About all

Progesterone medicine: Drug Database | Medical Device Database


Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Kauppila, A., Telimaa, S., Ronnberg, L., and Vuori, J. Placebo-controlled study on serum concentrations of CA-125 before and after treatment of endometriosis with danazol or high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate alone or after surgery. Fertil.Steril. 1988;49(1):37-41. View abstract.

KlopperA, MacNaughtonM. Hormones in recurrent abortion.. Jour-nal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1965;

Kupferminc, M. J., Lessing, J. B., Amit, A., Yovel, I., David, M. P., and Peyser, M. R. A prospective randomized trial of human chorionic gonadotrophin or dydrogesterone support following in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Hum.Reprod. 1990;5(3):271-273. View abstract.

Kushner, S. A. and Guze, B. H. Treatment of psychomotor agitation and self-injurious behavior with estrogen and progesterone in a patient with Sanfilippo syndrome. Gen.Hosp.Psychiatry 2005;27(4):298-300. View abstract.

Lawrie, T. A., Hofmeyr, G. J., De, Jager M., Berk, M., Paiker, J., and Viljoen, E. A double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial of postnatal norethisterone enanthate: the effect on postnatal depression and serum hormones. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1998;105(10):1082-1090. View abstract.

Le Vine L. Habitual abortion. A controlled clinical study of progestational therapy. Western Journal of Surgery 1964;;

Leonetti, H. B., Landes, J., Steinberg, D., and Anasti, J. N. Transdermal progesterone cream as an alternative progestin in hormone therapy. Altern.Ther.Health Med. 2005;11(6):36-38. View abstract.

Lethaby, A. E., Cooke, I., and Rees, M. Progesterone or progestogen-releasing intrauterine systems for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2005;(4):CD002126. View abstract.

Lethaby, A. E., Cooke, I., and Rees, M. Progesterone/progestogen releasing intrauterine systems versus either placebo or any other medication for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD002126. View abstract.

Lethaby, A., Irvine, G., and Cameron, I. Cyclical progestogens for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD001016. View abstract.

Lethaby, A., Irvine, G., and Cameron, I. Cyclical progestogens for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(1):CD001016. View abstract.

Loh SKE, Leong NKY. Luteal phase support in IVF cycles – is intramuscular progesterone the therapy of choice? [abstract]. FertilitySociety of Australia XV Annual Meeting Abstract Book. 1996;Abs #O24.

Low, L. F., Anstey, K. J., Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., and Rodgers, B. Hormone replacement therapy and cognition in an Australian representative sample aged 60-64 years. Maturitas 4-20-2006;54(1):86-94. View abstract.

Ludwig, M., Finas, A., Katalinic, A., Strik, D., Kowalcek, I., Schwartz, P., Felberbaum, R., Kupker, W., Schopper, B., Al-Hasani, S., and Diedrich, K. Prospective, randomized study to evaluate the success rates using hCG, vaginal progesterone or a combination of both for luteal phase support. Acta Obstet.Gynecol.Scand. 2001;80(6):574-582. View abstract.

Lydeking-Olsen, E., Beck-Jensen, J. E., Setchell, K. D., and Holm-Jensen, T. Soymilk or progesterone for prevention of bone loss–a 2 year randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur.J Nutr. 2004;43(4):246-257. View abstract.

Magill, P. J. Investigation of the efficacy of progesterone pessaries in the relief of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. progesterone Study Group. Br.J.Gen.Pract. 1995;45(400):589-593. View abstract.

Manber, R., Kuo, T. F., Cataldo, N., and Colrain, I. M. The effects of hormone replacement therapy on sleep-disordered breathing in postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Sleep 3-15-2003;26(2):163-168. View abstract.

Martinez, F., Coroleu, B., Parera, N., Alvarez, M., Traver, J. M., Boada, M., and Barri, P. N. Human chorionic gonadotropin and intravaginal natural progesterone are equally effective for luteal phase support in IVF. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2000;14(5):316-320. View abstract.

Martorano, J. Case study: The use of the CEEG in treating premenstrual syndrome: An opportunity for treatment innovation. . Integrative Psychiatry, 1991;Vol 7(1), pp. 63-64.

Meakin, C. and Brockington, I. F. Failure of progesterone treatment in puerperal mania. Br.J.Psychiatry 1990;156:910. View abstract.

Meher, S. and Duley, L. Progesterone for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(4):CD006175. View abstract.

