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Menstrual Cycle: Dealing With Cramps


Most women have painful cramps from their period from time to time. The good news is that you can usually relieve cramps with over-the-counter medicine and home treatment.

  • Pain medicine and home treatment can help ease cramps.
  • Stay ahead of the pain. Take over-the-counter pain medicine, such as ibuprofen (Advil, for example) as soon as you feel cramps or on the day before you get your period.

How can I manage pain from menstrual cramps?

Over-the-counter pain medicine and home treatment are often all you need to ease your cramps.


  • Try anti-inflammatory medicines to reduce pain. Ibuprofen (such as Advil) and naproxen (such as Aleve) may work better than aspirin.
  • Stay ahead of the pain. Pain medicine works better if you take it before the pain gets bad.
    • Start taking the recommended dose of the pain medicine as soon as you start to feel cramping, or on the day before your period starts.
    • Keep taking the medicine for as long as you have cramps.
  • Try acetaminophen (Tylenol) if anti-inflammatory medicine does not help.

Be safe with medicines. Read and follow all instructions on the label.

Do not take aspirin if you are younger than 20. It has been linked to Reye syndrome, a serious illness.

Home treatment

  • Put a heating pad (set on low) or a hot water bottle on your belly, or take a warm bath. Heat improves blood flow and may ease the pain.
  • Lie down and put a pillow under your knees, or lie on your side and bring your knees up to your chest. This may help relieve back pressure.
  • Use pads instead of tampons. This may help if you also have vaginal pain.
  • Get regular exercise. This helps blood flow and may reduce cramping.

Talk to your doctor if you have tried to manage your cramps with medicine and home treatment but you do not feel better. If your cramps are caused by a health problem not related to your period, such as endometriosis, you may need other treatment.


Current as of:
July 17, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
Sarah Marshall MD – Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Rebecca Sue Uranga

Current as of: July 17, 2020

Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:Sarah Marshall MD – Family Medicine & Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine & Rebecca Sue Uranga

6 Easy Ways to Fight Menstrual Cramps

Ever wondered why you get bad period cramps and your friends don’t? Period cramps are involuntary muscle contractions that occur in the uterus during menstruation. If your uterine contractions are strong, the uterus may press against blood vessels and deprive the uterus of blood and oxygen. The reduced flow of blood and oxygen causes cramping.


Some women experience menstrual cramps so painful that they are unable to continue with daily activities. The medical term for severe cramps during a period is dysmenorrhea. If you’re under the age of 30, smoke, or have never given birth, you may be at higher risk for dysmenorrhea.


Fortunately, dysmenorrhea can be minimized. Prepare for your period and reduce painful menstrual cramps by following these six helpful tips:


1. Draw a Hot Bath – Menstrual cramps occur in the lower abdomen, pelvis or back. Using a heating pad or hot water bottle on these areas can help ease pain and discomfort. Additionally, a hot bath is a great way to relieve stress and loosen tense muscles.


2. Hit the Gym – It might be the last thing you feel like doing, but exercise can actually help with cramps. The right type of exercise is a great way to relax your muscles and reduce menstrual pain. Brisk walking, swimming, yoga and light aerobics are low-impact forms of exercise that can help relieve discomfort and also provide an endorphin rush.


3. Try These Over-The-Counter Medicines – If heating pads and exercise do not help diminish cramps, relief may be found with over-the-counter pain medication. Options like ibuprofen and acetaminophen are readily accessible and are proven to reduce period pain.


4. Ask Your OBGYN About Birth Control – If over-the-counter medication does not work, birth control may be the answer. Birth control that contains estrogen and progestin helps regulate menstrual periods and subsequently decrease menstrual cramps.  It’s important to note that while most women have few problems taking birth control, some do experience side effects. Find the birth control that’s right for you by asking your health care provider.


5. Give Acupressure A Try – Also known as pressure point therapy, acupressure is the method of applying force to specific points on the body. Acupressure for menstrual pain is most beneficial when used on the abdomen, back and legs. If you’re interested in trying acupressure, here’s an easy method to follow:

    • Place your hands on your pubic bone
    • Move your hands a half-inch to each side
    • Apply pressure with your index finger for up to one minute
    • Repeat


    6. Eat Anti-Inflammatory Foods – As discussed earlier in this blog, muscle contractions in the uterus play a role in menstrual cramps. If your diet is packed with anti-inflammatory foods, this may help decrease painful cramps. Here are a few of the best foods you can consume during your time of the month:

      • Ginger
      • Green Tea
      • Blueberries
      • Tomatoes
      • Avocados
      • Spinach
      • Whole Grains
      • Lentils


      When to See a Doctor?

      If your menstrual cramps are affecting your daily routine or last more than 3 days, you should see your health care clinician. If possible, try to keep track of your symptoms including when they start/end and how severe they are. This will help your clinician make an accurate diagnosis and recommend the best treatment plan for you.


      Have you tried our tips and still have bad cramps? We can help. Find a women’s health care specialist near you.

      The information presented in this site is intended for general information and educational purposes. It is not intended to replace the advice of your own physician. Contact your physician if you believe you have a health problem.

      Period pain – NHS

      Period pain is common and a normal part of your menstrual cycle. Most women get it at some point in their lives.

      It’s usually felt as painful muscle cramps in the tummy, which can spread to the back and thighs.

      The pain sometimes comes in intense spasms, while at other times it may be dull but more constant.

      It may also vary with each period. Some periods may cause little or no discomfort, while others may be more painful.

      Sometimes you may get pelvic pain even when you do not have your period.

      What causes period pain?

      Period pain happens when the muscular wall of the womb tightens (contracts). Mild contractions continually occur in your womb, but they’re usually so mild that most women cannot feel them.

      During your period, the wall of the womb starts to contract more vigorously to help the womb lining shed as part of your period.

      When the wall of the womb contracts, it compresses the blood vessels lining your womb. This temporarily cuts off the blood supply – and oxygen supply – to your womb. Without oxygen, the tissues in your womb release chemicals that trigger pain.

      While your body is releasing these pain-triggering chemicals, it’s also producing other chemicals called prostaglandins. These encourage the womb muscles to contract more, further increasing the level of pain.

      It’s not known why some women have more period pain than others. It may be that some women have a build-up of prostaglandins, which means they experience stronger contractions.

      Period pain caused by a medical condition

      Less commonly, period pain can be caused by an underlying medical condition.

      Period pain linked to an underlying medical condition tends to affect older women. Women aged 30 to 45 are most commonly affected.

      Medical conditions that can cause period pain include:

      • endometriosis – where cells that normally line the womb grow in other places, such as in the fallopian tubes and ovaries; these cells can cause intense pain when they shed
      • fibroids – non-cancerous tumours that can grow in or around the womb and can make your periods heavy and painful
      • pelvic inflammatory disease – where your womb, fallopian tubes and ovaries become infected with bacteria, causing them to become severely inflamed
      • adenomyosis – where the tissue that normally lines the womb starts to grow within the muscular womb wall, making your periods particularly painful

      Period pain caused by contraceptive devices

      An intrauterine device (IUD) is a type of contraception made from copper and plastic that fits inside the womb. It can also sometimes cause period pain, particularly during the first few months after it’s inserted.

      You may notice a change in your normal pattern of pain if your period pain is linked to a medical condition or a contraceptive IUD. For example, the pain may be more severe or it may last much longer than normal.

      You may also have:

      See your GP if you have any of these symptoms as well as period pain.

      How long will my period pain last?

      Period pain usually starts when your bleeding begins, although some women have pain several days before the start of their period.

      The pain usually lasts 48 to 72 hours, although it can last longer. It’s usually at its worst when your bleeding is heaviest.

      Young girls often have period pain when they begin getting periods. Read more about starting periods.

      Period pain that does not have an underlying cause tends to improve as a woman gets older. Many women also notice an improvement after they’ve had children.

      How can I treat period pain?

      In most cases period pain is mild enough to treat at home.


      You can take ibuprofen and aspirin to help manage your pain.

      However, do not take ibuprofen or aspirin if you have asthma or stomach, kidney or liver problems. Aspirin should not be taken by anyone under 16 years of age.

      You could also try paracetamol, but studies have shown that it does not reduce pain as well as ibuprofen or aspirin.

      If ordinary painkillers do not help, your GP may prescribe a stronger painkiller, such as naproxen or codeine.

      Other self-help measures to try

      You could also try:

      • stopping smoking – smoking is thought to increase the risk of period pain
      • exercise – you may not feel like exercising during a painful period, but being active may reduce pain; try some gentle swimming, walking or cycling
      • heat – putting a heat pad or hot water bottle (wrapped in a tea towel) on your tummy may help reduce pain
      • warm bath or shower – taking a warm bath or shower can relieve pain and help you relax
      • massage – light, circular massage around your lower abdomen may also help reduce pain
      • relaxation techniques – relaxing activities, such as yoga or pilates, may help distract you from feelings of pain and discomfort
      • transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation (TENS) – a small battery-operated device that delivers a mild electrical current to your tummy to help reduce pain

      When should I see my GP?

      See your GP if you have severe period pain or your normal pattern of periods changes – for example, if your periods become heavier than usual or irregular.

      Contraceptives that can help period pain

      Your GP may give you the contraceptive pill. This can ease period pain because it thins the womb lining and reduces the amount of prostaglandin your body releases.

      A thinner womb lining means the muscles of the womb do not have to contract as much when it sheds. Your period will also be lighter.

      If the contraceptive pill is not suitable for you, the contraceptive implant or the contraceptive injection are good alternatives.

      The Mirena intrauterine system (IUS) can also sometimes help with painful periods.

      Having a pelvic examination

      Your GP may want to carry out a pelvic examination to help diagnose or rule out other causes of your period pain.

      They’ll insert gloved, lubricated fingers into your vagina to feel for any abnormalities in your womb or ovaries.

      The examination won’t be carried out without your permission. You can also ask to have a female doctor, choose to have a friend or relative present, or a practice nurse to act as a chaperone.

      In some cases your GP may also order a pelvic ultrasound, which may show any abnormalities.

      Referral to a specialist

      If your period pain has not been controlled after 3 months of treatment with painkillers or a suitable hormonal contraceptive, your GP may refer you to a specialist, which will usually be a gynaecologist.

      This is for further tests to rule out an underlying medical condition.

      Further tests

      To help find out the cause of your period pain, a gynaecologist may need to carry out:

      • a urine or blood test
      • pelvic ultrasound )– where high-frequency sound waves are used to produce an image of the inside of your body; it’s painless and will show any abnormalities in your reproductive organs
      • laparoscopy – under general anaesthetic, a small cut is made in your abdomen through which a fibro-optic telescope is inserted; it can be used to look at your internal organs, as well as take samples of tissue (a biopsy)
      • hysteroscopy – allows the inside of the womb to be examined using a fibro-optic telescope; it’s passed through your vagina and into the womb to check for abnormalities

      Treating an underlying medical condition

      If your period pain is caused by an underlying medical condition, your treatment will depend on which condition you have.

      For example, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) may require antibiotics to treat the infection, while fibroids may need to be surgically removed.

      Can period pain affect fertility?

      Period pain that’s part of your normal menstrual cycle will not affect your fertility. However, if the cause is a medical condition, this may affect your fertility.

      For example, endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease can cause scarring and a build-up of tissue in your fallopian tubes, making it harder for sperm to reach and fertilise an egg.

      Video: menstrual cycle

      This animation explains in detail how the menstrual cycle works.

      Media last reviewed: 21 October 2020
      Media review due: 21 October 2023

      Page last reviewed: 07 August 2019
      Next review due: 07 August 2022

      Period pain | Women’s Health Concern

      The technical term for period pain is dysmenorrhoea. It derives from an ancient Greek expression which literally means ‘difficult monthly flow’.

      Facts about period pain

      If you have dysmenorrhoea you are not alone. Around 80% of women experience period pain at some stage in their lifetime. You can suffer from period pain from your early teens right up to the menopause. Most women experience some discomfort during menstruation, especially on the first day. But in 5% to 10% of women the pain is severe enough to disrupt their life. If your mother suffered period pains, you are more likely to suffer too. In 40% of women, period pain is accompanied by premenstrual symptoms, such as bloating, tender breasts, swollen stomach, lack of concentration, mood swings, clumsiness and tiredness.

      There are two different types of period pain:

      Primary dysmenorrhoea

      This commonly occurs in teenage girls and young women, towards the beginning of menstrual life. The cramping pains are caused by the uterus contracting to shed its lining. There may also be pain caused by the decreased supply of blood to the uterus. The pain is mainly in the lower part of the abdomen but can go into the back and down the front of the thighs. Some women feel nauseated at the same time. It is a perfectly natural condition and for many women is simply a mild monthly discomfort. Primary dysmenorrhoea can be eased with the contraceptive pill as well as some relaxation techniques.

      Secondary dysmenorrhoea

      This may not start until your mid-twenties or later. It is unlikely to cease after childbirth. The pain is not restricted to “time of the month” bleeding and can occur throughout the cycle. Periods may become heavier and more prolonged, and intercourse may be painful. Secondary dysmenorrhoea can be a sign of other conditions, including pelvic infections, which may need urgent attention. If you start to experience period pain as an adult you should not hesitate to consult a GP.

      Coping with period pain

      There are a number of simple ways to ease the discomfort.

