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Skin Rashes: Home Treatment | Michigan Medicine

Topic Overview

Home treatment often can relieve discomfort and itching until a rash clears up. If you have come in contact with a substance that causes contact dermatitis (such as poison ivy, oak, or sumac), immediately wash the area with large amounts of water.

Over-the-counter
medicines may help relieve itching. Be sure to follow the instructions on the label. Some over-the-counter medicines may caution against use in the genital area or caution use for children.

  • Zinc oxide ointment is soothing to irritated skin.
  • Calamine lotion is helpful for contact dermatitis, such as poison ivy or oak rashes.
  • For severe itching, apply hydrocortisone cream (1%) 3 times a day until the itch is gone. Note: Do not use the cream on children younger than age 2 unless your doctor tells you to. Do not use in the rectal or vaginal area in children younger than age 12 unless your doctor tells you to.
  • Try an oral antihistamine to help interrupt the scratch-itch cycle. Examples include a nondrowsy one like loratadine (Claritin) or one that might make you sleepy like diphenhydramine (Benadryl). Oral antihistamines are helpful when itching and discomfort are interfering with or preventing normal activities, such as school, work, or sleep. Don’t give antihistamines to your child unless you’ve checked with the doctor first.

Credits

Current as of:
July 2, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
E. Gregory Thompson MD – Internal Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine

Current as of: July 2, 2020

Author:
Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & E. Gregory Thompson MD – Internal Medicine & Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine

Assessment of antihistamines in the treatment of skin allergies


Purpose of review:

Antihistamines, both old first-generation and new, are frequently prescribed to patients with allergic skin diseases. As the expected roles of antihistamines differ in each dermatosis, we should carefully consider the characteristics of each antihistamine prior to use. This review covers recent antihistamine topics, including novel pharmacological action, and enhancement of patient quality of life (QoL).


Recent findings:

Nonsedative, second-generation antihistamines are recommended as first-line treatment for urticaria. For atopic dermatitis, most position papers doubt their efficacy of treatment due to insufficient evidence. However, recent articles revealed novel h2 receptor-independent properties for these agents, such as modulation of cytokine and chemokine production, tissue remodeling, and indicated its favorable effects on atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, several important benefits of second-generation antihistamines on the amelioration of atopic dermatitis symptoms, patient QoL and labor efficiency including loss of productivity and absenteeism from the workplace have been reported. In contrast, prescription of first-generation antihistamines for skin allergies should be avoided due to their bad risk/benefit ratio. Whereas they are not better in controlling itch, they also fail to improve patient labor efficiency unlike second-generation antihistamines.


Summary:

Although antihistamine usefulness varies greatly, understanding the characteristics of each antihistamine will allow more personalized therapy for skin allergies.

Antihistamines (Oral) | NSC

About your medicine

Your doctor has prescribed one or more of the following antihistamine(s):




Drowsy Non-drowsy

  • Buclizine

  • Chlorpheniramine
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Promethazine

  • Bilastine
  • Cetirizine (may cause mild sedation)
  • Desloratadine
  • Fexofenadine
  • Levocetirizine
  • Loratadine
  • Rupatadin​e

What are antihistamines used for?

Antihistamines are used to relieve itch, redness and swelling in some skin conditions and other types of allergy. They also help to relieve some of the symptoms of the common flu and hay fever, like sneezing, runny nose and watery eyes.

They work by canceling the effects of histamine produced by the body in allergic conditions.

How should you take antihistamines?

  • Antihistamines are available in tablets or liquids. Follow the dosage instructions on the label. Do not take more than recommended unless advised by your doctor.
  • Take this medicine with some food to reduce stomach irritation if necessary.
  • ​For patients taking bilastine:
    Take bilastine one hour before or 2 hours after intake of food or fruit juice.

What should you do if you forget a dose?

  • Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, do not take the missed dose at all. Resume your regular dosing schedule. Do not take double the dose to make up for the missed one.

What other effects may antihistamines cause?

Certain side effects of this medicine are not unusual and may even disappear during treatment. If any of the following effects persist or are severe, consult your doctor:

  • Some antihistamines may cause some people to feel drowsy, while other antihistamines do not have this effect at all. If you are affected, do not drive, operate machinery or do work that requires you to be alert.
  • Blurred vision
  • Difficult or painful urination
  • Dry mouth (drink fluids or suck sweets to relieve this)
  • GI upset (bloating, constipation or diarrhoea)

What precautions should you take?

  • For women: Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant or are breast-feeding.
  • Inform your doctor if you regularly use other medicines that make you sleepy (such as cold or allergy medicine, sedatives, narcotic pain medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxants, and medicine for seizures, depression, or anxiety). They can add to sleepiness caused by antihistamines.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol. Alcohol may increase drowsiness or dizziness while taking antihistamines.
  • Inform your doctor that you are taking antihistamines before you have any skin tests for allergies. The results of the test may be affected by antihistamines.
  • Inform your doctor if you are taking over-the-counter medicines, including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products.

How should you store antihistamines?

  • Store this medicine away from heat and direct sunlight in a cool, dry place, out of reach of children
  • Do not keep this medicine with other medications in the same container. Keep medicines separately in labeled containers.


When in doubt, consult your doctor or pharmacist.


National Skin Centre (Singapore)


1 Mandalay Road, Singapore 308205


Tel: 63508454

​​​​

Why Antihistamines May Fail to Control Itch in Dogs

An itchy dog is a stress for the whole family. When our dogs are uncomfortable, we naturally feel for them and want to relieve their symptoms as quickly as possible. Antihistamines, like Benadryl®, have historically been an easy over-the-counter option to provide people (and pets) some relief. Yet, studies have demonstrated that while antihistamines may relieve respiratory allergies in humans, they had little or no effect on skin allergies in dogs[1,3].

Can Dog Itch Be Difficult to Treat?