Meis, P. J., Klebanoff, M., Thom, E., Dombrowski, M. P., Sibai, B., Moawad, A. H., Spong, C. Y., Hauth, J. C., Miodovnik, M., Varner, M. W., Leveno, K. J., Caritis, S. N., Iams, J. D., Wapner, R. J., Conway, D., O’Sullivan, M. J., Carpenter, M., Mercer, B., Ramin, S. M., Thorp, J. M., Peaceman, A. M., and Gabbe, S. Prevention of recurrent preterm delivery by 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. N.Engl.J.Med. 6-12-2003;348(24):2379-2385. View abstract.

Michener, W., Rozin, P., Freeman, E., and Gale, L. The role of low progesterone and tension as triggers of perimenstrual chocolate and sweets craving: some negative experimental evidence. Physiol Behav. 1999;67(3):417-420. View abstract.

Mizuki, Yasushi, Kajimura, Naofumi, Miyoshi, Akira, and Ushijima, Itsuko. Neuroendocrinological studies on patients with periodic psychosis of adolescence before and after menarche. Integrative Psychiatry 1991;Vol 7(3-4): pp. 241-247.

Moller K, Fuchs F. Double blind controlled trial of 6-methyl-17-acetoxyprogesterone in threatened abortion. Journal of Obstetrics andGynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1965;72:1042-4.

Murray, D. Recurrence of puerperal psychosis not prevented by prophylactic progesterone administration. J.Nerv.Ment.Dis. 1990;178(8):537-538. View abstract.

Nicoletti, A., Arabia, G., Pugliese, P., Nicoletti, G., Torchia, G., Condino, F., Morgante, L., Quattrone, A., and Zappia, M. Hormonal replacement therapy in women with Parkinson disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia: a crossover trial. Clin.Neuropharmacol. 2007;30(5):276-280. View abstract.

Nyboe, Andersen A., Popovic-Todorovic, B., Schmidt, K. T., Loft, A., Lindhard, A., Hojgaard, A., Ziebe, S., Hald, F., Hauge, B., and Toft, B. Progesterone supplementation during early gestations after IVF or ICSI has no effect on the delivery rates: a randomized controlled trial. Hum.Reprod. 2002;17(2):357-361. View abstract.

O’Brien, J. M., Adair, C. D., Lewis, D. F., Hall, D. R., Defranco, E. A., Fusey, S., Soma-Pillay, P., Porter, K., How, H., Schackis, R., Eller, D., Trivedi, Y., Vanburen, G., Khandelwal, M., Trofatter, K., Vidyadhari, D., Vijayaraghavan, J., Weeks, J., Dattel, B., Newton, E., Chazotte, C., Valenzuela, G., Calda, P., Bsharat, M., and Creasy, G. W. Progesterone vaginal gel for the reduction of recurrent preterm birth: primary results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ultrasound Obstet.Gynecol. 2007;30(5):687-696. View abstract.

Overton, C. E., Lindsay, P. C., Johal, B. , Collins, S. A., Siddle, N. C., Shaw, R. W., and Barlow, D. H. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of luteal phase dydrogesterone (Duphaston) in women with minimal to mild endometriosis. Fertil.Steril. 1994;62(4):701-707. View abstract.

Paetz D, Kruskemper G Gillich KH. Psychological test performance in hospitalized climacteric patients during treatment of internal disorders, with special emphasis on the effects of estrogens and progesterone. . Zeitschrift für Gerontologie. 1975;8(5):358-364.

Palagiano, A., Bulletti, C., Pace, M. C., DE, Ziegler D., Cicinelli, E., and Izzo, A. Effects of vaginal progesterone on pain and uterine contractility in patients with threatened abortion before twelve weeks of pregnancy. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2004;1034:200-210. View abstract.

Papiernik-Berkhauer E. Double blind study of an agent to prevent preterm delivery among women at increased risk [Etude en double aveugle d’un medicament prevenant la survenue prematuree de l’accouchement chez les femmes a risque eleve d’accouchement premature]. Edition Schering Serie IV 1970;Vol. 3:65-8.

Pisanty, S., Rafaely, B., and Polishuk, W. The effect of steroid hormones on buccal mucosa of menopausal women. Oral Surg.Oral Med.Oral Pathol. 1975;40(3):346-353. View abstract.