      • Relax in a hot bath with aromatherapy oils.
      • Cuddle a hot water bottle.
      • Have a back and stomach massage. This is extremely effective for some women.
      • Wear loose fitting clothing in the couple of days prior to and during your period.
      • Do some gentle exercise such as yoga. A regular relaxation programme before the period is due and on the first few days helps to relax the muscles and improves blood supply to the pelvic area.
      • For fast relief, take a painkiller specifically designed for period symptoms.

      Lifestyle changes

      Research has shown that period pain symptoms can be eased by modifying lifestyle. So try the following:

      • First and foremost, stop or cut down smoking. Smoking is thought to increase the incidence of period pain by reducing the supply of oxygen to the pelvic area.
      • Reduce your alcohol consumption.
      • Eat high fibre foods and plenty of salads and vegetables.
      • Daily vitamin E supplements have been shown to help.
      • If you eat red meat make sure it is lean. Eat more chicken and fish.
      • Cut down on sugary foods, chocolate, cakes and biscuits.
      • Reduce the amount of salt in your diet to avoid water retention.
      • Choose pure fruit juices or mineral water rather than sugary drinks.
      • Take a supplement containing gamma linolenic acid (GLA) such as evening primrose oil or starflower oil or vitamin B6. Both help maintain hormonal balance.

      If pain persists visit your GP for a check up. You might be prescribed:

      • Non-hormonal drug treatments: tranexamic acid or Mefenamic acid.
      • The contraceptive pill: not only will this reduce some of the pain and discomfort, but will make your periods lighter and more regular.
      • Stronger pain killers that you can’t buy from a chemist: these should be started as soon as the period starts–don’t wait until the pain is at its worst to take them.
      • The intra-uterine system (IUS) may be suitable for some women: this is a very effective method of contraception which may also reduce blood loss and period pains.

      Lifestyle changes

      Research has shown that period pain symptoms can be eased by modifying lifestyle. So try the following:

      • Smoking is thought to increase the incidence of period pain by reducing the supply of oxygen to the pelvic area.
      • Reduce your alcohol consumption.
      • Eat high fibre foods and plenty of salads and vegetables.
      • Daily vitamin E supplements have been shown to help.
      • If you eat red meat make sure it is lean. Eat more chicken and fish.
      • Cut down on sugary foods, chocolate, cakes and biscuits.
      • Reduce the amount of salt in your diet to avoid water retention.
      • Choose pure fruit juices or mineral water rather than sugary drinks.
      • Take a supplement containing gamma linolenic acid (GLA) such as evening primrose oil or starflower oil or vitamin B6. Both help maintain hormonal balance.

      If pain persists visit your GP for a check up. You might be prescribed:

      • Non-hormonal drug treatments: tranexamic acid or mefenamic acid.
      • The contraceptive pill: not only will this reduce some of the pain and discomfort, but will make your periods lighter and more regular.
      • Stronger pain killers that you can’t buy from a chemist: these should be started as soon as the period starts–don’t wait until the pain is at its worst to take them.
      • The intra-uterine system (IUS) may be suitable for some women: this is a very effective method of contraception which may also reduce blood loss and period pains.

      How to Get Rid of Menstrual Cramps


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      University of Columbia: Go Ask Alice. “Foods that minimize menstrual cramps?”

      FDA: “Sodium in Your Diet: Using the Nutrition Facts Label to Reduce Your Intake.”

      Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine: “Using Foods Against Menstrual Pain.”

      UC Davis, Student Health and Counseling Services (SHCS): “Dysmenorrhea.”

      Center for Young Women’s Health. “Menstrual cramps.”

      Blakey, H. BJOC, published online May 14, 2009.

      Institute for Integrative Healthcare: “How You Can Help Treat Menstrual Pain.”

      Ou, M.C. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, May 2012.

      Lawrewnce, A. Preventive Medicine Clinics of the Desert: “Alternative Treatments of Dysmenorrhea.”

      Dennehy, C.E. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, Nov-Dec 2006.

      Arthritis Foundation: “Turmeric.”

      National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: “Evening Primrose Oil.”

      University of Maryland Medical Center: “Menstrual pain.”

      Chung, Y. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, published online March 19, 2012.

      Modern Reflexology: “Top 9 Acupressure Points to Treat Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS).”

      Azima, S. Journal of Pediatric & Adolescent Gynecology, published online March 4, 2015.

      Iyengar Yoga National Association of the United States: “Menstruation sequence at RIMYI.”

      Yoga Journal: “Menstruation + Inversion Confusion.”

      National Sleep Foundation: “Six Sleep Problems That Occur During Your Period (And What To Do To Make Them Go Away).”

      NHS Choices: “Painful periods (dysmenorrhoea).”

      How to Relieve Period Cramps: Exercise and Home Remedies

      By: Women’s Care Florida Staff

      Between uncomfortable cramps, fatigue, and breast tenderness, your menstrual period doesn’t exactly leave you feeling like you can conquer the world. What helps cramps the natural way may seem like a mystery. However, there are ways to learn how to relieve period cramps using exercise and home remedies. Exercising while Aunt Flo is in town may help make you feel better in a more natural, healthy way. Exercise can lead to relief from uncomfortable period symptoms for many women. Whether you head out to your normal spin class or take a walk around the neighborhood, you might experience these perks of period exercise.

      Relief from Menstrual Cramps

      What helps cramps naturally is exercise. Exercise provides a double dose of benefits to relieve cramps. First, when you exercise, your brain releases hormones called endorphins. Endorphins block pain receptors in your brain, helping to stop pain signals from your cramping, contracting uterus. Aerobic exercise, even a brisk walk, can release endorphins and provide some pain relief.

      Exercise also improves circulation throughout your entire body, including your uterus. When you have cramps, your uterus is contracting so hard that it is cutting off some blood flow, which sends pain signals to the brain. By opening up these blood vessels with increased circulation, you may be able to relieve menstrual cramp pain.

      A Better Mood During Menstruation

      Endorphins offer other perks, too. They can boost your mood and anxiety associated with your period. Again, all exercise that gets your heart beating faster, even a quick walk or hike, can release the positive benefits of endorphins.

      More Energy During Your Period

      Exercise might help you improve problems with low energy, too. When you exercise, you strengthen your heart so it can provide more blood and oxygen throughout your body, including your brain. Exercise can also help relieve stress (another benefit of endorphins) that can drag your energy levels down during the day. Finally, exercise can improve sleep so you can make the most out of your eight hours (or so) of rest.

      Less Painful Period Headaches

      If you get headaches during your period, increased circulation and endorphin production can help make a headache less painful or even help it go away altogether. Exercising is thus a home remedy for menstrual cramps and painful headaches.

      Tips for Exercising on Your Period

      Exercising on your period doesn’t have to be uncomfortable. Learn how to relieve period cramps and make it easier on yourself with these tips:

      • You may consider taking ibuprofen or naproxen sodium in the morning to help head off cramps and achiness.
      • Wear a supportive, well-fitted sports bra that keeps your breasts in place and helps with breast tenderness as you move.
      • Wear a tampon and an ultra-thin panty liner to help prevent leaks through your leggings.
      • Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated and ease bloating.
      • Consider wearing looser, more comfortable clothing than your typical yoga pants.

      Remember, if you have severe menstrual cramping and pain that disrupts your life, you should speak to your physician. Severe pain could be the result of a condition such as endometriosis.

      At Women’s Care Florida, our OB/GYN experts can help diagnose the cause of menstrual pain. We provide treatment for all women’s health conditions and can help you find menstrual pain relief. Contact us today to learn more or schedule an appointment.

      What It Is, Treatments, Causes


      What is are menstrual cramps?

      Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for pain with your period (menstruation) or menstrual cramps. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.

      Primary dysmenorrhea is the name for common menstrual cramps that come back over and over again (recurrent) and aren’t due to other diseases. Pain usually begins one or two days before you get your period or when bleeding actual starts. You may feel pain ranging from mild to severe in the lower abdomen, back or thighs.

      Pain can typically last 12 to 72 hours, and you might have other symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and even diarrhea. Common menstrual cramps may become less painful as you get older and may stop entirely if you have a baby.

      If you have painful periods because of a disorder or an infection in your female reproductive organs, it is called secondary dysmenorrhea. Pain from secondary dysmenorrhea usually begins earlier in the menstrual cycle and lasts longer than common menstrual cramps. You usually don’t have nausea, vomiting, fatigue or diarrhea.

      Symptoms and Causes

      What causes painful menstrual cramps?

      Menstrual cramps happen when a chemical called prostaglandin makes the uterus contract (tighten up). The uterus, the muscular organ where a baby grows, contracts throughout your menstrual cycle. During menstruation, the uterus contracts more strongly. If the uterus contracts too strongly, it can press against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to muscle tissue. You feel pain when part of the muscle briefly loses its supply of oxygen.

      How does secondary dysmenorrhea cause menstrual cramps?

      Menstrual pain from secondary dysmenorrhea is a result of problems with the reproductive organs. Conditions that can cause cramping include:

      • Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus (the endometrium) is found outside of the uterus. Because these pieces of tissue bleed during your period, they can cause swelling, scarring and pain.
      • Adenomyosis: A condition where the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus. This condition can cause the uterus to get much bigger than it should be, along with abnormal bleeding and pain.
      • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): An infection caused by bacteria that starts in the uterus and can spread to other reproductive organs. PID can cause pain in the stomach or pain during sex.
      • Cervical stenosis: Narrowing of the cervix, or the opening to the uterus.
      • Fibroids (benign tumors): Growths on the inside, outside or in the walls of the uterus

      What are the symptoms of menstrual cramps?

      If you have painful periods, you may have:

      • Aching pain in the abdomen (pain may be severe at times).
      • Feeling of pressure in the abdomen.
      • Pain in the hips, lower back and inner thighs.

      Diagnosis and Tests

      How can you tell if the pain of your menstrual cramps is normal?

      If you have severe or unusual menstrual cramps or cramps that last for more than two or three days, contact your healthcare provider. Both primary and secondary menstrual cramps can be treated, so it’s important to get checked.

      First, you will be asked to describe your symptoms and menstrual cycles. Your healthcare provider will also perform a pelvic exam. During this exam, your provider inserts a speculum (an instrument that lets the provider see inside the vagina). The provider is able to examine your vagina, cervix and uterus. The doctor will feel for any lumps or changes. They may take a small sample of vaginal fluid for testing.

      If your provider thinks you may have secondary dysmenorrhea, you may need additional tests, such as an ultrasound or a laparoscopy. If those tests indicate a medical problem, your healthcare provider will discuss treatments.

      If you use tampons and develop the following symptoms, get medical help right away: over 102 degrees Fahrenheit.

      • Fever.
      • Vomiting.
      • Diarrhea.
      • Dizziness, fainting or near fainting.
      • A rash that looks like a sunburn.

      These are symptoms of toxic shock syndrome, a life-threatening illness.

      Management and Treatment

      How can you relieve mild menstrual cramps?

      To relieve mild menstrual cramps:

      • For the best relief, take ibuprofen as soon as bleeding or cramping starts. Ibuprofen belongs to a class of drugs called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They reduce the output of prostaglandins. If you can’t take NSAIDs, you can take another pain reliever like acetaminophen.
      • Place a heating pad or hot water bottle on your lower back or abdomen.
      • Rest when needed.
      • Avoid foods that contain caffeine.
      • Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol.
      • Massage your lower back and abdomen.

      Women who exercise regularly often have less menstrual pain. To help prevent cramps, make exercise a part of your weekly routine.

      If these steps don’t relieve pain, your healthcare provider can order medications for you, including ibuprofen or another anti-inflammatory medication in a higher dose that is available over the counter. Your healthcare provider might also suggest oral contraceptives since women who take oral contraceptives tend to have less menstrual pain.

      If testing shows that you have secondary dysmenorrhea, your provider will discuss treatments of the condition causing the pain. This might mean oral contraceptives, other types of medications, or surgery.

      What types of alternative therapies might help with menstrual cramping?

      Women who have painful periods often try to find natural ways of dealing with the pain. Studies on alternative or complementary methods have not been conclusive about results. Remember that most supplements are not regulated by the FDA. Other methods that you might find useful include:

      • Yoga.
      • Massage.
      • Acupuncture and acupressure.
      • Relaxation or breathing exercises.


      Can you prevent menstrual cramps?

      The answer is “probably not.” However, eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise may help stop cramps from being as intense.

      Living With

      When should you contact your healthcare provider about menstrual cramps?

      Bad cramps keep some women from working and going to school. You don’t have to suffer and you don’t have to put your life on hold. Contact your healthcare provider if you have painful periods.

      It may be helpful to keep track of your periods and the days on which pain is the worst so you can make a complete report. If you notice other symptoms, like headaches or heavy flows, you should keep track of those, too.

      Your provider will probably ask you when you started getting your period, how long they last, if you are sexually active, if other women in your family have problems with their periods and what kinds of treatments you might have tried already.

      A note from Cleveland Clinic

      Menstruation is normal. You might get cramps, but you don’t have to suffer silently with them. There are ways to make painful periods less painful. Make sure you talk to your healthcare provider about painful periods.

      90,000 Severe cramps in the stomach, what does this mean?

      Cramping pains in the stomach, which are commonly called spasms, occur against the background of the development and exacerbation of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.

      A short contraction of smooth muscles leads to severe pain that impedes movement. It is necessary to distinguish between two types of cramping pains – organic and functional. Today we will consider the causes of spasms in adults and children, as well as the symptoms of possible diseases in which they appear.