Itchy dogs can be frustrating to treat — for the dog, the owner, and sometimes even the veterinarian. There are a variety of treatments that may be recommended for your itchy dog, including:

  • Allergy medications to control itch and skin inflammation

  • Anti-parasite treatments like oral or topical flea/tick preventatives

  • Antibiotics or antifungals to treat the underlying infection(s)

  • Topical therapy like shampoos, conditioners, and sprays

For uncomplicated itchy dog causes like fleas, treatment is easy to administer and can be up to 100% effective. For more complicated cases like dogs with chronic allergies and secondary infections, it can be more challenging to completely eliminate the symptoms but there are treatment options available that keep things easy for you and your dog.

What About DIY and Over-the-Counter Options?

While it may be tempting to reach for the anti–itch or scratch relief shampoos and sprays at your pet supply store or to pick up an antihistamine at the drugstore, these may only provide temporary relief at best. Topical therapies may provide minor temporary relief in some mildly itchy dogs, but are not effective alone in controlling itch in most allergic dogs. Let your veterinarian know all of the current medications you are giving, as well as other medical conditions that your dog has, so they can make sure the prescribed medication is safe to use in your dog. They will work with you to identify the underlying cause and develop treatment strategies to prevent itch from recurring, or manage it if it does.

What are Antihistamines and Why Don’t They Work for Most Itchy Dogs?

Allergies in dogs are different than allergies in people. Histamines cause upper respiratory allergies in people, whereas cytokines (not histamines) cause itchy skin in dogs.

For dogs with underlying allergies, antihistamines don’t control the cytokines (signaling proteins) that cause inflammation and itch[1]. In fact, the International Committee on Allergic Diseases of Animals lists antihistamines under “Interventions likely to be of little or no benefit to treat acute flares of canine atopic dermatitis[1].” Antihistamines can also cause some unwanted side effects, including sedation, trembling, and panting[2]. In addition, antihistamines can put your dog at risk for worsening allergic itch and secondary infections since they are not treating the underlying cause of the itch.

Alternatives to Treating Itchy Dogs with Antihistamines

Once the underlying cause of your dog’s itch has been identified — and even while working to identify the cause — discuss with your veterinarian treatments that are proven to control allergic itch. You’ll work together to find an anchor treatment (one single treatment that will control itch most of the time) and then supplement with other treatments depending on how your dog responds.

Work with your veterinarian to determine the underlying cause of your dog’s itch and discuss the best approach for treatment and prevention. For pet owners of allergic dogs concerned about antihistamines not working or having side effects, ask your veterinarian about other therapies proven to reduce allergic itch. Managing your dog’s itch quickly and effectively will save frustration, time, money, and best of all, give your pet the relief they deserve.

Antihistamines | Uses, Types and Side-effects

What are antihistamines used for?

If you are one of the many people who get hay fever each year, you will know all about antihistamines. This is one of the most common uses of antihistamines. They can also be used for various other problems. For example:

What conditions are antihistamines used to treat?

Antihistamines are commonly used:

How do antihistamines work?

Histamine is a chemical naturally produced by various cells in your body. It has a variety of different functions. Large amounts of histamine are made in cells called mast cells, in places where the body comes into contact with the outside environment. For example, in the nose, throat, lungs and skin. Here, mast cells and histamine form part of your immune defence system. (Whereas, in the stomach, histamine made by cells that line the stomach helps to produce acid for food digestion.)

Your immune system cells monitor your blood and mucosae for anything (for example, germs such as bacteria or viruses) that is not made by your body. (Mucosae are membranes lining body cavities such as your mouth, nose and digestive tract.) If your skin is damaged or your immune system detects a foreign substance, histamine is released from mast cells. The histamine binds to special sites (receptors) on other cells, called h2 receptors. This sets off a chain reaction which causes blood vessels in the area to become slightly leaky. Specialised cells and chemicals, which defend your body, can now get access to the area. While this is a helpful response, it also causes redness, swelling and itching.

Allergic reactions such as hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) are caused by an oversensitivity or over-reaction of the immune system to a particular allergen. An allergen is a substance that is foreign to the body and which can cause an allergic reaction in certain people. For example, pollen, dander, mould, some germs. In most people, the immune reaction to these foreign substances is normal and appropriate. But in allergic people, it is excessive. For example, in people with hay fever, contact with pollen in the nose, throat and eyes triggers the mast cells there to release much more histamine than normal. This excessive release of histamine produces the associated symptoms of itching, swelling, runny eyes, etc.

Antihistamines work by physically blocking the h2 receptors, stopping histamine from reaching its target. This decreases your body’s reaction to allergens and therefore helps to reduce the troublesome symptoms associated with allergy.

Antihistamines are also used in the treatment of feeling sick (nausea) and being sick (vomiting). However, the exact way that they ease these symptoms is not fully understood. The brain has several key areas which control vomiting. It is thought that antihistamines block h2 receptors in the area of the brain which creates nausea in response to chemicals in the body.

Some antihistamines may also have what is known as an antimuscarinic effect. This means that the medicine can also block another type of receptor found on the surface of certain cells. If these receptors are affected, you may experience some of the side-effects associated with antihistamines. For example, dry mouth, blurred vision and retention of urine. These effects are mainly caused by the older first-generation antihistamines which are described below.

Note: antihistamines should not be confused with h3 blockers which reduce the production of stomach acid. While both types of medicine block the actions of histamine, they work on different receptors in different systems of the body.

Where can I get them?

Some of these medicines are available to buy over the counter from your pharmacist. Others are only available on prescription.

How do I take them?

These medicines come in a variety of forms, as mentioned above. Your doctor or pharmacist will advise you on how to take your medication, including what dose and how often. Read the leaflet that comes with your particular brand for further information.

Are there different types of antihistamines?

Generally, antihistamines have been classified into two groups:

  • First-generation or sedating antihistamines can cause significant drowsiness and are generally more associated with the antimuscarinic side-effects mentioned above. These include alimemazine, chlorphenamine, clemastine, cyproheptadine, hydroxyzine, ketotifen and promethazine. These medicines may be used for their sedative effects should your sleep be disturbed by itching.
  • Non-sedating or second-generation antihistamines are newer medicines which generally cause less drowsiness. However, anyone taking these medicines while performing skilled tasks – for example, driving – should be aware that a sedative effect may still occur and, in particular, in combination with alcohol. Second-generation antihistamines include acrivastine, cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine and loratadine.

