrologist,
gastroenterologist.

Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause and form of eczema, for which you should consult a dermatologist and undergo an examination.

If eczema is an independent disease, treatment consists in eliminating provoking factors, maintaining a sleep and rest regimen, reducing stress, and following a hypoallergenic diet.

Of the medications, topical preparations are widely used – creams and ointments containing hormones.Antihistamines that block histamine receptors, which cause tissue swelling, itching, may also be recommended.

In cases where eczema is a symptom of kidney disease, with the development of renal failure, hemodialysis can reduce the severity of the clinical manifestations of eczema.

Compliance with the rest and wakefulness regimen, the use of certain sedatives, antioxidants and angioprotectors, the treatment of endocrine diseases and strict adherence to all doctor’s prescriptions can significantly reduce or even stop the manifestations of eczema.

The treatment regimen for intestinal dysbiosis most often includes pre- and probiotics that restore the intestinal microflora, as well as diet. If a deficiency of trace elements and vitamins is detected, regardless of the cause that caused them (insufficient intake from the outside or impaired absorption), multivitamin complexes are prescribed. If pathology is detected on the part of the biliary organs, conservative treatment is carried out, and in case of its ineffectiveness, surgical intervention is recommended.

When parasites eggs are found in the feces, a pediatrician or therapist conducts diagnosis and treatment. In such cases, antihelminthic drugs are prescribed, but it should be remembered that they have many contraindications.

Complications

A serious complication of eczema is the addition of a secondary bacterial infection.

To prevent the development of this condition, it is necessary to seek medical help in a timely manner. You should refrain from scratching the foci of inflammation, observe the rules of personal hygiene.

Prophylaxis

There is no specific prophylaxis for eczema. With true eczema, a decrease in the impact of provoking factors has a positive effect.

Persons with chronic diseases, the presence of which can provoke the development of eczema, need to regularly visit the attending physician and undergo medical examination in order to timely prevent the development of complications.

Sources:

  1. Celiac disease in children.Clinical guidelines. 2016
  2. Russian Society of Dermatovenereologists and Cosmetologists. Federal clinical guidelines for the management of patients with eczema. Moscow, 2015, 12 p.
IMPORTANT!

The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct treatment, you should contact your doctor.

Information checked by expert

Lishova Ekaterina Alexandrovna

Higher medical education, work experience – 19 years

90,000 Scalp eczema

Many people believe that the cause of scalp eczema is uncleanliness.However, the root of this disease has completely different reasons, some of which scientists have not been able to find out until now.

Many are sure that the cause of the development of eczema of the head is uncleanliness. However, the root of this disease has completely different reasons, some of which scientists have not been able to find out until now.

The most obvious causes of eczema are:

  • weakened immune system;
  • chronic diseases of the digestive tract;
  • genetic factor;
  • increased secretion of the sebaceous glands;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • streptococcal infection.

It was previously thought that eczema can be caused by the development of pathogenic fungi, but recent studies have shown that fungus is not a cause, but a consequence of the disease. Skin cells damaged by the disease are unable to resist the development of fungi. Often, eczema is the cause of the development of alopecia – hair loss, which is why its treatment must be started in the early stages of the disease.

Seborrheic eczema – symptoms
Eczema develops gradually, at first it manifests itself in the form of a yellowish rash on the skin, most often they appear behind the ears and under the hair on the neck.Over time, the rash turns into scales, after the separation of which moisture is released. The first sensations are tight skin. In the next step, the spots turn dirty yellow. Treatment of seborrheic alopecia of the scalp and eczema should only be prescribed by a specialist. In case of improper treatment, eczema can even turn into nasolabial folds, affect the skin on the eyebrows and eyelids. Periocular skin lesions are often accompanied by purulent conjunctivitis.

Since at the beginning of its development eczema resembles dandruff, people pay little attention to it, but if you start to feel tight skin and itching, you should immediately seek help from a dermatologist.Only after making a scraping and determining the causes of the development of eczema, we can talk about effective ways to treat it.