Porcu E. Intramuscular versus vaginal progesterone in assisted reproduction [abstract]. Fertility and Sterility 2003;Vol. 80(issue suppl3:S131 (Abs # P-32).)

Prentice, A., Deary, A. J., and Bland, E. Progestagens and anti-progestagens for pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD002122. View abstract.

Preston, J. T., Cameron, I. T., Adams, E. J., and Smith, S. K. Comparative study of tranexamic acid and norethisterone in the treatment of ovulatory menorrhagia. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1995;102(5):401-406. View abstract.

Propst, A. M., Hill, J. A., Ginsburg, E. S., Hurwitz, S., Politch, J., and Yanushpolsky, E. H. A randomized study comparing Crinone 8% and intramuscular progesterone supplementation in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles. Fertil.Steril. 2001;76(6):1144-1149. View abstract.

Recker, R. R., Davies, K. M., Dowd, R. M., and Heaney, R. P. The effect of low-dose continuous estrogen and progesterone therapy with calcium and vitamin D on bone in elderly women. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann.Intern.Med. 6-1-1999;130(11):897-904. View abstract.

Redei, E. and Freeman, E. W. Daily plasma estradiol and progesterone levels over the menstrual cycle and their relation to premenstrual symptoms. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1995;20(3):259-267. View abstract.

Reijnders, F. J., Thomas, C. M., Doesburg, W. H., Rolland, R., and Eskes, T. K. Endocrine effects of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate during early pregnancy: a double-blind clinical trial. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1988;95(5):462-468. View abstract.

Rettenbacher, M. A., Mechtcheriakov, S., Bergant, A., Brugger, A., and Fleischhacker, W. W. Improvement of psychosis during treatment with estrogen and progesterone in a patient with hypoestrogenemia. J.Clin.Psychiatry 2004;65(2):275-277. View abstract.

Richter MA, Haltvick R Shapiro SS. Progesterone treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Current Therapeutic Research. 1984;36(5, Sect 2):840-850.

Rigaud, A. S., Andre, G., Vellas, B., Touchon, J., and Pere, J. J. No additional benefit of HRT on response to rivastigmine in menopausal women with AD. Neurology 1-14-2003;60(1):148-149. View abstract.

Riis, B., Thomsen, K., and Christiansen, C. Does calcium supplementation prevent postmenopausal bone loss? A double-blind, controlled clinical study. N.Engl.J Med. 1-22-1987;316(4):173-177. View abstract.

Roglio, I., Giatti, S., Pesaresi, M., Bianchi, R., Cavaletti, G., Lauria, G., Garcia-Segura, L. M., and Melcangi, R. C. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral neuropathy. Brain Res.Rev. 2008;57(2):460-469. View abstract.

Rosenberg, S. M., Luciano, A. A., and Riddick, D. H. The luteal phase defect: the relative frequency of, and encouraging response to, treatment with vaginal progesterone. Fertil.Steril. 1980;34(1):17-20. View abstract.

Rouse, D. J., Caritis, S. N., Peaceman, A. M., Sciscione, A., Thom, E. A., Spong, C. Y., Varner, M., Malone, F., Iams, J. D., Mercer, B. M., Thorp, J., Sorokin, Y., Carpenter, M., Lo, J., Ramin, S., Harper, M., and Anderson, G. A trial of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent prematurity in twins. N.Engl.J.Med. 8-2-2007;357(5):454-461. View abstract.

Ryan, N. and Rosner, A. Quality of life and costs associated with micronized progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate in hormone replacement therapy for nonhysterectomized, postmenopausal women. Clin.Ther. 2001;23(7):1099-1115. View abstract.

Saarikoski, S., Yliskoski, M., and Penttila, I. Sequential use of norethisterone and natural progesterone in pre-menopausal bleeding disorders. Maturitas 1990;12(2):89-97. View abstract.

Sampson, G. A. Premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind controlled trial of progesterone and placebo. Br.J.Psychiatry 1979;135:209-215. View abstract.

Sandyk, R. Estrogen’s impact on cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis. Int.J.Neurosci. 1996;86(1-2):23-31. View abstract.

Saucedo LLE, Galache VP Hernandez AS Santos HR Arenas ML Patrizio P. Randomized trial of three different forms of progesterone supplementation in ART: preliminary results [abstract]. Fertility and Sterility 2000;74((Suppl 1):S150 (Abs # P-175).)