Which antihistamine is the best?

All antihistamines work pretty well to reduce symptoms of allergy. Your doctor or pharmacist may advise or prescribe a particular antihistamine depending on the cause of your allergy and on whether you require a sedating or non-sedating medicine. For example:

  • In general, antihistamines are probably roughly equally effective in reducing the symptoms of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) and hives (urticaria). However, non-sedating antihistamines tend to be used more commonly as they cause less drowsiness.
  • Second-generation antihistamines are generally advised for most allergic situations as they cause less drowsiness.
  • Cetirizine, fexofenadine, or loratadine are often recommended for urticaria.
  • Antihistamine eye drops may be advised when itchy eyes are a particular problem – for example, azelastine eye drops or ketotifen drops.
  • A sedating antihistamine may be particularly helpful at bedtime for children who have allergic symptoms. Cough medicines containing sedating antihistamines are not suitable for children under the age of 6 years, and a pharmacist’s advice is needed for children between the ages of 6 and 12 years.

For other conditions, specific antihistamines may be used. For example, cyclizine and promethazine teoclate are used for feeling sick (nausea) and being sick (vomiting), not for hay fever. Chlorphenamine is the antihistamine most used in an emergency situation such as anaphylaxis, and may be given by injection in this situation. Diphenhydramine (Nytol®) is sold over the counter as a sleep remedy.

What preparations are there?

Antihistamines come as:

  • Tablets (most commonly).
  • Liquid medicine (for those who can’t swallow tablets – for example, children).
  • Injections (for serious allergic reactions where immediate treatment is necessary).
  • In eye drops.
  • In nose drops and spray.
  • In creams and ointments.

How quickly do antihistamines work?

An antihistamine tablet typically starts to work within 30 minutes after being taken. The peak of effectiveness is typically within 1-2 hours after being taken.

How long is treatment needed?

This can vary depending on the reason for treating you. If you have hay fever you may take the medicine throughout the pollen season.

Can there be any side-effects?

Most people who take antihistamines do not have any serious side-effects. If side-effects do occur, they are usually minor. The most common are:

  • Drowsiness.
  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Agitation.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Difficulty passing urine (urinary retention).
  • Stomach and gut upsets (gastrointestinal discomfort).

For a full list of all the side-effects and possible interactions associated with your medicine, consult the leaflet that comes with your medication.

How to use the Yellow Card Scheme

If you think you have had a side-effect to one of your medicines you can report this on the Yellow Card Scheme. You can do this online at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

The Yellow Card Scheme is used to make pharmacists, doctors and nurses aware of any new side-effects that medicines or any other healthcare products may have caused. If you wish to report a side-effect, you will need to provide basic information about:

  • The side-effect.
  • The name of the medicine which you think caused it.
  • The person who had the side-effect.
  • Your contact details as the reporter of the side-effect.

It is helpful if you have your medication – and/or the leaflet that came with it – with you while you fill out the report.

Who should not take antihistamines?

Most people can take antihistamines safely. Antihistamines should not be used by people with a rare metabolic disorder called acute porphyria. In addition, they may not be suitable for people with liver or kidney problems. First-generation antihistamines may not be suitable for men with prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia). They may also not be suitable for people with raised pressure in the eye (acute glaucoma) or who are at risk of glaucoma.

Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are usually advised not to take antihistamines. This is because it is not known if they do any harm and studies cannot be done on women in this situation just in case. However, they are not known to cause harm. If certain conditions such as hay fever or morning sickness make you very unwell in pregnancy, the benefit of treatment may be more than the very small risk of any harm. Your doctor would talk this over with you and prescribe one of the antihistamines believed to be safe in pregnancy if you choose to take one. Similarly, in breast-feeding women, in some cases the benefits may be more than the risk. Antihistamines do come through in small quantities into breast milk, although they are not known to cause any harm.

A full list of people who should not take antihistamines is included with the information leaflet that comes in the medicine packet. If you are prescribed or buy an antihistamine, read this to be sure you are safe to take it.

How effective are they?

Usually it is possible to find an antihistamine which keeps your symptoms controlled. Sometimes you may need to experiment and try more than one to find the one that works best for you. For hay fever, sometimes if the antihistamine tablet isn’t enough by itself, you may need eye drops and/or a nasal spray as well to completely sort out all your symptoms.

Antihistamines are generally more effective when taken constantly rather than intermittently. This is particularly applicable for people with hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis). In the summer months the pollen count is generally higher and you may be in contact with the allergen on a regular basis. Taking the medication regularly may help keep your symptoms under control. Their effectiveness will also depend on the dose you take and what form the medicine is given in.

Can you take antihistamines when pregnant?

Drug companies are naturally pretty reluctant to go around testing medicines on pregnant or breast-feeding women, so there aren’t any studies to guide them. They tend to advise against to be on the safe side, although there is no evidence they cause a problem. Discuss this with your doctor who will talk you through the options. If the benefits of treatment are thought to outweigh any possible risks, the one usually advised is loratadine.

Can I drink alcohol when I’m taking an antihistamine?

Alcohol interacts with antihistamines. Probably the effect is greater for the sedative antihistamines, but it can occur with either type. Alcohol and an antihistamine in combination are more likely to make you feel sleepy than either on its own. So the answer is be wary and don’t overdo it!

Is it safe to take antihistamines with other medicines?