      Factors provoking the development of spasm

      Causes of cramping pain in the stomach

      Cramping pains in the stomach can be dull and prolonged. At the same time, the appearance of nausea and vomiting after eating is often noticed, which further leads to muscle spasm and the person cannot be in a horizontal position. Since there are two types of spasms, the reasons for the development of each of them should be considered.

      For example, in a functional view, individual features are important.Most often, cramping pains are the cause of the development of a pathological state of metabolism or neuralgia. The main causes of functional pain are:

      1. Prolonged depression – scientists have long proven that severe and frequent stress and nervous overload lead to gastrointestinal disorders.
      2. Neurosis.
      3. Intoxication of the body as a result of consuming large amounts of alcohol.
      4. Food poisoning.
      5. Excess weight, which often leads to overeating and the predominance of a large amount of junk food in the diet.
      6. Individual allergy to certain foods.
      7. Frequent consumption of coffee and associated smoking.
      8. Uncontrolled intake of medications that were not prescribed by a doctor.

      Diseases provoking pain in the stomach

      Organic cramping pain occurs against the background of the progression of an existing disease of the gastrointestinal tract. In this case, the reasons are as follows:

      • Inflammation of the mucous membrane.
      • Ulcerative processes of the stomach.
      • Erosion.
      • Inflammation of the duodenum.

      Among the concomitant symptoms that lead to cramping pains, the following should be noted:

      1. Nausea and subsequent vomiting.
      2. Increase in the amount of gas in the stomach, which worries about bloating.
      3. Inflammation of the duodenum leads to stool disorders – frequent constipation or loose stools.

      The pain appears cramping and also subsides, while each new attack begins on an increasing basis.A feature is that stomach cramps are less likely to occur after a meal and most often on an empty stomach.

      Important! If you do not know reasons for which stomach hurts , and the pain becomes spasmodic and growing, then you should consult a doctor. If there are accompanying symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fever, you should call the ambulance and take the most comfortable position before they arrive.


      Gastritis can even occur in a child; it is positioned as an inflammation of the mucous membrane, in which the digestion process is disturbed.The most common causes of its development are eating disorders, eating a lot of junk food, acid and alkaline poisoning, and uncontrolled medication.

      Gastritis and its symptoms

      In addition, gastritis in a child or an adult can be caused by the presence in the body of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which actively develops in an acidic stomach environment. If cramping pains with gastritis are very strong, then they will certainly occur with concomitant symptoms:

      1. During the spasm, severe nausea and vomiting will appear.
      2. Frequent flatulence.
      3. Decreased appetite, after which a person begins to lose weight.
      4. Unpleasant belching and bad breath.

      The danger of gastritis is that untimely treatment can lead to serious consequences and even the development of an ulcerative process.

      If you have concomitant symptoms in addition to cramping pains in the stomach, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible.

      If your stomach is sick after eating, and soon your temperature rises and nausea begins, you should take the most comfortable position and call an ambulance.

      Ulcerative process of the stomach and duodenum

      Stomach ulcer and its symptoms

      An ulcer is a pathology that occurs against the background of progressive gastritis and is quite dangerous, as it can be a provocateur of the formation of tumors. If an ulcer is found, treatment should be started immediately and preferably in a hospital. It is cramping pain that is the main symptom of ulcers on the mucous membrane, it literally immobilizes a person and manifests itself with accompanying and characteristic symptoms for many other gastrointestinal pathologies.

      In addition, a stomach ulcer, in which cramping pains become more frequent, can manifest itself against the background of cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, appendicitis.

      Ulcerative processes can occur on the duodenal mucosa. However, in this case, the pathology most often refers to chronic and it is characterized by some factors of occurrence.

      It can be both an infectious lesion and poisoning with alkaline acids.

      With a genetic predisposition to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ulcers should be prevented every year and a healthy lifestyle should be maintained.Statistics show that children whose parents had an ulcer are susceptible to these manifestations in about 45% of cases.

      Important! Heartburn, bitterness and lump in the throat always talk about inflammatory processes in the stomach. If they are supplemented by vomiting, which does not bring relief, you should call an ambulance, as dehydration is possible in the near future.

      Treatment and prevention of cramping pain

      Of course, when the first severe pain and unpleasant symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor or call an ambulance if the temperature also rises.

      Doctors strongly recommend not to take any painkillers before the examination, however, there are times when the pain is so strong that there is no strength to endure, and it will not be soon to see a doctor.

      In this case, you can use some tips that will help reduce spasms and temporarily relieve pain:

      • Treatment of cramping pain in the stomach Immediately after a sharp pain has appeared, you need to drink a glass of warm water and stop eating for several hours.If, along with the pain, you start vomiting, then eating is contraindicated for the next 6 hours.
      • After a little relief, you should start adjusting your diet and, first of all, exclude from the diet fresh bread and rolls, coarse fiber, fatty and fried foods, canned foods, spices and coffee.
      • You need to eat in small portions and at least 5-6 times a day. In this case, it will not be superfluous to introduce separate food.
      • Do not eat very cold or hot food, as it irritates the lining of the esophagus and stomach.It is best to eat food at room temperature.

      From the group of antispasmodics permitted for independent use, No-shpu and Spazmalgon can be distinguished. All traditional medicine should be used provided that you are not allergic to the products contained in infusions and decoctions. Of the most common and not offensive, the following can be distinguished:

      1. Mint tea.
      2. Infusion of St. John’s wort and nettle.

      Nutrition for cramping pain in the stomach

      Nutrition for cramping pain in the stomach

      Consider also your daily routine.It will be important to eat according to the schedule – in this way, the secretion of gastric juice in the stomach will increase as soon as possible for the meal. This will reduce the effect of acid on the mucous membrane. In addition, you should not go to bed immediately after a meal – as this can provoke a weakening of the sphincter and lead to the reflux of the contents of the stomach back into the esophagus.

      With cramping pains with which bloating is noticed after eating, intestinal obstruction can be suspected.Very often it goes away by itself, you just need to adjust your diet.

      However, if the attack is prolonged and the pain persists, you should immediately seek qualified help.

      This condition can be especially dangerous with concomitant vomiting of blood or black feces.

      For any diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, it is very important to diagnose pathology in a timely manner, only this will allow for the most effective treatment.In addition to drug treatment, the patient is also prescribed a diet, which must be followed in order to obtain the best result.

      Source: http://pozheludku.ru/boli-v-zheludke/shvatkoobraznye-boli-v-zheludke.html

      Stomach cramps: symptoms and causes, what to do at home, drugs for the treatment of seizures

      Functional and organic disorders of the digestive tract are accompanied by pain. Such changes are a spasm of the stomach muscles, which is caused by an involuntary contraction of the smooth muscles of the organ.


      Causes of stomach cramps

      The stomach can be reduced for several reasons. The provoking factors that cause a spasm in the stomach area, in most cases, reflect problems in the digestive tract.

      They occur during eating, after eating and are represented by:

      1. Changes arising from the nervous system due to stress, overwork, psychoemotional stress.
      2. Violation of the diet, the use of substandard products.
      3. After alcohol in large quantities.
      4. Constant smoking of tobacco.
      5. Acute poisoning by poor quality food or chemicals.
      6. Long-term drug therapy with hormones, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, sulfa drugs.

      With diseases from other organs, convulsive contractions of the muscles in the upper abdomen can also be observed. Probable causes of adverse symptoms:

      1. Formation of blood clots in the mesenteric vessels.
      2. The presence of stones in the gallbladder, kidneys, accompanied by discomfort in the right hypochondrium, pain radiating to the back.
      3. Inflammatory processes of the chest organs – pleurisy, pneumonia.
      4. Foreign bodies in the esophagus – causing cramping in the chest and throat.
      5. Pathology of the heart.
      6. Problems with the spine, entrapment of nerve fibers.

      Causes of stomach muscle spasm in adults

      There are situations when the stomach periodically grabs for no apparent reason.Spontaneous smooth muscle contractions occur in some adults and are not associated with organic damage to the digestive system.

      Until the end, the mechanism of the onset of symptoms has not been established.

      Experts believe that the spasm of the stomach muscles in this case is associated with psychosomatic factors in persons with vegetative-vascular dystonia (VVD) and impaired nervous regulation of the organ.

      A common cause of pathology in adults is alcohol consumption. At the same time, there are two links in the pathogenesis – organic damage to the organ and alcohol intoxication, leading to dysfunction of the nerves that innervate the stomach.


      A differentiated approach allows you to determine the source of pathological changes. Stomach spasm is classified according to several criteria. Depending on the course of the disease, muscle contractions are:

      • total – due to severe lesions of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract;
      • regional – consist in the involvement in the process of a certain part of the stomach, more often the upper section.

      Due to the occurrence of spasms is divided into:

      • primary or organic, which are caused by a stomach disorder;
      • secondary – as a consequence of concomitant pathology from other organs;
      • functional, arising against the background of short-term exposure to negative factors, for example, on the nervous system, when taking medications, from drinking cold water, changing body position.

      Symptoms of stomach cramps

      Signs of trouble in the digestive system are accompanied by symptoms of stomach cramps, which come to the fore. The manifestations of smooth muscle spasms in the stomach are presented:

      • Painful sensations of an acute or aching character, especially at night.
      • Recurrent nausea and vomiting, which often does not bring relief.

      Organic pathology of the stomach and adjacent organs is accompanied by symptoms:

      1. Heartburn, burning sensation behind the breastbone, especially when lying down.
      2. Belching of air, eaten food.
      3. Putrid odor from the mouth.
      4. Violation of the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract, which is manifested by constipation or diarrhea.
      5. Increased flatulence with abdominal enlargement.
      6. Changes in taste preferences.
      7. Decreased appetite or aversion to familiar food.
      8. Sleep disturbance due to spastic muscle contraction.
      9. The appearance of pathological impurities in the feces.
      10. Asthenic syndrome.

      Symptoms may occur spontaneously and get worse over time. This indicates the progression of the disease and requires specialist advice. Dangerous situations should be noted when the stomach is cramping.

      Warning signs:

      • sharp increasing pain in the upper abdomen;
      • the appearance of heavy breathing;
      • Difficulty swallowing;
      • periodic loss of consciousness;
      • bleeding from the genital tract in women, not associated with menstruation;
      • pain radiating to the scrotum;
      • the appearance of blood in the feces;
      • 90,015 rises in temperature to high numbers, especially with chills;

      • expressed thirst;
      • no urination for more than 10 hours.

      Attention! The appearance of one or more dangerous symptoms, especially for no reason, is a threatening condition that requires urgent measures.

      Severe stomach cramps during pregnancy

      Expectant mothers usually experience abdominal discomfort. Unpleasant symptoms are associated with a change in hormonal status, and bother a woman in the first and third trimester.

      During pregnancy, the body produces an increased amount of progesterone.The hormone is essential for the normal development of the fetus. The steroid relaxes the smooth muscles of the internal organs, including the sphincters.

      Therefore, when carrying a child, its effect on the mother’s body is the reason:

      • nausea;
      • 90,015 feelings of heaviness in the abdomen;

      • heartburn;
      • 90,015 distention of gases in the stomach and intestines.

      Often in the first twelve weeks, severe stomach cramps in pregnant women precede morning vomiting. In the later stages, muscle contractions in the epigastric region can be caused by excess food intake.The signs are of a short duration and are not symptoms of the disease.

      This is important! If muscle contractions are periodically repeated, intensify over time and are accompanied by bloody discharge, as with menstruation, you should immediately consult a gynecologist. At a later date, seizures may indicate the onset of labor.

      How to relieve stomach cramps during pregnancy

      Pain in the abdomen should alert a pregnant woman.Normal symptoms include muscle contractions in the last months of gestation. These are single spasms of a moderate nature that go away on their own, are not accompanied by tingling in the suprapubic region or loss of consciousness. Medicines can help relieve the attack.

      Important! Before using medication, you should consult a gynecologist. A specialist will conduct an examination, determine the cause of the pain, and advise on a medicine for stomach cramps.

      Pregnant women are prescribed antispasmodics in tablets and suppositories.Diet and bed rest are recommended.

      Diagnostics for stomach cramps

      To determine why there is a spasm of the stomach and esophagus, it is necessary to consult a therapist or gastroenterologist, to diagnose. The specialist will find out the complaints, anamnesis, conduct an examination and determine the plan for an additional examination.

      If necessary, appoint:

      1. General clinical and biochemical blood test.
      2. Urine tests: general and according to Nechiporenko.
      3. Fibrogastroesophagoduodenoscopy (FGDS) with histological examination.
      4. Determination of specific pathogens that cause inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
      5. Ultrasound examination of internal organs.
      6. X-ray procedures including CT and MRI.
      7. Diagnostic laparoscopy.

      Stomach spasm treatment

      Help with convulsive contractions in the upper abdomen includes diet, drug therapy and folk remedies.In case of stomach spasm, treatment is determined by a specialist on the basis of an objective examination and diagnostic data. Variants of medicinal substances and the duration of use are individual.

      Medicines for stomach cramps

      The main drugs for pain relief are antispasmodics. Medicine for stomach cramps helps to quickly eliminate unpleasant symptoms and relieve the condition.

      Tablets can be taken once to relieve an attack. In more severe cases, the specialist prescribes a course of treatment according to the protocol for treating the underlying disease.

      The most commonly used drugs are shown in the table below.