Saucedo-de la Llata E, Batiza V Arenas L Santos R Galache P Hernandez-Ayup S et al. Progesterone for luteal support: randomized, prospective trial comparing vaginal and i.m. administration [abstract]. Human Reproduction 2003;

Schaller, J. L., Briggs, B., and Briggs, M. Progesterone organogel for premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J.Am.Acad.Child Adolesc.Psychiatry 2000;39(5):546-547. View abstract.

Schussler, P., Kluge, M., Yassouridis, A., Dresler, M., Held, K., Zihl, J., and Steiger, A. Progesterone reduces wakefulness in sleep EEG and has no effect on cognition in healthy postmenopausal women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2008;33(8):1124-1131. View abstract.

SHEARMAN, R. P. and GARRETT, W. J. Double-blind study of effect of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate on abortion rate. Br.Med.J. 2-2-1963;1(5326):292-295. View abstract.

Shippen, E. R. and West, W. J., Jr. Successful treatment of severe endometriosis in two premenopausal women with an aromatase inhibitor. Fertil.Steril. 2004;81(5):1395-1398. View abstract.

Shu, J., Miao, P., and Wang, R. J. [Clinical observation on effect of Chinese herbal medicine plus human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone in treating anticardiolipin antibody-positive early recurrent spontaneous abortion]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2002;22(6):414-416. View abstract.

Soderpalm, A. H., Lindsey, S., Purdy, R. H., Hauger, R., and Wit, de H. Administration of progesterone produces mild sedative-like effects in men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2004;29(3):339-354. View abstract.

Sofuoglu, M., Mitchell, E. , and Kosten, T. R. Effects of progesterone treatment on cocaine responses in male and female cocaine users. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2004;78(4):699-705. View abstract.

Sofuoglu, M., Poling, J., Gonzalez, G., Gonsai, K., Oliveto, A., and Kosten, T. R. Progesterone effects on cocaine use in male cocaine users maintained on methadone: a randomized, double-blind, pilot study. Exp.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2007;15(5):453-460. View abstract.

Song, Y. L. and Zhu, L. P. [The fetus protection effects of Zhixue Baotai Decoction on women of early threatened abortion with dark area surrounding pregnancy sac]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2007;27(11):1025-1028. View abstract.

Steffen, A. M., Thompson, L. W., Gallagher-Thompson, D., and Koin, D. Physical and psychosocial correlates of hormone replacement therapy with chronically stressed postmenopausal women. J.Aging Health 1999;11(1):3-26. View abstract.

Stein, D., Blumensohn, R., and Witztum, E. Perimenstrual psychosis among female adolescents: two case reports and an update of the literature. Int.J.Psychiatry Med. 2003;33(2):169-179. View abstract.

Strohl, K. P., Hensley, M. J., Saunders, N. A., Scharf, S. M., Brown, R., and Ingram, R. H., Jr. Progesterone administration and progressive sleep apneas. JAMA 3-27-1981;245(12):1230-1232. View abstract.

Sumita S, Sofat S Sr. Intramuscular versus intravaginal progesterone as luteal phase and early pregnancy support in patients undergoing IVF-ET [abstract]. Fertility and Sterility 2003;

SWYER, G. I. and DALEY, D. Progesterone implantation in habitual abortion. Br.Med.J. 5-16-1953;1(4819):1073-1077. View abstract.

Tognoni, G., Ferrario, L., Inzalaco, M., and Crosignani, P. G. Progestagens in threatened abortion. Lancet 12-6-1980;2(8206):1242-1243. View abstract.

Toh, Y. C., Jain, J., Rahnny, M. H., Bode, F. R., and Ross, D. Suppression of ovulation by a new subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (104 mg/0.65 mL) contraceptive formulation in Asian women. Clin.Ther. 2004;26(11):1845-1854. View abstract.

Torode HW, Porter RN Vaughan JI Saunders DM. Luteal phase support after in vitro fertilisation: a trial and rationale for selective use. Clinical Reproduction and Fertility 1987;5:255-61.

Trotter, A., Maier, L., Grill, H. J., Kohn, T., Heckmann, M., and Pohlandt, F. Effects of postnatal estradiol and progesterone replacement in extremely preterm infants. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1999;84(12):4531-4535. View abstract.

Trotter, A., Maier, L., Grill, H. J., Wudy, S. A., and Pohlandt, F. 17Beta-estradiol and progesterone supplementation in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Pediatr.Res. 1999;45(4 Pt 1):489-493. View abstract.