Some medicines may interact with antihistamines, increasing the side-effects of either or both medicines. Usually it is better to avoid taking antihistamines at the same time as certain medicines, including:

  • Certain types of antidepressants. Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and lofepramine may interact with antihistamines. Other antidepressants such as moclobemide.
  • Antacids, which may interfere with the way the antihistamine is absorbed, thus making it less effective.
  • Other tablets which make you drowsy, as the combination may be too much. For example opioid painkillers or benzodiazepines and Z drugs.
  • A group of medicines called antimuscarinics. This includes medicines such as hyoscine, oxybutynin, propantheline and tolterodine. Because these medicines can give you similar side-effects, such as a dry mouth or problems passing urine, the combination may make the side-effects more serious.

If you are buying your antihistamine from a pharmacy, make sure you tell the pharmacist if you take other medicines so they can advise accordingly.

Also watch the ingredients in other over-the-counter treatments. For example, remedies for coughs and colds may contain antihistamines, in which case you might end up taking double the dose by mistake.

How Antihistamines Cause Dry Skin by Affecting Sebum Production

As spring approaches, most of us are ready to stop and smell the flowers. Others, however, are getting ready to start popping antihistamines. If you fall into the latter group and your body starts freaking out with allergies once flowers start blooming, I have some news to break to you: Your trusty allergy med might be affecting your skin. If you’ve noticed that your dry skin is just as parched as it would be at the peak of winter or your oily skin has less of a slick to it, your antihistamine might be the reason.

In February 2018, a Redditor who goes by Fragrancefree101 posted a anecdotal PSA on the Skincare Addiction subreddit noting that antihistamines can affect sebum production.  

“I’ve recent[ly] started taking antihistamines daily to help with allergies (10 mg of generic prescription Zyrtec), and I noticed that it dried me the hell out, everywhere,” she explained, noting that, regardless of how much water she drinks, she feels like she needs to apply more body lotion than ever. She did, however, find a silver lining: “On the plus side, my generically hyper-oily hair and skin have also dried out a bit, so my makeup isn’t sliding off my face by 11 a.m.”

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Symptoms, treatment options, and personal experiences for various physical, mental, and health conditions and concerns.

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As someone who has taken some sort of allergy medication every day for years, I was intrigued reading about Fragrancefree101’s experience. Because, as she noted on Reddit, she’s not a doctor, I decided to call upon some experts for more information on this skin-care epiphany. Turns out, Fragrancefree101’s claims have some merit.

How antihistamines work:

Let’s start with what antihistamines do. “They are used to counteract the effects of histamine, a common chemical messenger in our body, by competing with it for binding sites in the body,” explains William Reisacher, director of allergy services at Weill Cornell Medicine and New York-Presbyterian. “While histamine performs many important functions, it can also lead to allergic symptoms like sneezing, itching, and runny nose.”

Histamines don’t just make your nose, throat, and eyes freak out all spring long, though. They can affect your skin, too. “There are histamine receptors on cells of the skin that stimulate them to release sebum, or oil, onto the skin,” says Reisacher. More specifically, sebocytes, which are the cells that produce sebum or skin oils, have a histamine H-1 receptor on their surface, says Lily Talakoub, a board-certified dermatologist at the McLean Dermatology and Skincare Center in Virginia. So when you take antihistamines, this receptor is blocked. As a result, the production of sebum is reduced, and skin can become less oily than usual.

Should you use allergy medicine to control excess oil?

Antihistamines aren’t necessarily what dermatologists would prescribe to their oily-skinned patients to combat breakouts. “I usually do not recommend taking an antihistamine for oily skin because the effects are minimal,” Talakoub says. “Sebocytes are stimulated to a much greater degree by hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, which are in birth control pills, and cortisol (the stress hormone in the body).”

Overview of Allergic Reactions – Immune Disorders

Allergen immunotherapy, usually allergy shots (injections), can be given to desensitize people to the allergen when some allergens, especially airborne allergens, cannot be avoided and the drugs used to treat allergic reactions are ineffective.

With allergen immunotherapy, allergic reactions can be prevented or reduced in number and/or severity. However, allergen immunotherapy is not always effective. Some people and some allergies tend to respond better than others.

Immunotherapy is used most often for allergies to

  • Venom of stinging insects

Immunotherapy is not used when the allergen, such as penicillin and other drugs, can be avoided. However, if people need to take a drug that they are allergic to, immunotherapy, closely monitored by a doctor, can be done to desensitize them.

In immunotherapy, tiny amounts of the allergen are usually injected under the skin. The dose is gradually increased until a dose adequate to control symptoms (maintenance dose) is reached. A gradual increase is necessary because exposure to a high dose of the allergen too soon can cause an allergic reaction. Injections are usually given once or twice a week until the maintenance dose is reached. Then injections are usually given every 2 to 4 weeks. The procedure is most effective when maintenance injections are continued throughout the year, even for seasonal allergies.

Alternatively, high doses of the allergen may be placed under the tongue (sublingual) and held there for a few minutes, then swallowed. The dose is gradually increased, as for injections. The sublingual technique is relatively new, and how often the dose should be given has not been established. It ranges from every day to 3 times a week. Extracts for grass pollen or house dust mite, placed under the tongue, can be used to help prevent allergic rhinitis.

Immunotherapy for peanut allergy may also be given by mouth. The person receives the first several doses of the allergen over the course of a single day while in a doctor’s office or clinic. The person then takes the allergen at home. Each time the dose is increased, the first dose of the higher dosage is given under a doctor’s supervision.

Allergen immunotherapy may take 3 years to complete. People who develop allergies again may need another longer course (sometimes 5 years or more) of immunotherapy.

Because immunotherapy injections occasionally cause dangerous allergic reactions, people remain in the doctor’s office for at least 30 minutes afterward. If they have mild reactions to immunotherapy (such as sneezing, coughing, flushing, tingling sensations, itching, chest tightness, wheezing, and hives), a drug—usually an antihistamine, such as diphenhydramine or loratadine—may help. For more severe reactions, epinephrine (adrenaline) is injected.

90,000 Antihistamines for allergies: how to make a choice?

29 March 2019

Antihistamines are medicines aimed at blocking the receptors for histamine, a chemical in the body that regulates sleep and awakening.

And also capable of causing allergic reactions: edema of the respiratory tract, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system.