      Table 1. Drugs for treatment

      Drug group Application diagram
      Non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors – no-shpa Taken orally 2-3 times a day before meals or intramuscularly to relieve spasm
      Sodium channel blockers –
      1 capsule 2 times a day with plenty of water
      Calcium channel blockers – Dycetel 1 tablet 3 times a day or 2 tablets 2 times a day with meals
      Non-selective M-anticholinergics – platifillin 1 ampoule 2 times a day intramuscularly in the course of
      Selective M-anticholinergics – ribal 1 tablet 3-4 times a day after meals or intramuscularly with the same frequency

      Analgesics – second-line drugs.They can be prescribed as additional medicines to relieve pain. The safest substances are preferred. These include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:

      • ibuprofen;
      • paracetamol;
      • analgin or metamizole sodium.

      Attention! Drugs from the NSAID group have an ulcerogenic effect. With inflammatory diseases of the stomach, they cannot be used.

      What to do with stomach cramps at home: first aid

      Convulsions can be taken by surprise at any time of the day.Therefore, it is important to know: how to relieve severe stomach cramps at home. If the attacks are repeated, you need to have No-shpa, Papaverin in your home medicine cabinet.

      If the pain occurs in the upper part of the stomach, periodically grasps and releases, but is not accompanied by nausea, changes in pulse and blood pressure, you can take a single oral antispasmodic or inject the drug.

      Good to know! Normal blood pressure figures are from 100/60 to 140/90 mm. rt. Art., the normal pulse is 60–90 beats per minute.

      When pulse and pressure readings are changed against the background of stomach spasm, you should consult a doctor immediately.

      If vomiting and diarrhea occur against the background of discomfort, it is better to drink activated charcoal quickly or use another sorbent. Such first aid is suitable if there is loose stool in a nursing mother or a pregnant woman.

      In case of a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, the best remedy is preparations based on simethicone.

      How to relieve a stomach spasm on a nervous basis

      Emotionally labile people often experience periodical abdominal pain caused by stress factors. Sedatives can help relieve stomach cramps at home. Medicines based on plant extracts of valerian, peony, motherwort, passionflower have a good effect. In difficult situations, a doctor may prescribe prescription chemicals.

      Additionally, they recommend special exercises for relaxation, breathing exercises.In addition to yoga, vocal lessons, being on the banks of water bodies, listening to the sounds of nature, the sounds of the beating heart of a baby help well to relax.

      For the treatment of stomach cramps, alternative methods of unconventional effects on the body are used. For example, in Chinese medicine, for pain in the abdomen, the Zhong-Wan point is massaged. It is located on the midline of the abdomen, 13 cm above the navel.

      Diet for nervous spasms

      Proper nutrition plays an important role in the elimination of symptoms associated with emotional stress.Patients often ask the question: what can you eat with stomach cramps?

      The diet consists in adherence to the regime and quality control of the diet. Experts recommend not to overeat or starve when stressed, and do not eat before bed. Excludes foods that have a stimulating effect:

      • alcoholic beverages;
      • coffee;
      • strong tea;
      • alcohol;
      • chocolate.

      Allowed to eat:

      • vegetable dishes;
      • porridge;
      • mashed potatoes;
      • soups;
      • lean meat;
      • 90,015 fish;

      • fruits.

      Folk remedies for stomach cramps

      There is an alternative direction for the treatment of abdominal pain. Basically, folk remedies for stomach cramps are natural herbal extracts that can relieve symptoms without pills. The most effective recipes are presented in the table.

      Table 2. Treatment with folk remedies

      Folk remedy Preparation and recipe
      Chamomile tea 1 teaspoon of dry herb is poured into a glass of boiling water.
      Drink 100 ml 3 times a day
      St.John’s wort decoction,
      Combine herbs in equal proportions, add 1 tablespoon of the mixture to 200 ml of boiling water.
      After infusion, take a decoction of no more than 300 ml per day
      Gooseberry decoction Pour 300 ml of hot water over the berries and bring to a boil for 10 minutes.
      Drink a glass 3 times a day
      Calendula tincture To relieve spasm, dissolve 50 drops in 50 ml of water
      Mint tea A tablespoon of dry or frozen mint is poured with boiling water, insisted.
      Take 3-4 times a day

      Stomach cramps cannot be ignored. This is a symptom in which you need to see a doctor. Timely diagnosis and competent treatment will help you quickly find the cause and eliminate the problem.

      Recommended Materials:

      • Heartburn: Causes and Home Treatment
      • What is esophageal cardiospasm: symptoms and treatment
      • What is included in the human gastric juice
      • Foods causing heartburn
      • What to do in case of obstruction of the esophagus
      • Symptoms and treatment of esophageal spasm

      Source: https: // stomach-diet.ru / spazm-zheludka-simptomy-i-prichiny /

      What to do with stomach cramps, symptoms, causes and treatment

      Often, even in healthy people, stomach cramps occur, the causes and treatment of this condition must be clarified in a timely manner, since they can signal various ailments. Especially not to ignore the often recurring spasmodic pain, in which it is better to consult a specialist.

      What is stomach cramps?

      Cramps in the stomach are a convulsive contraction of the developed muscle layer, consisting of smooth muscle fibers, is a universal reaction in diseases of hollow organs.

      Unlike skeletal muscle, which consists of striated muscles, they are subordinate to the autonomic nervous system, so their contraction does not depend on the person.

      In normal physiology, we do not feel the work of the stomach, but due to various reasons, motor function disorders occur due to which discomfort and pain appear. This condition is called gastrospasm.

      “The autonomic nervous system is a division of the nervous system that regulates the activity of internal organs, glands of internal and external secretion, blood and lymphatic vessels” – Wikipedia.

      Spastic contraction can occur in any part of the stomach, but most often occurs in the antrum and pylorus. Due to their location, these departments are drawn into the process due to deviations not only of the stomach (usually a peptic ulcer), but also of the rest of the abdominal organs (gallbladder, appendix, pancreas).


      The causes of stomach cramps are unhealthy diet, alcohol abuse, chronic gastritis, etc.All of them are divided into two groups: functional and organic.


      Manifest without any pathology, and in conjunction with it. Similar spasms are found in middle-aged people, schoolchildren, students. Strongly associated with lifestyle, ecology, emotional state. It happens that the obvious cause of functional disorders cannot be found.

      • The most common cause is prolonged stress.
      • Lack of adequate nutrition.
      • Genetic predisposition.
      • Intoxication by pathogens.
      • Prolonged hypothermia.
      • Vascular disorders in the abdominal cavity.
      • Metabolic disorders.
      • Alcoholism, tobacco smoking, excessive consumption of caffeine.
      • Certain drugs cause gastrointestinal spasms.
      • Mechanical impact, rough food.
      • Food allergic reactions.
      • Accumulation of flatulence in the stomach.
      • Parasitic invasion.

      One of the reasons may be aerophagia – excessive swallowing of air when eating or talking.

      There is such a thing as hunger pains (cramps) that arise, as you might guess, with prolonged refusal to eat. This is especially painful for ulcerative lesions. You can stop this state simply by eating something. Interestingly, hunger pains originate in the brain, this is the body’s signal for a lack of food, and therefore energy for existence.

      Functional disorders usually depend on the individual characteristics of the organism. Neurosis, neurasthenia, heightened emotionality can serve as unfavorable factors.


      As a rule, they occur at an older age, implying organic changes in tissues. Often they are serious diseases in themselves:

      • Gastritis. Occur at the time of exacerbation due to the intake of spicy or sour foods. In severe episodes, it is accompanied by vomiting.
      • Peptic ulcer disease. Cramping comes on after eating, especially provoking food or alcohol. As accompanying symptoms are characteristic heartburn, sour belching.
      • Exacerbation of pancreatitis or pancreatic colic caused by alcohol or fatty foods. A rise in temperature is possible, then hospitalization and a full examination are desirable.
      • Gastroduodenitis.
      • Erosive lesions of the walls of the stomach.
      • Violation of the balance in the production of hydrochloric acid.

      One of the ways to determine the nature of spasm is intravenous or subcutaneous administration of strong myotropic agents (atropine, dibazol) to the patient.If, against the background of drugs, the deformation of the stomach does not disappear, or does not disappear enough, most often this indicates an organic cause.


      The main unpleasant symptoms in spasms are associated with visceral pain. Particularly dangerous are cramping pains in the stomach, radiating to the lower back or navel, accompanied by attacks of nausea, vomiting, and a feeling of weakness throughout the body.

      Visceral pain is called when it is localized in the internal organs.

      Painful sensations appear due to the clamping of the vessels located in the wall of the hollow organ (ischemia occurs – insufficient blood supply to the tissues).Their nature is different and ranges from mild tingling sensations to hours of suffering with disability. Individually, as a response to sharp spasms, dizziness, weakness, and diarrhea are observed.

      Abdominal muscles can also spasm. In this case, there is a desire to lie down, pulling the knees to the chin (in a ball). This position helps relieve tension from the muscles, the pain is slightly reduced.

      Dangerous symptoms and first aid

      There are symptoms that may accompany acute spasms, if they appear, it is recommended that urgent measures be taken to eliminate them or call an ambulance:

      1. A sharp increase in body temperature.
      2. Pale skin.
      3. Blood in vomit.
      4. Acute pain does not subside for several hours.
      5. The pain began to radiate to the chest and neck.
      6. Sudden drop in blood pressure.

      If at least one of the described symptoms is noticed, urgent hospitalization is necessary. After calling an ambulance, you need to take a position that will be most comfortable and will relieve pain. It is not advisable to eat or drink anything. Doctors do not recommend the use of pain relievers, since further diagnosis of the cause of the spasm is greatly complicated.

      In case of spasm, do not press on the abdomen or navel area.


      Only a full examination of the digestive system and taking analyzes by a gastroenterologist will give an answer to the cause of gastrospasm. First of all, at the on-site examination, the doctor will palpate the abdominal cavity and conduct a survey, this will help to assess the approximate picture and prescribe a number of tests:

      • Study of blood from a vein.
      • Analysis of feces for occult blood.
      • Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity (ultrasound).
      • Examination with an endoscope.
      • Radiography evaluates the shape and size of the object, the state of muscle tone, sphincters and other indicators.

      Deformations of various parts of the stomach have their own characteristics. Based on the collected data, the doctor will try to establish the cause of the spasm and prescribe treatment. Finding the cause of this pathology is not an easy task, and does not always give the correct result.


      • No-shpa.The most recognizable drug among antispasmodics. The recommended single dose is 80 mg. It causes relaxation of smooth muscle tissue not only of the digestive tract, but also of other muscles, as a result, it can cause a decrease in pressure, weakness.
      • Papaverine. Available in candles and tablets. An old drug with a lot of side effects, rarely used.
      • Duspatalin. A more modern medicine that selectively targets stomach and other spasms of the digestive tract.
      • Buscopan. The fastest-acting antispasmodic. He specializes in pain in the gastrointestinal tract. Contraindicated in pregnancy.
      • Meteospasmil. Complex preparation, strong antispasmodic and carminative.

      It is important to know that antispasmodic and analgesic drugs are contraindicated in acute conditions, until the cause is clarified.

      Traditional medicine

      Often spasms can be relieved with folk remedies at home. You need to understand that this is a fairly common symptom and it is not always worth resorting to medications or calling a doctor.First of all, one should worry less, a spastic state often arises on a nervous basis.

      The best solution would be to brew chamomile tea, it is ideal for cramps. It has soothing, antidepressant properties, it will calm the nervous system. It normalizes the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, relaxes the smooth muscles of the stomach, and has a mild analgesic effect. By itself, fluid intake should be beneficial.

      One tablespoon of chamomile flowers is poured with 200 ml of hot water, infused until it cools, usually 15–30 minutes, and half a glass is consumed 3-4 times a day.

      Oil is prepared from chamomile, filling the container with flowers, pouring it with vegetable oil, tightly sealed with a lid and insisting for a month, sometimes shaking the contents. After strain, take a teaspoon 2-3 times on an empty stomach.

      Honey diluted in warm water is used, it relaxes the walls of the stomach and relieves spasms, take as a course for 30 days. In the complex, combine with peppermint, adding a teaspoon of tincture to a glass.

      Nutrition and prevention

      The main factors in the development of spasms are bad habits and nervous strain, getting rid of them would be the best treatment.

      Spend more time walking, playing sports, reduce or completely eliminate the consumption of caffeine, nicotine and alcohol.

      It will be useful to train yourself to eat more often, in small portions, thoroughly chewing food, to consume a sufficient amount of water throughout the day. It may be worth brewing soothing herbal teas.

      While at home, taking a warm bath helps to relax the tone of the stomach. The water temperature should be 34-36 degrees, it is taken 15-20 minutes.

      Do breathing exercises. Take a comfortable position (sitting or reclining), inhale slowly with your nose for 4-5 seconds. Hold your breath for a couple of moments, then exhale smoothly through your mouth, repeat 10-15 times. This allows you to relax the abdominal muscles and internal organs. It is forbidden to engage in strength exercises for the press, this will only aggravate the overall picture.

      The diet for persons suffering from persistent cramps includes a complete withdrawal from the diet of provoking foods: spicy, pickled, smoked, fried, sour, salty.It is recommended to eat freshly prepared meals.

      Dairy and vegetable soups, thick cereals, non-sour fruits, boiled meat and fish are well suited, use yesterday’s bread. It is advisable to exclude tea and coffee, replacing them with decoctions of herbs, compotes, rose hips.