Ugur M, Yenicesu O Ozcan S Keles G Gokmen O. A prospective randomized study comparing hCG, vaginalmicronized porgesterone and a combination regimen for luteal phase support in an in-vitro fertilization programme [abstract]. 2001;

Van der Meer YG, Benedek-Jaszmann LJ Van Loenen AC. Effect of high-dose progesterone on the pre-menstrual syndrome: A double-blind cross-over trial. . Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 1983;2(4):220-222.

Van der Meer YG, Loendersloot EW Van Loenen AC. Effect of high-dose progesterone in post-partum depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology.1 1984;3(1): 67-68.

Van Steirteghem, A. C., Smitz, J., Camus, M., Van, Waesberghe L., Deschacht, J., Khan, I., Staessen, C., Wisanto, A., Bourgain, C., and Devroey, P. The luteal phase after in-vitro fertilization and related procedures. Hum.Reprod. 1988;3(2):161-164. View abstract.

van Wingen, G. A., van, Broekhoven F., Verkes, R. J., Petersson, K. M., Backstrom, T., Buitelaar, J. K., and Fernandez, G. Progesterone selectively increases amygdala reactivity in women. Mol.Psychiatry 2008;13(3):325-333. View abstract.

van, Wingen G., van, Broekhoven F., Verkes, R. J., Petersson, K. M., Backstrom, T., Buitelaar, J., and Fernandez, G. How progesterone impairs memory for biologically salient stimuli in healthy young women. J.Neurosci. 10-17-2007;27(42):11416-11423. View abstract.

Vanselow, W., Dennerstein, L., Greenwood, K. M., and de, Lignieres B. Effect of progesterone and its 5 alpha and 5 beta metabolites on symptoms of premenstrual syndrome according to route of administration. J.Psychosom.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1996;17(1):29-38. View abstract.

Vercellini, P., De, Giorgi O., Oldani, S., Cortesi, I., Panazza, S., and Crosignani, P. G. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate versus an oral contraceptive combined with very-low-dose danazol for long-term treatment of pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1996;175(2):396-401. View abstract.

Vimpeli, T., Tinkanen, H., Huhtala, H., Ronnberg, L., and Kujansuu, E. Salivary and serum progesterone concentrations during two luteal support regimens used in in vitro fertilization treatment. Fertil.Steril. 2001;76(4):847-848. View abstract.

Wahabi, H. A., Abed Althagafi, N. F., and Elawad, M. Progestogen for treating threatened miscarriage. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(3):CD005943. View abstract.

Walpurger, V., Pietrowsky, R., Djahansouzi, S., and Wolf, O. T. No changes in event-related potentials with estrogen or estrogen plus progesterone treatment in healthy older hysterectomized women: results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;179(3):652-661. View abstract.

Wegesin, D. J. and Stern, Y. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and aging on cognition: evidence for executive dysfunction. Neuropsychol.Dev.Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol.Cogn 2007;14(3):301-328. View abstract.

Wentz, A. C., Herbert, C. M., Maxson, W. S., and Garner, C. H. Outcome of progesterone treatment of luteal phase inadequacy. Fertil.Steril. 1984;41(6):856-862. View abstract.

Whitehead, M. I., Townsend, P. T., Gill, D. K., Collins, W. P., and Campbell, S. Absorption and metabolism of oral progesterone. Br.Med.J. 3-22-1980;280(6217):825-827. View abstract.

Cappiello A, McDougle CJ, Malison RT, et al. Yohimbine augmentation of Fluvoxamine in refactory depression: a single blind study. Biol Psychiatry 1995;38:765-7. View abstract.

Carey MP, Johnson BT. Effectiveness of yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder: four meta-analytic integrations. Arch Sex Behav 1996;25:341-60. View abstract.

Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. London, UK: Dorling Kindersley, Ltd., 1996.

Cohen PA, Wang YH, Maller G, DeSouza R, Khan IA. Pharmaceutical quantities of yohimbine found in dietary supplements in the USA. Drug Test Anal. 2015 Sep 22. View abstract.

EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food (ANS). Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety in use of Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille). EFSA J. 2013;11(7):3302.

Ernst E, Pittler MH. Yohimbine for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Urol 1998;159:433-6.. View abstract.

Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler’s Honest Herbal, 4th ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.