There are several generations of antihistamines. What is their difference and what are they used for?

1st generation antihistamines

Medicines of this type easily overcome the barrier between the blood and the brain, due to which they cause drowsiness and distraction. This group of drugs has a short-term effect, so they need to be taken several times during the day.

1st generation antihistamines reduce tension in human muscle tissues, fight allergy symptoms and can be used as an anesthetic.This group includes:

2nd generation antihistamines

The difference between the second generation drugs and the first group is that these drugs do not have a sedative effect. In addition, a person can only take one tablet a day. These drugs are more active, their work is mainly aimed at eliminating allergic reactions. It is these drugs that doctors can prescribe for a long period of treatment for allergic reactions.

2nd generation antihistamines include:

3rd generation antihistamines

Research and development of antihistamines does not stand still. What is the advantage of third-generation drugs?

Medicines of this group are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, so the drug’s effect occurs faster. They are non-addictive and non-sedating, i.e. do not cause drowsiness. Often used in the treatment of allergic skin reactions, itching and redness.

3rd generation drugs include:

Antihistamines of all three generations can be purchased at Stolichki Pharmacies.

There are contraindications, prior to use it is necessary to obtain specialist advice.

90,000 Why allergy pills do not help

Why antihistamines may not be effective read our article.

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Moiseeva Tatiana Nikolaevna

Head of the Department of Pediatrics, allergist-immunologist

Allergy is a very common condition in the modern world. Many allergy sufferers, after watching commercials, rush to the pharmacy in full confidence that the popular remedy will certainly bring them freedom from the disease.

However, in reality, everything is not so simple.

Antihistamines may not be effective in the following cases:

  • The drug does not help, if you do not use it according to the instructions, not observing the dosage, there may be individual insensitivity.

  • With atopic dermatitis, when the cause that led to an exacerbation is not eliminated, when the barrier function of the skin is impaired due to congenital features or as a result of skin inflammation.A vicious circle arises: dryness, rashes provoke itching, and itching – repeated rashes.

  • With food allergies, some tempt fate, and then save themselves with an antihistamine. I wanted chocolate, ate it, drank a pill and is happy. And as a result, repeated provocations lead to an increase in allergies and a mild degree of the disease develops into a severe one, a reaction to other foods appears.

  • While taking the drug, contact with the allergen continues.The reaction is the same as described above.

  • The medicine does not help with exacerbation of bronchial asthma; other means are used to treat it.

  • Antihistamines do not help when the reason lies not in a true allergic reaction: acute respiratory infections, bronchitis, adenoiditis, infectious dermatitis, etc.

What to do in case of allergies if the treatment is at an impasse?

There is no need to persist; it makes sense to try new treatments and other drugs.For example, the ASIT method (allergen-specific immune therapy) has proven to be highly effective. 90% of allergy manifestations can be significantly reduced or eliminated permanently.

Before you rush to the pharmacy for a drug that flashes in advertising every now and then, it would be good to consult a doctor after all!

Drug allergy

Drug allergy is a collective designation of various diseases, the etiology of which is drugs, and the pathogenesis is allergic. Drug allergy includes diseases that develop on an allergic, autoimmune and dysmetabolic basis.

Etiology

The disease is caused by medicinal protein-containing allergens (plasma, serum, vaccines, enzymes), polysaccharides (hemodez reopolyglucin), haptens (various semisynthetic penicillins, durant penicillins, cephalosporins (ceporin, cephalexin, etc.):

– the whole group of chloramphenicol, synthomycin

– novocaine, trimecaine, dicaine, anestezin, procaine, novocainamide, biseptol, almagel-A, PASK, hypothiazide, furosemide, triampur, butamide, bukarban, etc.

– aminoglycosides (monomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, kanamycin, mycerin, etc.)

– rondomycin, metacyclin, oletetrin, oleandomycin phosphate, vibramycin

– analgin, butadiene, reopirin, antipyrine, brufen, baralgin

– drugs of the phenothiazine series (chlorpromazine, propazine, frenolone, ethaperazine, thioridazine, teralen, etc. )

– suprastin

– the whole group of barbiturates, theofedrine, valocordin, pentalgin

– iopagnost, iodolipol, bilignost, propyl iodone, myodil, Lugol’s solution, radioactive iodine, antistrumin, solutane, etc.

Clinical picture

Clinical manifestations of drug allergy can be very polymorphic and occur under the “mask” of the underlying disease at the initial stage of its formation. In this regard, the doctor should suspect an unfavorable, inadequate effect of drug therapy, not only if a new reaction occurs against the background of the underlying disease (urticaria, dermatitis, an Artyus-Sakharov-type reaction at the injection site – induration, hyperemia), but also when worsening of the course of the underlying disease.For example, in diseases of the urinary system, this may be an increase in proteinuria, formed elements in the urinary sediment; in diseases of the respiratory system – an increase in obstructive syndrome. Such shifts are especially suspicious of drug allergy with continued treatment of the patient for the underlying disease for 5-7 days. This is due to the fact that the first allergic reactions to the drug used can occur in the lesion, for example, a blister-type reaction or Quincke’s edema after treatment of erysipelas appear in places where inflammation recovers on an infectious basis.

Clinical manifestations of an allergic reaction to drugs can be acute local (Artyus-Sakharov reaction, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, Quincke’s edema) or acute general, often life-threatening of the patient (in the form of toxidermia, Lyell’s syndrome – common toxicepidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome) … Acute general allergic reactions to drugs are accompanied by severe intoxication, dysmetabolic manifestations and itching of the skin and mucous membranes, a sharp increase in body temperature, hematological (redistributive leukocytosis, increased ESR and a result of pronounced rheological shifts) and biochemical (decrease in albumin due to protein loss) and dysmetabolism shifts.

Allergic reactions after their relief can continue in the form of recurrent urticaria, Quincke’s edema, eosinophilic infiltrates of very different localization (in parenchymal organs, vascular wall with the formation of allergic panvasculitis). Similar reactions can occur after anaphylactic shock.