      Abdominal cramps are not only physical inconveniences, but also a stressful situation for any person, which reduces the quality of life and must be dealt with in time. Since we cannot control the tone of the stomach, it is important to find out the causes of this condition and choose the appropriate treatment.

      Source: https://vzheludke.ru/zheludok/spazmy.html

      Stomach cramps

      Cramps in the stomach are one of the most common manifestations of dysfunction of this organ. In fact, such a symptom represents the strongest contractions of his smooth muscles, accompanied by specific pains.

      Most often, organic lesions of the stomach act as a provoking factor, i.e., gastrointestinal diseases. In some cases, spasms may be functional in nature.There are also several situations in which such a symptom is considered quite normal, for example, during pregnancy or in infants.

      Spasms, in addition to pain, can be accompanied by symptoms characteristic of pathologies of the digestive system, including a violation of the act of defecation, nausea and vomiting, bloating and flatulence, as well as the appearance of rumbling.

      Diagnostics is always based on laboratory and instrumental diagnostic measures. However, it is also very important for the gastroenterologist to perform a physical examination.

      In the vast majority of situations, stomach cramps can be easily stopped by taking medication and other conservative therapy. They rarely resort to surgical intervention.


      Most often, the sensation of spasms in this organ is caused by the body’s response to this or that external stimulus, for example, to the ingestion of low-quality products. Other, non-pathological sources of painful stomach cramps in humans are:

      • Regular excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages, and the number of degrees in alcohol does not matter.Even a glass of wine or champagne can cause discomfort;
      • tobacco smoking – in such situations, insufficient oxygen supply to the stomach, or rather, its tissues and cells, can provoke spasm;
      • acute food poisoning – a spasm of smooth muscles can appear for two reasons – the first is that, despite intoxication, food must enter the damaged organ, but often this does not happen, which is why it contracts. The second source is repeated vomiting, which leads to muscle tension;
      • consumption of large amounts of food, especially overeating before bedtime – overload and cramps appear due to the fact that the stomach simply cannot cope with an abundant intake of food;
      • uncontrolled use of medications in excess of the daily dosage indicated by the attending physician or in case of non-compliance with the terms of taking the medication;
      • an excessive amount of spices and spices in the dish – at the same time, an increased production of hydrochloric acid occurs, which affects the formation of the main symptom;
      • severe stress or nervous strain – most often on a nervous basis stomach cramps occur in women or in children;
      • the habit of drinking carbonated drinks on food – thus, a person puts his stomach in danger, because in addition to spasms, the substances that make up them corrode his mucous membrane;
      • prolonged refusal to eat;
      • period of bearing a child – during pregnancy, such a manifestation can be either quite normal, indicating that a woman will become a mother in the coming days, and indicates a possible miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy;
      • hypothermia of the body;
      • the course of menstruation in women.

      Pathological causes of stomach cramps are presented:

      GERD – a possible cause of stomach cramps

      Reasons for gastric cramps not associated with gastroenterological pathologies:

      • diabetes mellitus course;
      • mental disorders;
      • diseases of the organs of the female reproductive system;
      • enlargement of the spleen or splenomegaly;
      • kidney disease.

      In addition, it is worth noting the appearance of such a symptom in newborns – in the first few months of life, babies will feel cramps and colic. This is due to the formation of the child’s gastrointestinal tract and adaptation to new food.


      It is customary for specialists in the field of gastroenterology to distinguish several types of cramps in the stomach. The first division divides them into:

      • organic or primary – they develop against the background of already existing gastrointestinal ailments;
      • secondary – arise from damage to other internal organs;
      • functional – are determined by the individual characteristics of the body, or rather, its response to a particular stimulus, for example, alcohol or medicines.

      By type of flow there are:

      • total stomach cramps – are quite rare and are caused by diseases of the central nervous system or gastrointestinal tract;
      • Regional stomach cramps – are distinguished by the involvement of only one part of this organ, often quite significant. Due to its anatomical location, it is often expressed in spasm in the upper part of the stomach.


      Since in many cases severe cramps in the stomach are a consequence of the course of gastroenterological pathologies, the symptoms most characteristic of this category of ailments will act as additional clinical signs.Among them it is worth highlighting:

      • bouts of nausea, ending with vomiting. It is noteworthy that vomiting does not always bring relief to a person. The most dangerous is the appearance in the vomit of impurities of mucus, pus and blood;
      • heartburn and burning in the chest area;
      • belching, often with an unpleasant odor;
      • 90,015 taste of rotten eggs in the mouth;

      • violation of the process of bowel emptying – for some diseases constipation is characteristic, for others – profuse diarrhea, but most often patients complain about the alternation of such signs;
      • an increase in the size of the abdomen;
      • increased gassing;
      • the appearance of specific rumbling and gurgling in the stomach;
      • change in taste preferences;
      • decreased appetite or complete aversion to food;
      • sleep disturbance, since pain spasms can also be expressed at night;
      • the appearance of pathological fluids in the feces;
      • pain syndrome, which can be both acute and dull – this forces a person to take a forced position to reduce the severity of unpleasant sensations;
      • headaches and dizziness.

      Symptoms of gastroenterological diseases

      It is also worth indicating the category of the most dangerous symptoms of stomach cramps, including:

      • every minute increase in pain;
      • violation of the breathing process;
      • problems with swallowing food;
      • periods of loss of consciousness;
      • development of vaginal bleeding, which has nothing to do with menstruation;
      • spread of pain to the scrotum;
      • feces shade change;
      • fever and severe chills;
      • pallor of the skin;
      • absence of urine emission for ten or more hours;
      • intense thirst.

      In cases of expressing one or more of these symptoms, especially in a child or during pregnancy, an ambulance should be called as soon as possible.


      It is not possible to find out the reason why a person has stomach cramps without laboratory studies and instrumental studies. However, before prescribing them, the gastroenterologist must independently perform a number of manipulations, namely:

      • to study the medical history, because very often spasm and pain are expressed against the background of chronic gastrointestinal ailments;
      • to get acquainted with the patient’s life history – to determine the nature of the diet and lifestyle;
      • conduct a physical examination aimed at palpating the anterior abdominal wall, which will not only indicate the severity of the main symptom, but also enable the clinician to identify an enlarged spleen;
      • to interview the patient in detail – to draw up a complete clinical picture.

      Laboratory diagnostic measures include the following:

      • general clinical blood test;
      • 90,015 general urine analysis;

      • blood biochemistry;
      • breath test to detect the presence of pathogenic bacteria;
      • microscopic studies of feces.

      However, the basis of diagnosis is made up of the following instrumental procedures:

      • radiography both with and without a contrast agent;
      • Ultrasound of the peritoneum and EGD;
      • gastroscopy;
      • duodenal sounding;
      • ultrasound of the kidneys;
      • CT and MRI.

      Sometimes you may need additional consultations of a nephrologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, pediatrician and obstetrician-gynecologist.


      There are currently such methods as to treat painful cramps in the stomach:

      • taking medications;
      • diet therapy;
      • physiotherapy procedures;
      • acupuncture;
      • 90,015 the use of folk remedies;

      • surgical operations.

      Diet for stomach cramps

      Drug therapy includes:

      • antacids and enzyme substances;
      • antibiotics and anti-inflammatories;
      • antispasmodics and antimicrobials;
      • probiotics and vitamin complexes.

      If the stomach is cramping with pain, then it is necessary to stop using:

      • fatty and spicy dishes;
      • 90,015 bakery products;

        90,015 onions and garlic, sorrel and spinach, radishes and radishes, as well as cabbage;

        90,015 smoked meats and spices;

        90,015 animal fats;

        90,015 hot sauces and mayonnaise;

      • strong tea and coffee;
      • confectionery products;
      • alcohol;
      • excessively cold or very hot foods.

      Good results can be achieved with the help of traditional medicine recipes, which should only be used after consultation with the attending physician. Such treatment involves the preparation of decoctions and infusions based on:

      • nettles and chamomile;
      • meadowsweet and St. John’s wort;
      • 90,015 yarrow and rose hips;

        90,015 valerian and mint;

        90,015 calendula and lemon balm;

      • buckthorn and plantain;
      • dill and ginger.

      Operations are necessary only when conservative methods of treatment are ineffective, as well as when benign or malignant neoplasms are detected during the diagnosis.

      In cases of the development of spasms against the background of kidney pathologies, diabetes mellitus or gynecological diseases, as well as during pregnancy, therapy will be individualized.

      Prevention and prognosis

      To avoid the appearance of stomach cramps, follow these simple recommendations:

      • completely abandon addictions;
      • to avoid stress and physical overstrain as much as possible;
      • eat properly and regularly;
      • to prevent hypothermia;
      • Take medication only as prescribed by the clinician.

      In addition, do not forget that it is necessary to undergo a full preventive medical examination several times a year.

      By themselves, stomach cramps are not a threat to human life, but ignoring such a symptom can lead to the development of complications of the underlying pathology.

      Source: https://SimptoMer.ru/simptom/spazmy-zheludka

      90,000 Muscle Spasms: Overwork or Sodium Deficiency?

      Translation – Julia Nesterova.

      Both amateurs and professional athletes have a chance to encounter a phenomenon such as muscle spasms during training. So, according to statistics, almost 80% of people in the world have experienced a spasm of the calf muscles. It used to be thought that the cause of skeletal muscle spasms is excessive fatigue, overwork of muscle fibers. However, studies in the field of electrolyte balance have shown that the body responds in a similar way to a deficiency of certain ions that play a key role in maintaining water-salt balance.

      Today it is believed that, depending on the characteristics of the body of a particular athlete and the training conditions, both of these types of muscle spasms can develop: caused by overfatigue of muscle fibers and spasms against the background of a deficiency of electrolyte ions. And if spasms of tired muscles are successfully eliminated by stretching, massage or cooling, then electrolyte spasms require completely different solutions. A similar situation exists with the prevention of muscle cramps – for both types of them, different exercises are required.

      First, you need to decide on the terminology and area of ​​study.

      Spasm is an involuntary tonic contraction of smooth or skeletal muscles, accompanied by severe pain. Most often, the term “spasm” is recognized as a synonym for the word “spasm”. However, it is believed that a spasm differs from a seizure in that it lasts longer. Other specialists also adhere to the point of view that, when speaking of muscle spasms, one should bear in mind only tonic cramps, in which there is a slow muscle contraction for a certain period of time.Separately, clonic cramps should be distinguished, which are not muscle spasms and which are characterized by a rapid change in states of relaxation and contraction, which is expressed in involuntary twitching and a constant change in muscle tone. In this article, we will only talk about tonic spasms (convulsions).

      Muscle spasms: the theory of overwork

      Controlling the position of the body in space and controlling the work of muscles are carried out using a variety of proprioceptors – sensory receptors.In particular, each striated muscle is equipped with special receptors – muscle spindles. They are located inside the muscle parallel to the normal (extrafusal) muscle fibers. Each muscle spindle is made up of different types of intrafusal muscle fibers. It is approached by blood vessels and nerve fibers: one type Ia afferent fiber and one or more type II afferent fibers, collectively representing the afferent innervation system: from the periphery of the body to the central nervous system (CNS).The system of efferent innervation (from the central nervous system to the periphery) of the muscle spindle is made up of gamma motor neurons. The purpose of the muscle spindle is to inform the central nervous system of the mismatch between the stretching of extrafusal and intrafusal muscle fibers, which allows you to control muscle contraction.

      Human tendons from excessive stretching are protected by other proprioceptors – the Golgi tendon organs. Most of them are located at the junction of tendons with muscles. The Golgi tendon organs are located sequentially in relation to the muscle and are innervated by afferent neurons Ib.Some of them are associated with muscle spindles and work in conjunction with them.

      The Golgi tendon organs respond poorly to passive muscle stretching. They are mainly focused on controlling tendon stretching while actively contracting skeletal muscles. This changes the position of the collagen fibers attached to the muscle fiber. This leads to deformation of the nerve endings located in the Golgi organ, and, accordingly, to a change in the conductivity on their membranes – that is, to the formation of a generator potential.The amplitude of the potential depends on the initial state of stretching and on the frequency of stimulation of the fiber.

      The generator potential propagates along the nerve fiber and initiates an action potential (presumably in the area of ​​Ranvier’s interception), with the help of which the inhibitory neurons of the spinal cord are excited. These neurons, directly or indirectly, form synapses with several types of motor neurons, which allows you to turn off muscle contraction at the right time and avoid overstretching.Thus, the change in muscle length is controlled with the help of muscle spindles, and the level of their tension is controlled with the help of the Golgi tendon organs.

      With intense physical activity, accumulating fatigue, improper posture, shortened muscles, the work of proprioceptors can be disrupted, which leads to the development of muscle spasms. According to one of the hypotheses, as a result of intense physical exertion, the afferent activity of the muscle spindle significantly increases.This leads to a limitation of the inhibition processes triggered by the Golgi tendon organs. As a result, the control system for alpha motoneurons, which innervate the muscle fibers of the skeletal muscles, is disrupted. That is, the mechanism designed to inhibit the processes of muscle contraction in response to physical overstrain ceases to work.

      Protection of muscles against fatigue

      As noted above, muscle spasms caused by fatigue are relieved by massage, passive stretching, active contraction of antagonistic muscles, or cooling of the muscles that are cramped.An effective measure of recovery is to reduce overall exercise intensity and stress on problem muscles.