Abate, A., Perino, M., Abate, F. G., Brigandi, A., Costabile, L., and Manti, F. Intramuscular versus vaginal administration of progesterone for luteal phase support after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. A comparative randomized study. Clin.Exp.Obstet.Gynecol. 1999;26(3-4):203-206. View abstract.

Al, Kadri H., Hassan, S., Al-Fozan, H. M., and Hajeer, A. Hormone therapy for endometriosis and surgical menopause. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD005997. View abstract.

Allen, W. M. Physiology of the corpus luteum, V: the preparation and some chemical properties of progestin, a hormone of the corpus luteum which produces progestational proliferation. 1930;

Aloia, J. F., Vaswani, A., Yeh, J. K., Ross, P. L., Flaster, E., and Dilmanian, F. A. Calcium supplementation with and without hormone replacement therapy to prevent postmenopausal bone loss. Ann.Intern.Med. 1-15-1994;120(2):97-103. View abstract.

Andersch, B. and Hahn, L. Progesterone treatment of premenstrual tension–a double blind study. J.Psychosom.Res. 1985;29(5):489-493. View abstract.

Andreen, L., Sundstrom-Poromaa, I., Bixo, M., Andersson, A., Nyberg, S., and Backstrom, T. Relationship between allopregnanolone and negative mood in postmenopausal women taking sequential hormone replacement therapy with vaginal progesterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005;30(2):212-224. View abstract.

Artini, P. G., Volpe, A., Angioni, S., Galassi, M. C., Battaglia, C., and Genazzani, A. R. A comparative, randomized study of three different progesterone support of the luteal phase following IVF/ET program. J.Endocrinol.Invest 1995;18(1):51-56. View abstract.

Beckers, N. G., Laven, J. S., Eijkemans, M. J., and Fauser, B. C. Follicular and luteal phase characteristics following early cessation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist during ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization. Hum.Reprod. 2000;15(1):43-49. View abstract.

Belaisch-Allart J, de Mouzon J. Effect of luteal phase supplementation in an IVF programme after ovarian stimulation by LH-RH analogs:multicentric analysis [Effet de la supplémentation de la phase lutéale dans un programme de fécondation in vitro après stimulation de l’ovulation par les agonistes du LHRH. Journées de périconceptologie 1988;vol. 16, no7-8: pp. 654-656 (9 ref.).

Belaisch-Allart, J., Testart, J., Fries, N., Forman, R. G., and Frydman, R. The effect of dydrogesterone supplementation in an IVF programme. Hum.Reprod. 1987;2(3):183-185. View abstract.

Berle P, Budenz M Michaelis J.

Bloch, M., Schmidt, P. J., Danaceau, M., Murphy, J., Nieman, L., and Rubinow, D. R. Effects of gonadal steroids in women with a history of postpartum depression. Am.J.Psychiatry 2000;157(6):924-930. View abstract.

Bonduelle, M., Walker, J. J., and Calder, A. A. A comparative study of danazol and norethisterone in dysfunctional uterine bleeding presenting as menorrhagia. Postgrad.Med.J. 1991;67(791):833-836. View abstract.

Borna, S. and Sahabi, N. Progesterone for maintenance tocolytic therapy after threatened preterm labour: a randomised controlled trial. Aust.N.Z.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 2008;48(1):58-63. View abstract.

Bronson, Phyllis J. Mood biochemistry of women at mid-life.. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 2001;Vol 16(3):pp. 141-154.

Buyru F, Yalcin O Kovanci E Turfanda A. Danazol therapy in dysfunctional uterine bleeding [Turkish]. Istanbul Tip Fakultesi Mecmuasi 1995;

Cameron, I. T., Haining, R., Lumsden, M. A., Thomas, V. R., and Smith, S. K. The effects of mefenamic acid and norethisterone on measured menstrual blood loss. Obstet.Gynecol. 1990;76(1):85-88. View abstract.

Cameron, I. T., Leask, R., Kelly, R. W., and Baird, D. T. The effects of danazol, mefenamic acid, norethisterone and a progesterone-impregnated coil on endometrial prostaglandin concentrations in women with menorrhagia. Prostaglandins 1987;34(1):99-110. View abstract.

Chouinard, G., Steinberg, S., and Steiner, W. Estrogen-progesterone combination: another mood stabilizer? Am.J.Psychiatry 1987;144(6):826. View abstract.