Drug reactions arising on a dismetabolic basis are often caused by induction by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – aspirin, etc.lipoxygenase pathway of prostaglandin metabolism with the formation of leukotrienes. The latter largely contribute to the formation of an inflammatory reaction, accompanied by infiltration, proliferation of tissue structures of the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs by eosinophils, contributing to the recurrence of polypous growths in the nasal cavity and a sharp increase in bronchial sensitivity to various nonspecific stimuli.

Occupational drug allergy among medical and veterinary workers, pharmacists more often occurs in the places of greatest contact with the allergen in the form of dermatitis of the hands, neck, face; on contact with medicinal aerosols – in the form of rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis. The transformation of local allergic reactions into general ones is observed with repeated repeated contacts with drugs. Occupational allergic reactions, as a rule, occur at work or towards the end of it and disappear on weekends, during the vacation period.

In order to avoid drug allergy and for its possible prognosis in patients, it is important to take into account not only clinical manifestations, but also data from allergological testing and allergic history.

When taking an allergy history, the doctor should find out the following:

1) whether allergic diseases were registered in the patient and his relatives;

2) to which medications the allergic reaction was noted;

3) what kind of allergic reaction was registered in the patient when taking medications – fast or delayed, local or general.Rapid, immediate and general reactions are extremely life-threatening for the patient and require special care when prescribing medications;

4) whether there were any reactions in the anamnesis when the patient was vaccinated;

5) what skin diseases the patient has or is sick (mycoses, onychomycosis, etc. ). Such patients may experience allergic reactions to antibiotics, in the production of which culture-based technologies for growing mushrooms are used;

6) whether there is an increased sensitivity to household, cosmetic, pollen, industrial and other allergens.

In the presence of an allergy in a patient, these data should not only be registered in the outpatient card, but also be placed on its first sheet, taking into account the results of allergological testing, allergological examination. This means that such patients should be consulted by an allergist. Along with this, if a drug allergy is suspected, it is advisable to conduct a mast cell destruction test with drugs to which an allergic reaction is expected, as well as with drugs to which hypersensitivity can be predicted, since they can be in the form of impurities or separate chemical radicals in the composition food products and their preservatives.This preliminary stage of practically dispensary observation of patients with drug allergies is necessary, since it allows to prevent possible reactions to drugs during the next visit of the patient to the doctor and the possible prescription of drugs.

Test procedure for prescribing drugs:

1. Allergy testing is not performed on healthy people (in the absence of any allergic history).

2. In patients with an unfavorable allergic history, before prescribing medications for medical indications, “allergological testing is carried out in the absence of sensitization to haptens.The most accessible in this case is the sublingual test. A positive test is the presence of a local (redness, swelling) and general (pulse rate more than 10 beats per minute, a decrease in blood pressure more than 15-20 mm Hg) reactions after 15-45 minutes. In the presence of a negative sublingual test, scarification tests are performed with those drugs that can be administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously in adequate concentrations (for example, penicillin in a dilution of no more than 100-1000 U / ml).

3.Patients with drug allergies are not prescribed allergen medications by history and by the results of laboratory allergy testing (using a mast cell destruction test or a rinse test carried out during dispensary observation). Before prescribing non-allergenic medicinal substances for medical reasons, a sublingual test is performed for these patients. The dosage of drugs used for testing is minimal (antibiotics – 10-100 U / ml, tablets – 1/4).After the sublingual test, the next stage is also possible – cutaneous tests (more often scarification). In case of negative samples, drug therapy for medical indications in these patients is carried out under the cover of antihistamines (tavegil, suprastin, fenkarol) and with dynamic monitoring of changes in pulse, blood pressure, eosinophils of peripheral blood in relative and absolute quantities (every 3-5 days).

Treatment

See ALLERGIC DERMATITIS

90,000 drug search, prices and availability of drugs in pharmacies in Sverdlovsk and Ukraine

About the project – My Pharmacy

My Pharmacy is the fastest and most convenient way to find the necessary medicines in any pharmacy throughout Ukraine. We provide up-to-date information on prices and availability
medicines in pharmacies in Ukraine. Here you can buy medicines at low prices by comparing prices or making an online reservation.

Our database contains data on more than 11,000,000 product offerings of medicines and related products in 3,000 pharmacy outlets in Kiev and other settlements of Ukraine.

Updating the database of the assortment of goods every 20 minutes allows you to always provide the most up-to-date and reliable information about medicines.

In addition, the user can familiarize himself with the work schedule and contacts of each pharmacy point presented on our resource, find the addresses of 24-hour pharmacies and build to them
route on the map.

The goal of this project is to provide an opportunity for each user to search for medicines as simply and efficiently as possible, and ordering pills online is quick and convenient.

User Benefits

My Pharmacy has a number of advantages that distinguish us favorably from competitors, thanks to which customers choose us.

We offer:

  • Ability to quickly search for drugs in pharmacies in Kiev and other cities of Ukraine;
  • Inquire about the availability of a medicine in pharmacies in Ukraine;
  • View current prices for medicines in various pharmacies;
  • Comparison of prices in pharmacies for the drug of interest and find out where it can be purchased at the most profitable;
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Ordering and searching for medicines in pharmacies on the website

On the main page of the site there is a line for quickly finding the necessary medicines. By the full name or its fragment, the resource will offer you a list of found drugs with the current ones.
prices.To purchase a drug at the lowest cost, you just need to compare prices in pharmacies or make a reserve for it for an additional discount.

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options that can replace the drug of interest. And to order pills online, you need to click on the green button next to the price.

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CAN REPLACE THE DOCTOR’S CONSULTATION.

Allergen c122 – nystatin, IgE, ELISA

Nystatin – polyene antifungal antibiotic, highly active against yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida; an antifungal medicine prescribed for candidiasis.

A drug allergy is a specific reaction of the immune system to drugs.