      Preventive measures are to reduce the intensity and duration of the competition. Additional exercises should also be included in the training process to improve muscle blood supply and elasticity – progressive fitness techniques and stretching exercises.

      Other measures to prevent muscle cramps include adjusting training equipment (such as a bicycle seat), choosing your shoes carefully, and using relaxation techniques.

      Muscle spasms: the theory of sodium deficiency

      The reason for the so-called heat cramps that occur during prolonged intense physical exertion is the active sweating of an athlete. Together with sweat, the body loses sodium chloride. It should be noted that sodium is the main extracellular electrolyte. More than 60% of all sodium in the body is involved in metabolic processes. Of this amount, 70% of sodium salts are found in the extracellular fluid, and 30% in cells.At the same time, the concentration of sodium ions in the extracellular fluid is 10 times higher than their content inside the cells.

      The body of a healthy person is sufficiently adapted to prolonged and heavy loads. Even after 3-4 hours of continuous physical activity, the concentration of sodium ions in sweat remains quite high, although the deficiency of sodium and water throughout the body gradually increases. The body’s resistance to stress is explained by the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the work of the sweat glands.

      However, with prolonged loads during competitions, long-distance races, matches or hours of training, when the loss of sodium ions with sweat begins to exceed the intake of salt from the outside, a deficiency of exchangeable sodium develops. When its level falls by 20-30%, severe muscle cramps develop. The tendency to seizures is determined by the rate of sweating, the concentration of sodium ions in sweat, which ranges from 20-80 mmol / l, as well as the athlete’s nutrition during exercise.

      Together with sweat, the body also loses other ions involved in maintaining electrolyte balance. At one time it was believed that some of them – calcium, potassium, magnesium – and are the cause of muscle cramps during or immediately after intense physical activity. However, recent studies undeniably indicate sodium ion deficiency as the main factor in the development of electrolyte seizures.

      With the active release of sweat, water from the intercellular (interstitial) space moves into the blood vessels (intravascular space).With prolonged exertion, the volume of intercellular fluid decreases – and this continues for some time after the end of the workout, since the perspiration continues until the body temperature drops to the pre-workout level.

      The increased concentration of sodium ions in the sweat of an athlete is associated with a delay in the flow of water from the extracellular space into the plasma. The more a person sweats, the more difficult it is for the body to compensate for the loss of moisture. Athletes with low sweating but high sodium concentration in their sweat develop heat cramps due to sodium deficiency only with prolonged physical exertion.In athletes with the same sodium concentration in sweat, but with increased sweating, the decrease in plasma volume occurs faster, which means that seizures develop in a shorter time. These athletes are called “salty sweaters” and are at risk of developing muscle cramps.

      The mechanism for the development of seizures is based on a change in the concentration of individual ions and molecules, which leads to hyperexcitability of some neuromuscular synapses, for example, in the quadriceps or in the hamstring muscles.With a decrease in the water content in the extracellular space, the concentration of such components as acetylcholine and electrolyte ions increases, which can provoke the formation of a nerve impulse.

      Studies have shown that submaximal and maximal exercise increases the concentration of extracellular potassium to the level of stimulation of some nerve endings. Similarly, an increase in sodium concentration increases the likelihood of action potential formation by lowering the depolarization threshold.Thus, alpha-motor neurons are activated and, as a result, muscle spasm develops. And the more water moves from the extracellular space to the intravascular space, the higher the risk of potential formation on nerve endings and postsynaptic membranes. As a result, “jumping” spasms spreading through the tissues will be observed, affecting different groups of muscle fibers and ligaments. In this, electrolyte cramps differ from muscle spasms caused by fatigue – the latter are always clearly localized.

      With increasing physical exertion, heat cramps begin with small muscle contractions that may go unnoticed by the athlete. However, these subtle muscle spasms are a sign that in 20-30 minutes they will be replaced by severe and debilitating muscle cramps. Most often, fasciculations (involuntary contractions of individual bundles of muscle fibers) appear in the legs. This is due to the increased outflow of extracellular fluid in the most active muscle groups.

      A number of researchers are guided in their observations only by the concentration of electrolyte ions in the blood serum. It is argued that muscle spasms are not associated with sodium deficiency in the body. But, as follows from the above, one cannot talk about the concentration of exchangeable sodium, based only on its content in the blood of an athlete. At a minimum, the concentration of sodium in his sweat should be measured to assess the loss of electrolyte ions and compared with compensatory sodium intake.

      Protection of muscles against heat (electrolyte) cramps

      Since the body loses water when sweating is excreted, it is logical, first of all, to deal with its replenishment – rehydration. But with rehydration, the fluid first enters the blood plasma. If an athlete drinks ordinary water or water with a low salt content, then the clearance of osmotically free water increases – the rate of excretion of diluted (hypotonic, that is, containing few ions) urine by the kidneys.The volume of extracellular fluid remains insufficient, despite the fact that the athlete has quenched his thirst and no longer wants to drink. Moreover, there is an increase in urine production, which is deceptively perceived as successful rehydration of the body and restoration of metabolic processes, although in fact the athlete’s body is still experiencing a lack of fluid.

      This means that at the first signs of muscle cramps or with prolonged and even low-intensity exertion, the athlete should receive a liquid with a high salt content: 3.0 g of salt in 0.5 l of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink is thoroughly mixed and consumed immediately or within 5-10 minutes.

      Massaging and ice on the area of ​​the spasmodic muscle helps to relax it and reduce discomfort while waiting for the saline solution to take effect. It usually takes a few minutes to change the plasma sodium concentration.

      Practice shows that after drinking such a highly salted fluid, athletes can quickly return to training and exercise effectively for another hour – provided that with longer training they receive additional fluid with a lower salt content.

      The efficient and quick recovery with the saline solution confirms the electrolyte theory of muscle cramps: if overworked, continuation of the training process would be impossible. Research also shows that potassium, calcium, or magnesium supplements do not provide relief from heat cramps.

      After exercise, the deficiency of water and electrolytes in the body must be completely eliminated. Athletes with excessive sweating can lose more than 2.5 liters of fluid per hour and, accordingly, up to 2500 mg of Na +.When training several times a day or during tournaments with short breaks between competitions, the usual diet does not avoid water and electrolyte deficiencies, especially if the athlete is forced to adhere to a low-salt diet. These athletes should drink saline prophylactically at regular intervals. If NaCl tablets are used instead of salt, then at a dosage of 1 g, three tablets should be dissolved in one liter of water.

      It should be added that to prevent electrolyte spasms, you cannot simply drink more water.Rather, on the contrary, you should reduce the amount of water consumed without salt or with a low electrolyte content. And the need for use and the amount of saline solution is determined individually. And the best way to do this is based on the athlete’s sweat sodium concentration. This is the only way to achieve the most complete, effective and timely dehydration of the body.


      So, in order to choose the right measures to restore muscle performance in case of muscle spasms, it is necessary to determine what kind of cramps are in question.

      Localized cramps, persistent, asymmetrical, relieved with massage and stretching, are most likely caused by muscle fatigue and fatigue.

      If the convulsions developed gradually, over a long period, starting with microconvulsions of various muscles, then we are talking about thermal (electrolyte) spasms. This is also confirmed by profuse sweating or traces of salt on the athlete’s clothing, as well as other signs of dehydration.

      It is important to remember that an athlete can experience both types of seizures at the same time.In this case, it is necessary to use therapies for both fatigue cramps and heat cramps.

      Source: https://journals.lww.com/

      90,000 Painful muscle spasm, spasticity. Algorithm for Diagnostics and Therapy | Vein A.M., Vorobieva O.V.

      MMA named after I.M. Sechenov

      Indications for the use of muscle relaxants are:

      1. Painful muscle spasm associated with pathology of the spine and the actual muscles.

      1. Painful muscle spasm associated with pathology of the spine and the actual muscles.

      2. Muscle spasticity is a symptom that accompanies movement disorders in many neurological diseases.

      Painful muscle spasm

      Definition . Painful muscle spasm (PMS) is a tonic muscle tension that occurs in response to pain irritation. Each local pain stimulus causes a spinal sensorimotor reflex in the corresponding segment of the spinal cord, accompanied by the activation of motor neurons, which, in turn, leads to a spasm of the muscles innervated by these neurons.The physiological justification for muscle tension that follows any pain is to immobilize the affected area of ​​the body, create a muscle corset. However, the muscle spasm itself leads to increased stimulation of muscle pain receptors. A vicious circle arises according to the self-reproduction mechanism: pain – muscle spasm – increased pain – painful muscle spasm. Presumably, trigger points are formed in the muscle, containing multiple sensitization loci, consisting of one or more sensitized nerve endings.The doctor most often deals with BMS for back pain in the framework of degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the spine (reflex muscular-tonic syndromes) or myofascial syndromes. Myofascial pain syndromes, as a rule, are not associated with pathology of the spine, but are a manifestation of primary dysfunction of myofascial tissues, but can develop against the background of reflex muscular-tonic vertebrogenic syndromes, complicating their course (Fig. 1).

      Fig.1. Painful muscle spasm (algorithm for diagnosis and therapy)

      Diagnostics . Reflex muscle-tonic syndrome is characterized by local pain within the spasmodic muscle, which is provoked by movement involving the corresponding muscle. On palpation, the muscle is tense, painful with local hypertonia. Stretch symptoms may be positive.

      The myofascial pattern of pain is characterized by regional pain that is sufficiently distant (“reflected”) from the spasmodic muscle.The spasmodic muscle itself, sharply painful on palpation, contains zones of even greater painful muscle compaction, where trigger points are localized. When you click on the active trigger point, a sharp soreness appears at the point itself and at a distance – in the reflected zone.

      BMS is a nonspecific link in the formation of back pain, therefore, before proceeding with its correction, it is necessary to exclude a serious pathology, which can be clinically manifested only by pain and muscle spasm.It is necessary to be wary of primary and metastatic tumors of the spine, spinal cord, internal organs, reflected pain in diseases of internal organs, vertebral fractures, infectious diseases. The algorithm for diagnostics and therapy is shown in Figure 1.

      Treatment . The main task in the treatment of patients with acute pain is to reduce its intensity. With dorsalgia, symptomatic treatment is still most often used for this purpose – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physiotherapy.

      At the same time there are theoretical prerequisites and practical evidence of the success of the complex treatment of dorsalgia with the inclusion of muscle relaxants in therapy . The addition of muscle relaxants to NSAIDs and physiotherapy helps to reduce the duration of treatment and reduces the risk of side effects of NSAIDs by reducing the dosage of the latter in combination therapy . Recently, the range of application of Mydocalm has significantly expanded due to its successful use in BMS therapy.The breadth of the etiological spectrum of clinical models of dorsalgias (osteochondrosis, spondyloarthrosis, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis), in which Mydocalm was used, demonstrates that its purpose is pathogenetically justified in the presence of BMS of various origins. The presence of the injection form of the drug allows in the acute period to use the intramuscular route of administration, and in subsequent periods – tablet forms. Despite the significant differences in the doses used, the optimal dose is considered to be 450 mg of Mydocalm per day in three divided doses.The duration of treatment varies from 10 to 28 days (average 21 days). Mydocalm is well tolerated. Contraindications to its use are not specific and include only individual hypersensitivity to tolperisone (for the injection form – also to lidocaine).


      Definition . Spasticity (a special, persistent pathological increase in muscle tone) is one of the components of pyramidal (central) paresis, which, according to the modern classification, is designated as upper motor neuron syndrome (SVM).WMS includes muscle weakness, loss of dexterity, increased muscle tone, muscle spasms, and increased tendon reflexes. Upper motor neuron syndrome is one of the most common neurological syndromes, chronically occurring. The most common causes of WMS are cerebral stroke, craniocerebral and spinal injuries, perinatal encephalopathy (infantile cerebral palsy) and multiple sclerosis . Once it has arisen, WMS leads to a patient’s disability expressed in varying degrees and most often persists throughout his life.

      Diagnostics . Spasticity is revealed in the study of passive movements in the limb, as increased resistance (contraction) of the muscle in response to its rapid stretching. The predominant increase in tone is observed in the antigravity muscles: the flexors of the arm (adduction of the shoulder, flexion at the elbow and wrist joints) and extensors of the leg (adduction of the hip, extension at the knee joint, and plantar flexion at the ankle joint).After detecting spasticity in a patient, it is necessary to determine the degree of its severity and, accordingly, the contribution to the violation of motor functions. Some degree of spasticity, especially in the leg, can be useful for the patient, as it enables him to use the leg as a support when walking. However, pronounced spasticity levels the remaining muscle strength, contributes to the development of contracture and deformation of the limb, the appearance of painful flexor spasms.

      Treatment .Of all the manifestations of chronic WMS, spasticity, muscle spasms, and, to a much lesser extent, the strength and dexterity of voluntary movements are best corrected. The effectiveness of treatment is largely determined by the timing of the disease and the degree of paresis. Early antispastic therapy prevents the development of many problems, including the development of contractures, which may arise if spasticity persists. Conducting antispastic therapy must be combined with physiotherapy and remedial gymnastics, since these methods do not replace one another.At the same time, antispastic therapy facilitates therapeutic exercises and enhances the overall rehabilitation effect. As a rule, antispastic treatment should be continued for years. The algorithm for diagnosing and treating spasticity is shown in Figure 2.