Chua, W. L., de Izquierdo, S. A., Kulkarni, J., and Mortimer, A. Estrogen for schizophrenia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2005;(4):CD004719. View abstract.

Claman, P., Domingo, M., and Leader, A. Luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization using gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue before ovarian stimulation: a prospective randomized study of human chorionic gonadotrophin versus intramuscular progesterone. Hum.Reprod. 1992;7(4):487-489. View abstract.

Clifford, K., Rai, R., Watson, H., Franks, S., and Regan, L. Does suppressing luteinising hormone secretion reduce the miscarriage rate? Results of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 6-15-1996;312(7045):1508-1511. View abstract.

Colwell, K. A. and Tummon, I. S. Elevation of serum progesterone with oral micronized progesterone after in vitro fertilization. A randomized, controlled trial. J.Reprod.Med. 1991;36(3):170-172. View abstract.

Corrado, F., Dugo, C., Cannata, M. L., Di, Bartolo M., Scilipoti, A., and Carlo, Stella N. A randomised trial of progesterone prophylaxis after midtrimester amniocentesis. Eur.J.Obstet.Gynecol.Reprod.Biol. 1-10-2002;100(2):196-198. View abstract.

Coutinho, E. M., De Souza, J. C., Barbosa, I. C., and Dourado, Silva, V. Long-lasting ovulation inhibition with a new injectable progestagen ORG-2154. Contraception 1982;25(6):551-560. View abstract.

Coutinho, Walmir, Appolinário, José C., Póvoa, Luiz C., and Meirelles, Ricardo. Terapia hormonal e os sintomas psíquicos na menopausa. Parte 2–Estudo duplo-cego dos efeitos da progesterona natural sobre os sintomas psíquicos da menopausa. = Hormonal therapy and the psychiatric symptoms in menopause: II. Double-blind study on the effects of natural progesterone on the affective symptoms in menopause.. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria 1995;Vol 44(5),pp. 223-229.

Crammer, J. L. Premenstrual depression, cortisol and oestradiol treatment. Psychol.Med. 1986;16(2):451-455. View abstract.

Cutler, S. M., VanLandingham, J. W., Murphy, A. Z., and Stein, D. G. Slow-release and injected progesterone treatments enhance acute recovery after traumatic brain injury. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2006;84(3):420-428. View abstract.

da Fonseca, E. B., Bittar, R. E., Carvalho, M. H., and Zugaib, M. Prophylactic administration of progesterone by vaginal suppository to reduce the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth in women at increased risk: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 2003;188(2):419-424. View abstract.

Dalton, K. Ante-natal progesterone and intelligence. Br.J.Psychiatry 1968;114(516):1377-1382. View abstract.

Dalton, K. Controlled trials in the prophylactic value of progesterone in the treatment of pre-eclamptic toxaemia. J.Obstet.Gynaecol.Br.Emp. 1962;69:463-468. View abstract.

Dalton, K. Prenatal progesterone and educational attainments. Br.J.Psychiatry 1976;129:438-442. View abstract.

Daly, R. C., Schmidt, P. J., Davis, C. L., Danaceau, M. A., and Rubinow, D. R. Effects of gonadal steroids on peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in women with PMS and controls. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2001;26(6):539-549. View abstract.

Daya, S. and Gunby, J. L. WITHDRAWN: Luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(3):CD004830. View abstract.

de, Lignieres B., Dennerstein, L., and Backstrom, T. Influence of route of administration on progesterone metabolism. Maturitas 1995;21(3):251-257. View abstract.

de, Wit H., Schmitt, L., Purdy, R., and Hauger, R. Effects of acute progesterone administration in healthy postmenopausal women and normally-cycling women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2001;26(7):697-710. View abstract.

Deligdisch, L. Effects of hormone therapy on the endometrium. Mod.Pathol. 1993;6(1):94-106. View abstract.

Denis, C., Fatseas, M., Lavie, E., and Auriacombe, M. Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine mono-dependence management in outpatient settings. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;3:CD005194. View abstract.

Dennis, C. L. Preventing postpartum depression part I: a review of biological interventions. Can.J.Psychiatry 2004;49(7):467-475. View abstract.

Dennis, C. L., Ross, L. E., and Herxheimer, A. Oestrogens and progestins for preventing and treating postpartum depression. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(4):CD001690. View abstract.

Dodd, J. M., Flenady, V., Cincotta, R., and Crowther, C. A. Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(1):CD004947. View abstract.