Drug allergy can occur as a complication in the treatment of the underlying disease or as a result of prolonged contact with drugs (from doctors, medical workers, pharmacists). The main reasons for the development of allergy to drugs are hereditary factors, the presence of other types of allergies, prolonged use of drugs, the simultaneous use of a large number of different drugs, overdose (in this case, we are talking about a pseudo-allergic reaction). Any medications can provoke an allergic reaction, but the most common allergens are antibiotics, local anesthetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, etc. This type of allergy is characterized by the following symptoms: skin redness, itching, various types of skin rashes, year-round conjunctivitis.Allergic reactions to medications develop from several seconds to several hours and can cause an attack of bronchial asthma, urticaria, Quincke’s edema, allergic rhinitis or anaphylactic shock. If you are allergic to a certain medicine, it should be borne in mind that it can also manifest itself when using medicines with a similar composition. For example, in the presence of sensitization to antibiotics of the penicillin series, a reaction to cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cephalexin) is possible.

Research method

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Units

IU / ml (international unit per milliliter).

Which biomaterial can be used for research?

Venous blood.

How to properly prepare for the study?

  • Do not eat for 2-3 hours before the test, you can drink clean still water.
  • Do not smoke within 30 minutes prior to examination.

General information about the study

Nystatin belongs to polyene antibiotics with antifungal activity.The preparation contains the active ingredient of the same name – nystatin. It belongs to natural antibiotics and is synthesized under natural conditions by actinomycetes. The indication for the use of nystatin is a fungal infection of the skin and mucous membranes.

The drug is generally well tolerated and is not a frequent allergen. Due to its small systemic effect, it can be used even during pregnancy, lactation, in persons with minor impairments of liver and kidney function. However, allergic reactions to the drug are possible and are a contraindication for its administration.Before using it, you should consult a mycologist or dermatologist. Allergies can occur with prolonged use of the drug. The affected area may begin to itch and burn more severely than before application. In this case, it is necessary to abandon the use of the product and seek advice for the selection of a new treatment.

Like most drugs, nystatin can have side effects on various organs and systems, for example, in the form of pressure reduction, collapse, headache, nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression, tremors, seizures, confusion, methemoglobinemia, and allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock.

From a clinical and pathogenetic point of view, allergic reactions to drugs are divided into immediate (within one hour from the use of the drug) and delayed (several hours – two days) types. Allergic reactions of immediate type include urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm, anaphylactic shock, contact urticaria. Delayed-type reactions include local or widespread eczema, fixed erythema pigmentosa.

Diagnosis of allergy to such drugs includes skin prick tests, determination of IgE-specific antibodies.In case of immediate allergic reactions, skin tests, despite their high sensitivity, can cause severe allergic manifestations. The determination of specific IgE, although less sensitive, is safer for the patient. To clarify the diagnosis, it is recommended to use several different examination methods together, for example, the determination of specific IgE antibodies and skin tests.

What is the research used for?

  • Diagnosis of immediate allergic reactions to nystatin;
  • selection of an antifungal agent for patients with a history of allergic reactions to such drugs.

When is the study scheduled?

  • When planning the use of nystatin in patients with a history of allergic reactions to such drugs;
  • when examining children and adults with allergic reactions or anaphylactic shock after the use of nystatin.

What do the results mean?

Reference values ​​

IgE concentration, IU / ml Reactivity
Not detectable
0.35-0.7 Low level
0.7-3.5 Medium level
3.5-17.5 High level
17.5-50.0 Very high level
50-100 Very high level
> 100 Extremely high level of specific IgE

Reasons for a positive result:

  • immediate type hypersensitivity to nystatin.

Reasons for a negative result:

  • absence of IgE sensitization to this allergen;
  • long-term limitation or exclusion of contact with an allergen.
  • 90,077 90,000 answer Alexander Myasnikov and Sergey Agapkin

    Spring has come, and with it the seasonal allergy, from which, according to statistics, 18% to 20% of Russians suffer. What preventive measures are there to reduce the risk of allergies? What medications to take during an attack? And how can you tell allergic rhinitis from the common cold? The most important questions about allergies are answered by the presenters of the program “On the Most Important” on the channel “Russia 1” – Alexander Myasnikov and Sergei Agapkin.

    Why does allergy occur?

    Let’s take a short historical excursion with Dr. Myasnikov. It turns out that until the middle of the 19th century, no one knew about allergic fever. It was first described by American experts in 1870. And today, allergies – in particular, rhinitis and bronchial asthma – are observed in 10% of the population of developed countries. According to one theory, such a widespread disease is due to the widespread and often excessive hygiene.It has long been proven that children from large families and those who attended nurseries in the first six months of life are less likely to suffer from allergies.

    “There is no need to create sterile conditions for a child,” urges Dr. Myasnikov and adds: early interaction with an allergen forms the correct microbiome in him. For example, children who bite their nails and eat from hand-washed dishes are less likely to develop allergic rhinitis.

    According to the specialist, close contact with animals can also become a kind of “allergy vaccination”, since a child gets used to inhaling particles of wool and epidermis from an early age.

    Among other reasons, he named house dust. If before the 1950s the average child spent about four to five hours outside, now he sits at home in front of the TV and breathes dust from carpets. In addition, the lack of walking leads to physical inactivity – that is, a lack of physical activity, which means that the lungs stop working normally.

    “We overheat the room, do not ventilate and do not move, the lungs do not breathe, there is no ventilation, and there are more and more allergens,” explains Dr. Myasnikov.

    Skin test or blood test: which allergy test is more effective?

    There are two common ways to establish the cause of the allergy. The first is a blood test. The second is a skin test, when a doctor injects small doses of allergens with a thin needle and monitors the reaction. According to Alexander Myasnikov, the latter method is more efficient and effective. Blood sampling is more expensive and does not always show an actual result. A specialist can find a predisposition to allergies by markers, but the result will not have clinical significance: for example, a blood test will reveal an intolerance to cabbage when a person calmly eats it.Skin tests are less expensive and can help pinpoint the cause of the allergy.

    How long can antihistamines be taken for allergies?