      Fig. 2. Spasticity (algorithm for diagnosis and therapy)

      Spasticity is due to a combination of various pathophysiological disorders, therefore, antispastic drugs should not be extremely selective.Most muscle relaxants actively used in clinical practice mainly inhibit polysynaptic and, to a lesser extent, monosynaptic reflexes in the spinal cord. The representative of muscle relaxants is tolperisone (Midocalm) . The mechanism of action of Mydocalm is multifaceted. Its muscle relaxant effect is achieved by suppressing the activity of the caudal part of the reticular formation of the trunk and inhibition of mono- and polysynaptic reflexes in the spinal cord.The efficacy and safety of Mydocalm have been proven by long-term successful use in clinical practice.

      When using Mydocalm in the therapeutic range from 150 to 450 mg per day, a decrease in spasticity is achieved on average after a month and lasts for several years.


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      90,000 Pain in the lower abdomen in women: possible causes, diagnosis, treatment

      Most women have experienced pain in the lower abdomen, and there are several reasons for this discomfort.

      – Ovulation – in the middle of the cycle, a number of women experience pain, usually it passes quickly and is well stopped by antispasmodics. True, in the event that a woman suffers from apoplexy (increased volume of fluid in the abdomen), the pain will be much longer and the pain reliever will not help.

      – Appendicitis – if the pain during ovulation is well known to women, then the sensations from inflamed appendicitis will be strong and unknown, they will be localized on the right side, during the day they will intensify, then almost completely disappear.In this case, you should immediately consult a doctor.

      – Spasm of the intestine – usually accompanied by changes in the stool. Most likely, the cause of the spasm of the intestine is overeating the day before or eating a lot of junk food, such as chips.

      – Ectopic pregnancy – usually this, in addition to pain in the lower abdomen, is indicated by a delay in menstruation. In this case, a pregnancy test may show a negative result. In order to exclude this dangerous diagnosis, it is necessary to contact a gynecologist and take a blood test for hCG.

      – Inflammatory processes of the uterine appendages – inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs can be triggered by hypothermia or infections. If the causes of lower abdominal pain are precisely in this, then it is extremely important to consult a doctor in time, since inflammation of the appendages can cause infertility.

      – Cystitis – in this case, you will feel very peculiar cutting pains in the very lower abdomen, they will be felt especially well during urination.

      – Menstruation – usually on the first day of menstruation or a few days before their onset, almost all women feel a pulling, dull pain in the lower abdomen, most often it is well eliminated by taking analgesics. Painful sensations during this period are considered normal.

      – Oncological diseases – in the event that pain is difficult to characterize and accurately determine its localization, then perhaps things are much worse than you think and you urgently need the help of doctors.

      – Uterine fibroids – benign neoplasms can also cause inconvenience and painful sensations, and a woman will also observe extremely heavy menstruation.

      A woman should be attentive to her health, especially her reproductive health, therefore, pain in the lower abdomen should alert her.

      90,000 Muscle cramps – treatment, symptoms, causes, diagnosis

      • Muscle cramps are involuntary and intense muscle contractions without a period of relaxation.
      • Nearly everyone has had a seizure episode at least once in their life.
      • There are different types of seizures and different causes.
      • Many different medications can cause muscle cramps.
      • In most cases, muscle cramps can be stopped by relaxing (stretching) the muscle.
      • Muscle cramps can often be prevented by measures such as a nutritious diet with enough micronutrients and adequate fluid intake.

      Muscle cramps is an involuntary and violent contraction of a muscle, without a period of relaxation.When muscles that can be manipulated at will, such as the muscles of the arms or legs, are used, they alternately contract and relax as certain movements are performed in the limbs. The muscles that support the head, neck, and torso work in sync and maintain body position. A muscle (or even a few muscle fibers) can spasm involuntarily. If the spasm is strong and persistent, then this leads to the appearance of seizures. Muscle cramps are often visualized or palpated in the area of ​​the muscle concerned.

      Muscle cramps can last from a few seconds to a quarter of an hour, and sometimes longer. It is also not uncommon for seizures to recur until the muscle relaxes. Convulsive contractions can involve part of a muscle, an entire muscle, or several muscles, which usually contract at the same time when performing movements, for example, when bending several fingers of the hand. In some cases, cramps can occur simultaneously in the antagonist muscles responsible for movement in opposite directions.Muscle cramps are common. Almost all people (according to some studies, about 95% of people) have experienced seizures at some point in their lives. Muscle cramps are common in adults and become more common as we age, but nevertheless, cramps can occur in children as well. Any muscle (skeletal) in which voluntary movements are performed may have seizures. Cramps in the limbs, legs and feet, and especially the calf muscle, are very common.

      Types and causes of muscle cramps

      Skeletal muscle cramps can be divided into four main types.These include “true” seizures, tetanic seizures, contractures, and dystonic seizures. Seizures are classified according to the cause of the seizures and the muscle groups they affect.

      Types of muscle cramps

      True convulsions . True cramps involve part or all of a muscle or a group of muscles that normally function together, such as the muscles involved in flexing several adjacent fingers. Most researchers agree that true seizures are caused by increased excitability of nerves that stimulate muscle contraction.They are overwhelmingly the most common type of skeletal muscle cramps. True seizures can occur in a variety of circumstances.

      Injuries : Persistent muscle spasms can occur as a defense mechanism after injury, such as a broken bone. In this case, the spasm usually minimizes movement and stabilizes the area of ​​injury. Injury to the muscle alone can also lead to muscle spasm.

      Active activity: true cramps, as a rule, are associated with active muscle load and muscle fatigue (during sports or during unusual activities).Such convulsions can occur both during activity and after, sometimes many hours later. In addition, muscle fatigue from sitting or lying for long periods of time in awkward positions or any repetitive movements can also cause seizures. Older adults are more at risk for seizures when performing vigorous or strenuous physical activity.

      Resting seizures : Resting seizures are very common, especially in the elderly, but can occur at any age, including childhood.Resting seizures often occur at night. Nocturnal cramps, although not life threatening, can be painful, disturb sleep, and recur frequently (that is, many times a night, and / or many nights a week). The actual cause of nocturnal seizures is unknown. Sometimes these seizures are triggered by a movement that contracts the muscles. An example would be stretching the foot in bed, which shortens the calf muscle, where cramps are most common.

      Dehydration : Sports and other vigorous physical activity can lead to excessive fluid loss through sweat.With this type of dehydration, the likelihood of true seizures increases. These cramps are most common in warm weather and can be an early sign of heatstroke. Chronic dehydration from diuretics and poor fluid intake can likewise lead to seizures, especially in the elderly. Seizures can also be associated with sodium deficiency.

      Redistribution of body fluids: True seizures can also occur in conditions where there is an unusual distribution of body fluids.An example is cirrhosis of the liver, in which fluid accumulates in the abdominal cavity (ascites). Similarly, seizures are a relatively common complication of the rapid changes in body fluids that occur during dialysis in renal failure.

      Low blood electrolyte levels (calcium, magnesium): Low blood levels of calcium or magnesium directly increase the excitability of the nerve endings that innervate the muscles. This may be a predisposing factor for the spontaneous true seizures experienced by many older adults, and such seizures are also common in pregnant women.Low levels of calcium and magnesium are common in pregnant women, especially if these minerals are not supplied in sufficient quantities from the diet. Seizures occur in any setting that reduces the availability of calcium or magnesium in body fluids, such as after taking diuretics, hyperventilation, excessive vomiting, lack of calcium and / or magnesium in the diet, insufficient absorption of calcium due to vitamin D deficiency, and decreased parathyroid function.

      Low potassium: Low potassium levels in the blood sometimes cause muscle cramps, although muscle weakness is more common in hypokalemia.


      During tetany, all nerve cells in the body are activated, which then stimulate muscle contraction. In this type, convulsive contractions occur throughout the body. The name tetany comes from seizures that occur when tetanus toxin is exposed to nerves. However, this name for this type of seizure is now widely used to refer to muscle cramps in other conditions, such as low blood levels of calcium and magnesium.Low levels of calcium and magnesium increase the activity of the nervous tissue in a non-specific manner, which can lead to tetanic seizures. Often, these seizures are accompanied by signs of hyperactivity of other nerve functions in addition to muscle hyperstimulation. For example, low blood calcium not only causes muscle spasms in the hands and wrists, but it can also cause numbness and tingling sensations around the mouth and other areas of the body.

      Sometimes, tetanic convulsions are indistinguishable from true convulsions.Additional changes in sensation or other nerve function may not be noticeable, as seizure pain may mask other symptoms


      Contractures occur when the muscles cannot relax for an even longer period than with the main types of muscle cramps. Constant spasms are caused by depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the energy intracellular substrate of the cell. This prevents the relaxation of the muscle fibers. The nerves are inactive with this type of muscle cramps.

      Contracture may result from genetic inheritance (eg McArdle disease, which is a defect in the breakdown of glycogen to sugar in muscle cells) or from acquired conditions (eg, hyperthyroid myopathy, which is a muscle disorder associated with an overactive thyroid gland). Contracture-type seizures are rare.

      Dystonic convulsions

      The last category of seizures is dystonic seizures, in which muscles that are not involved in the intended movement are affected and contracted.The muscles that are involved in this type of seizure include antagonist muscles, which usually work in the opposite direction of the intended movement, and / or others that increase the movement. Some dystonic seizures usually involve small muscle groups (eyelids, cheeks, neck, larynx, etc.). The arms and hands can be touched during repetitive movements such as writing (writer’s cramp), playing a musical instrument. These activities can also lead to true cramps due to muscle fatigue.Dystonic seizures are not as common as true seizures.

      Other types of seizures

      Some seizures are caused by a number of nerve and muscle disorders. For example, these are diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease), accompanied by muscle weakness and atrophy; radiculopathy in degenerative diseases of the spine (hernia, disc protrusion, osteophytes), when the compression of the root is accompanied by pain, impaired sensitivity and sometimes convulsions.Also, convulsions can be with damage to peripheral nerves, for example, diabetic neuropathy.

      Crumpy . This type of seizure, as a rule, describes cramps in the gastrocnemius muscle, and associate their appearance with muscle overstrain and the presence of degenerative changes in the spine (osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, lumboishalgia). In addition, cramps are possible with violations of the vascular circulation in the lower extremities (with obliterating endarteritis or post-thrombophlebitic syndrome).Also, the cause of crampi can be various biochemical disorders in the triceps muscle of the lower leg.

      Many medicines can cause seizures. Potent diuretics such as furosemide or vigorous removal of fluid from the body, even with less potent diuretics, can induce seizures as dehydration and sodium loss occur. At the same time, diuretics often cause loss of potassium, calcium and magnesium, which can also cause seizures.

      Medicines such as donepezil (Aricept), which are used to treat Alzheimer’s disease) and neostigmine (prostigmine), used to treat myasthenia gravis, asraloxifene (Evista), used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, can cause seizures.Tolcapone (Tasmar), which is used to treat Parkinson’s disease, has been shown to cause muscle cramps in at least 10% of patients. True seizures have been reported with nifedipine and the drugs Terbutaline (Brethine) and albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin). Some medications used to lower cholesterol, such as lovastatin (Mevacor), can also lead to seizures.

      Convulsions are sometimes noted in addicts when they stop taking sedatives.

      Lack of certain vitamins can also directly or indirectly lead to muscle cramps. These include the disadvantages of thiamine (B1), pantothenic acid (B5) and pyridoxine (B6). The exact role of a deficiency in these vitamins in seizures is unknown.

      Poor circulation in the legs results in a lack of oxygen in the muscle tissue and can cause severe muscle pain (intermittent claudication) that occurs when walking. It usually occurs in the calf muscles. But the pain in vascular disorders in such cases is not due to the actual muscle spasm.This pain may be more related to the buildup of lactic acid and other chemicals in muscle tissue. Cramps in the calf muscles can also be associated with impaired blood outflow in varicose veins and, as a rule, cramps in the calf muscles occur at night.

      Symptoms and diagnosis of muscle cramps

      It is characteristic that the convulsion is often quite painful. Typically, the patient has to stop activities and urgently take action to relieve seizures; the person is unable to use the muscle that is convulsive during the convulsive episode.Severe seizures can be accompanied by soreness and swelling, which can sometimes persist for up to several days after the seizure has cleared. At the time of the spasm, the affected muscles will bulge, feel hard and painful on palpation.

      Diagnosis of seizures is usually not difficult, but finding out the reasons may require both a thorough collection of medical history and instrumental and laboratory methods of examination.


      Most seizures can be interrupted by stretching the muscle.For many leg and foot cramps, this stretch can often be achieved by standing up and walking. With cramps in the calf muscles, it is possible to flex the ankle with the help of the hand, lying in bed with the leg extended straight. When writing spasm, pressing your hand against the wall with the fingers down will stretch the flexors of the fingers.

      You can also gently massage the muscle to relax the spasmodic muscle. If the cramp is associated with fluid loss, as is often the case with vigorous exercise, rehydration and electrolyte restoration are necessary.

      Muscle relaxants can be used in the short term in certain situations to allow muscles to relax in the event of injury or other conditions (eg radiculopathy). These drugs include Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), Orphenadrine (NORFLEX), and baclofen (Lioresal).

      In recent years, injections of therapeutic doses of botulism toxin (Botox) have been successfully used for certain dystonic muscle disorders that are localized in a limited muscle group.A good response can last several months or more, and the injections can be repeated.