    It depends on the type of medication the person is taking. First generation allergy tablets are short-acting. They cope with symptoms faster, but their long-term use is prohibited due to the emergence of resistance to the drug. They also cause drowsiness, so doctors do not recommend them to those who drive. The second generation drugs are designed for patients who, due to allergies, have to take antihistamines for a long time.Such funds can be taken up to six months as prescribed by a doctor.

    How not to confuse allergies with colds?

    Runny nose in case of allergic rhinitis:

    • Onsite quickly and suddenly;
    • Normal body temperature is maintained;
    • Sneezing 1 to 20 times in a row;
    • Lasts the entire period of contact with the allergen;
    • Leaving the premises sharply worsens the condition;
    • Copious clear liquid nasal discharge;
    • Very sensitive mucous membrane of the eyes, profuse lacrimation, edema of the eyelids.

    Runny nose with ARVI:

    • Develops slowly and gradually;
    • Accompanied by increased temperature;
    • Sneezing is rare;
    • Lasts approximately 7 days;
    • Thick, clear or yellow discharge from the nose.

    Allergy Prevention Measures: What Are Important to Follow?

    The first and foremost advice is to avoid contact with the allergen. However, in the case of seasonal or specific allergies, this recommendation can be difficult to follow.Then, according to Alexander Myasnikov, the following measures are important: take a shower and wash your hair after going outside. This measure is important for people who are allergic to blooms – showering will help get rid of the irritating product on the skin and hair. At the very least, you should change your clothes and wash your face.

    Also required:

    – Remove all carpets and carpets;
    – Do daily wet cleaning;
    – Take antihistamines;
    – Separate advice for children: do not place them in sterile conditions, but allow contact with potential allergens.

    Allergen specific immune therapy (ASIT)

    In modern medicine, the concept of allergy means the hypersensitivity of the human immune system to repeated exposure to an allergen.

    The most common type of allergy is pollinosis (hay, or seasonal fever). The most common symptoms of hay fever in central Russia appear in the period from April to May during the flowering of birch trees (birch, alder, hornbeam, hazel) and from June to August (dusting of weeds and grasses).

    Pollinosis symptoms:

    • runny nose,
    • nasal congestion,
    • sneezing attacks,
    • burning or itching sensation in the nose and mouth,
    • stomatitis,
    • conjunctivitis (redness, gritty eyes, itching / burning),
    • cough, in some cases asthma attacks.

    Sleep disorders, fatigue, and increased fatigue are less common.Symptoms tend to get more intense every year. Ultimately, the disease can lead to the development of bronchial asthma.

    Allergy treatment

    As a rule, to alleviate the patient’s condition, during the period of exacerbation of allergies, symptomatic treatment is used: antihistamines, local anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs in the form of drops and sprays, as well as systemic antiallergic drugs, up to hormonal medications in severe cases.

    These measures are temporary and can only reduce the intensity of symptoms without affecting the cause of the disease. Allergy symptoms often return after drug withdrawal. Fortunately, modern European medicine offers a method that has proven its effectiveness – allergen specific immune therapy (ASIT), which has a direct effect on the cause of the development of allergies. ASIT leads to a decrease in the severity of clinical manifestations or helps to achieve a long-term remission of an allergic disease, prevents the development of complications, and also prevents the progression of allergies into more severe forms.

    ASIT is indicated for use in allergic diseases such as:

    • allergic rhinitis;
    • hay fever;
    • bronchial asthma;
    • as a prophylaxis for sinus polyposis.

    Operating principle of ASIT

    ASIT consists in the sequential introduction into the human body of increasing doses of allergens to create immunity to them. Therefore, this method is sometimes called “allergy vaccination”. The average duration of the course is 3-5 years. According to international recommendations, ASIT is approved for use from the age of 5.

    How ASIT is carried out

    Depending on the time of the ASIT, it can be:

    • Preseason. Indicated for patients suffering from hay fever, that is, allergic to pollen from trees and grasses. They start it 3-4 months before the beginning of flowering of plants.As a result of the pre-season ASIT, by the beginning of the flowering season, the maximum tolerable dose of the allergen is reached, then the ASIT course is temporarily suspended and resumed the next year.
    • Year-round. Indicated for patients allergic to household allergens such as house dust mites. The course is carried out until the maximum tolerated dose of allergens is reached, followed by the introduction of maintenance doses.

    Both the pre-season and year-round ASIT scheme consist of two phases:

    • Main. The allergen is introduced gradually up to the maximum tolerated dose.
    • Supporting. In the second phase – maintenance – the maximum tolerated doses of allergens are introduced.

    There are two main methods of administering the allergen: subcutaneous and sublingual. Subcutaneous injections are given by the doctor in the outer shoulder area. Until recently, this was essentially the only treatment. However, in recent years, another technique has become more widespread: preparations in the form of drops or tablets, which are taken under the tongue (sublingually).According to numerous studies, both methods of administration are equally effective, while the sublingual method shows great safety and is technically very convenient.

    ASIT should be carried out only in specialized allergy rooms and departments.

    The selection of the drug and treatment regimen is carried out by an allergist-immunologist, taking into account individual characteristics after a preliminary comprehensive allergological examination in order to identify indications and contraindications to this method of treatment.

    The survey includes:

    • Blood tests;
    • Skin prick testing;
    • Molecular diagnostics of allergies.

    The examination is carried out well before the start of treatment, usually in the fall.

    ASIT today is the only treatment for allergies with a stable effect on all symptoms, convenient and safe!

    Clinic of Dermatovenereology and Allergology-Immunology of the European Medical Center (St.Moscow) offers modern methods of allergy treatment in accordance with European protocols. Specialists of the European Medical Center carry out all types of allergy diagnostics, since timely and complete diagnostics allows us to establish an accurate diagnosis and begin treatment in the early stages of the disease, when the prognosis is most favorable.

    Contraindications to ASIT

    • Immunodeficiency, severe immunity disorders.
    • Cancer diseases.
    • Severe mental illness.