      Treatment of seizures that are associated with specific conditions usually focuses on treating the underlying disorder.

      In cases where seizures are serious, frequent, prolonged, difficult to treat or are not associated with an obvious cause, then in such cases, both additional examination and more intensive treatment are required.

      Prevention of seizures

      In order to prevent the possible occurrence of seizures, you need a good diet with sufficient fluids and electrolytes, especially during intense physical activity or during pregnancy.

      Night cramps and other resting cramps can often be prevented with regular stretching exercises, especially if done before bed.

      Also, a good means of preventing seizures is the intake of magnesium and calcium preparations, but caution is required in their prescription in the presence of renal failure. In the presence of hypovitaminosis, it is necessary to take vitamins of group B, vitamin D, E.

      If the patient is taking diuretics, then it is necessary to take potassium preparations.

      Recently, quinine is the only drug widely used to prevent and sometimes treat seizures. Quinine has been used for many years in the treatment of malaria. The effect of quinine is due to a decrease in muscle excitability. However, quinine has a number of serious side effects that limit its prescription to all patient groups (nausea, vomiting, headaches, heart rhythm disturbances, hearing impairment, etc.).

      90,000 Pain in the region of the heart.Pay attention

      Pain in the area of ​​the heart is one of the most common reasons people seek emergency help. So, every year, several million people seek emergency medical help with this symptom.

      Heart pain is not always heart pain. It is often not associated with heart problems. However, if you are experiencing chest pain and do not know about the state of your cardiovascular system, the problem can be serious and it is worth taking the time to find out the cause of the pain.

      The reasons

      Pain in the region of the heart can be very different. It cannot always be described. The pain can be felt as a slight burning sensation or as a violent blow. Since you cannot always determine the cause of the pain yourself, there is no need to waste time on self-medication, especially if you belong to the so-called “risk group” of heart disease.

      Pain in the area of ​​the heart has many causes, including those requiring close attention.The causes of pain can be divided into 2 large categories – “cardiac” and “non-cardiac”.

      “Heart” reasons

      (Infarction, a blood clot that blocks the movement of blood in the arteries of the heart, can cause pressing, constricting chest pains lasting more than a few minutes. The pain can radiate (radiate) to the back, neck, lower jaw, shoulders and arms (especially the left). Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, cold sweats, and nausea.

      (Angina pectoris Over the years, fatty plaques can form in the arteries of your heart, restricting blood flow to your heart muscle, especially during exercise.It is the restriction of blood flow to the arteries of the heart that causes attacks of chest pain – angina pectoris. Angina is often described by people as a feeling of pressure or constriction in the chest. It usually occurs during exercise or stress. The pain usually lasts about a minute and stops at rest.

      Other cardiac causes. Other causes that can present with chest pain include inflammation of the heart girdle (pericarditis), most often due to a viral infection.Pericarditis pain is most often acute, stabbing. Fever and malaise may also occur. Less commonly, the cause of pain may be a dissection of the aorta, the main artery in your body. The inner layer of this artery can be detached under the pressure of the blood and the result is sharp, sudden and severe chest pain. Aortic dissection can result from chest trauma or a complication of uncontrolled hypertension.

      “Non-heart” reasons

      Heartburn.Acidic stomach acid from the stomach into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) can cause heartburn, an excruciating burning sensation in the chest. It is often combined with a sour taste and belching. Chest pain with heartburn is usually food-related and can last for hours. This symptom most often occurs when bending or lying down. Eases heartburn by taking antacids.

      Panic attacks. If you are experiencing bouts of unreasonable fear, combined with chest pain, rapid heartbeat, hyperventilation (rapid breathing) and profuse sweating, you may suffer from “panic attacks” – a kind of dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.Pleurisy. Acute, limited chest pain that worsens with inhalation or coughing may be a sign of pleurisy. The pain is caused by inflammation of the membrane that lines the inside of the chest cavity and covers the lungs. Pleurisy can occur with various diseases, but most often – with pneumonia.

      Tietze’s syndrome. Under certain conditions, the cartilaginous parts of the ribs, especially the cartilage that attach to the sternum, can become inflamed. The pain in this disease can occur suddenly and be quite intense, mimicking an attack of angina pectoris.However, the location of pain may vary. In Tietze syndrome, pain may worsen when pressing on the sternum or ribs near the sternum. Pain in angina pectoris and myocardial infarction does not depend on this.

      Osteochondrosis of the cervical and thoracic spine leads to the so-called vertebral cardialgia, which resembles angina pectoris. In this condition, there is intense and prolonged pain behind the sternum, in the left half of the chest. Irradiation to the arms, interscapular region may be noted.The pain increases or decreases with changes in body position, head turns, arm movements. The diagnosis can be confirmed with an MRI scan of the spine.

      Pulmonary embolism. This type of embolism develops when a blood clot enters the pulmonary artery, blocking blood flow to the heart. Symptoms of this life-threatening condition may include sudden, sharp chest pain that occurs or worsens with deep breathing or coughing. Other symptoms are shortness of breath, palpitations, anxiety, loss of consciousness.

      Other lung diseases. Pneumothorax (collapsed lung), high pressure in the vessels supplying the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), and severe bronchial asthma can also present with chest pain. Muscle diseases. Pain caused by muscle diseases, as a rule, begins to bother when turning the body or raising the arms. Chronic pain syndrome such as fibromyalgia. May cause persistent chest pain.

      Rib injury and nerve entrapment.Bruises and fractures of the ribs, as well as entrapment of the nerve roots, can cause pain, sometimes very severe. With intercostal neuralgia, pain is localized along the intercostal spaces and increases with palpation.

      Diseases of the esophagus. Some diseases of the esophagus can cause swallowing problems and therefore chest discomfort. Esophageal spasm can cause chest pain. In patients with this disorder, the muscles that normally propel food through the esophagus do not work in a coordinated manner.Because esophageal spasm can resolve after taking nitroglycerin – just like angina – diagnostic errors are common. Another swallowing disorder known as achalasia can also cause chest pain. In this case, the valve in the lower third of the esophagus does not open properly and does not allow food to enter the stomach. It stays in the esophagus, causing discomfort, pain, and heartburn.

      Shingles. This infection, caused by the herpes virus and affecting the nerve endings, can cause severe chest pain.Pain can be localized in the left side of the chest or be shingles in nature. This disease can leave behind a complication – postherpetic neuralgia – the cause of prolonged pain and increased skin sensitivity.

      Diseases of the gallbladder and pancreas. Gallstones or inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) and pancreas (pancreatitis) can cause pain in the upper abdomen that radiates to the heart. Since chest pain can result from many different causes, do not self-diagnose or self-medicate or ignore severe and prolonged pain.The cause of your pain may not be so serious – but in order to establish it, you need to contact a specialist.

      When should you see a doctor?

      If you experience acute, unexplained, and prolonged chest pain, possibly in combination with other symptoms (such as shortness of breath) or pain that radiates to one or both arms. Under the scapula, an urgent need to see a doctor. Perhaps it will save your life or calm you down if no serious health problems are found.


      Pain in the region of the heart does not always signal heart disease. Methods that can help determine the cause of pain include: (Electrocardiography (ECG)) This method helps the doctor diagnose heart disease. It records the electrical activity of the heart through electrodes placed on the skin. Cardiac impulses are recorded as “teeth”. Since the damaged heart muscle cannot conduct electrical impulses normally, the ECG may indicate that the patient has heart disease.

      Blood tests. Your doctor may order tests to check for elevated levels of certain enzymes. Damage to heart cells in myocardial infarction leads to the release of these enzymes and their entry into the bloodstream. Myocardial scintigraphy. This method helps doctors determine the “heart cause” of pain, for example. Narrowing of the coronary arteries. A small amount of a radioactive substance (such as thallium) is injected into the bloodstream. Special cameras capture the radioactive material and track its passage through the heart and lungs.

      (Angiography) This test helps you see the arteries of the heart and the obstructions in them. Liquid contrast medium is injected into the arteries of the heart through a special catheter – a long, hollow tube that is passed to the heart through an artery (usually the femoral artery). With the help of X-rays, the arteries become visible. (Echocardiography (ECHO KG)) This method uses ultrasound waves to produce an image of a beating heart.

      Electron beam tomography (CRT).This unique method allows detecting the early stages of coronary heart disease by detecting microcalcifications in the wall of the coronary arteries, even before the onset of symptoms.

      Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine will help determine the cause of chest pain if it is caused by a pinched nerve root or herniated discs.

      * Materials of the site were used www.corallcenter.ru

      90,000 Abdominal pain during pregnancy

      Throughout pregnancy, especially in the first three months, the expectant mother is tormented by various fears.The most important of them is the fear of an unfavorable outcome of pregnancy. Patients often perceive abdominal pain during pregnancy as the first symptom of future troubles. However, it should be understood that this does not always indicate a threat of miscarriage or other problem.

      Causes of abdominal pain during pregnancy

      1. Power supply errors

        It is likely that the discomfort appeared against a background of cramping or bloating.Pain in the lower abdomen during pregnancy can be due to chronic diseases of the digestive system. A heavy dinner, insufficiently cooked or not entirely fresh food put additional strain on the intestines. This can lead to increased gas production and a feeling of heaviness.

        It is worth remembering that pregnancy is an additional burden on the digestive system. The uterus increases in volume and squeezes the intestines, which, even without that, against the background of hormonal changes, does not feel good: motility decreases, peristalsis is disturbed, constipation becomes a frequent occurrence.

        To reduce the risk of constipation, you need to drink plenty of fluids, eat more fiber (vegetables, fruits, whole grain bread), walk more often, eat small meals, and chew food as thoroughly as possible.

        2. Load on the abdominal muscles and ligaments

        During pregnancy, the pressure on the muscles and ligaments in the abdomen also increases. You can feel discomfort with sudden movements, sneezing, change of position. The pain is sharp, but short-term.There is no need to take painkillers: the muscles have a hard time adapting right away, so just be careful.

        Also, abdominal pain in any of the trimesters can occur due to overstrain of the abdominal muscles. These pains occur during physical exertion, overexertion. For the pain to subside, just sit back and relax.

        3. Exacerbation of diseases

        In rare cases, pregnancy may exacerbate diseases such as pancreatitis or intestinal obstruction.Symptoms of appendicitis may also appear. The pain in such conditions is specific: it grows, accompanied by an increase in body temperature and nausea, dizziness. It is possible that the patient may require surgery. Therefore, in no case should you endure pain to the last, but as soon as possible consult a doctor or call an ambulance.

        The Scandinavia clinic has everything you need to carry out surgery of any complexity, including for pregnant women.Skandinavia’s experienced surgeons can perform the operation even at the time of childbirth.

        4. Gynecological problems

        Threat of miscarriage

        Pain during pregnancy can also mean a threat of miscarriage. At the same time, the sensations are not like something else:

        • aching, cramping pain;

        • pain radiating to the lower back;

        • does not subside when taking painkillers;

        • there is discharge from the genitals (from light brown to red)

        • bleeding.

        With such symptoms, it is imperative to consult an obstetrician-gynecologist. The doctor will send the patient to the hospital for examination and preservation of the pregnancy. The clinic “Scandinavia” has a department of pregnancy pathology. The specialists of the department work with special cases and accept pregnant women 24/7 until 22 weeks. In the clinic, a woman undergoes ultrasound monitoring of the fetus, tests for chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), infections, sexually transmitted diseases.All this will help to identify the cause of the acute condition.

        In no case do not rely on “maybe” and the adoption of “no-shpa” on the advice of friends. The course of pregnancy is individual for each woman, and only timely medical assistance determines her successful bearing.

        Ectopic pregnancy

        An ectopic pregnancy develops when a fertilized egg does not descend into the uterine cavity, but gets stuck in the fallopian tube for various reasons.In this case, pregnancy tests give a positive result. However, during an ultrasound scan, the ovum is not observed in the uterus. An ectopic pregnancy is usually terminated at 5-7 weeks. This is accompanied by rupture of the fallopian tube and internal bleeding.


        In this case, the woman needs an urgent operation. You can’t wait: you need to urgently call an ambulance because of the threat to the woman’s life.

        Modern diagnostic standards prescribe the first ultrasound diagnostics for a period of 4-6 weeks.This helps to reduce the risk of tubal rupture due to an ectopic pregnancy and to maintain full fertility.

        If any of the above symptoms have occurred for more than 22 weeks, you should also see a specialist. It is especially important to urgently call an ambulance if you have bleeding, increased pressure, nausea or vomiting.

        The Scandinavia Maternity Hospital has a prenatal ward, where you can always get the necessary treatment and undergo any examinations after 22 weeks of pregnancy.Our maternity hospital is part of a multidisciplinary clinic on Ilyushin Street, where we can attract any specialist and help every pregnant woman.

        Abdominal pain during pregnancy in women always causes panic. But you shouldn’t do that. You need to take a deep breath, and … dial your doctor’s phone number! Your perinatologist will immediately schedule a consultation for you so that you know exactly what is happening to you and what can be done. In the clinic “Scandinavia” we will do our best to preserve your pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby!

        We remind our address:

        Department of pathology of pregnancy

        St. Petersburg, st.Ilyushin, 4, building 1

        Commandant Avenue

        tel: +7 (812) 600-77-77


        around the clock

        Maternity hospital

        St. Petersburg, st. Ilyushin, 4, building 2

        Commandant Avenue