El-Zibdeh, M. Y. Dydrogesterone in the reduction of recurrent spontaneous abortion. J.Steroid Biochem.Mol.Biol. 2005;97(5):431-434. View abstract.

Facchinetti, F., Paganelli, S., Comitini, G., Dante, G., and Volpe, A. Cervical length changes during preterm cervical ripening: effects of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 2007;196(5):453-454. View abstract.

Ferre, F., Uzan, M., Janssens, Y., Tanguy, G., Jolivet, A., Breuiller, M., Sureau, C., and Cedard, L. Oral administration of micronized natural progesterone in late human pregnancy. Effects on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in the plasma, placenta, and myometrium. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1-1-1984;148(1):26-34. View abstract.

Fonseca, E. B., Celik, E., Parra, M., Singh, M., and Nicolaides, K. H. Progesterone and the risk of preterm birth among women with a short cervix. N.Engl.J.Med. 8-2-2007;357(5):462-469. View abstract.

Ford, O., Lethaby, A., Roberts, H., and Mol, B. W. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2009;(2):CD003415. View abstract.

Fraser, I. S. Treatment of ovulatory and anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding with oral progestogens. Aust.N.Z.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1990;30(4):353-356. View abstract.

Freeman, E. W., Rickels, K., and Sondheimer, S. J. Course of premenstrual syndrome symptom severity after treatment. Am.J.Psychiatry 1992;149(4):531-533. View abstract.

Gerhard, I., Gwinner, B., Eggert-Kruse, W., and Runnebaum, B. Double-blind controlled trial of progesterone substitution in threatened abortion. Biol.Res.Pregnancy.Perinatol. 1987;8(1 1ST Half):26-34. View abstract.

Geusa S, Causio F Marinaccio M Stanziano A Sarcina E. Luteal phase support with progesterone in IVF/ET cycles: a prospective, randomized study comparing vaginal and intramuscular administration [abstract]. Human Reproduction 2001;

Girdler, S. S., O’Briant, C., Steege, J., Grewen, K., and Light, K. C. A comparison of the effect of estrogen with or without progesterone on mood and physical symptoms in postmenopausal women. J.Womens Health Gend.Based.Med. 1999;8(5):637-646. View abstract.

Golan, A., Herman, A., Soffer, Y., Bukovsky, I., Caspi, E., and Ron-El, R. Human chorionic gonadotrophin is a better luteal support than progesterone in ultrashort gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist/menotrophin in-vitro fertilization cycles. Hum.Reprod. 1993;8(9):1372-1375. View abstract.


Gregoire, A. J., Kumar, R., Everitt, B., Henderson, A. F., and Studd, J. W. Transdermal oestrogen for treatment of severe postnatal depression. Lancet 4-6-1996;347(9006):930-933. View abstract.

Groswasser, Z., Cohen, M., and Keren, O. Female TBI patients recover better than males. Brain Inj. 1998;12(9):805-808. View abstract.

Gruber, C. J. and Huber, J. C. Differential effects of progestins on the brain. Maturitas 12-10-2003;46 Suppl 1:S71-S75. View abstract.

Haas, D. M. and Ramsey, P. S. Progestogen for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(2):CD003511. View abstract.

Haimov-Kochman, R. and Hochner-Celnikier, D. Hot flashes revisited: pharmacological and herbal options for hot flashes management. What does the evidence tell us? Acta Obstet Gynecol.Scand 2005;84(10):972-979. View abstract.

Hartikainen-Sorri, A. L., Kauppila, A., and Tuimala, R. Inefficacy of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the prevention of prematurity in twin pregnancy. Obstet.Gynecol. 1980;56(6):692-695. View abstract.

Hauth, J. C., Gilstrap, L. C., III, Brekken, A. L., and Hauth, J. M. The effect of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate on pregnancy outcome in an active-duty military population. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 5-15-1983;146(2):187-190. View abstract.

Heinrich, A. B. and Wolf, O. T. Investigating the effects of estradiol or estradiol/progesterone treatment on mood, depressive symptoms, menopausal symptoms and subjective sleep quality in older healthy hysterectomized women: a questionnaire study. Neuropsychobiology 2005;52(1):17-23. View abstract.

Hickey, M., Higham, J., and Fraser, I. S. Progestogens versus oestrogens and progestogens for irregular uterine bleeding associated with anovulation. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(4):CD001895. View abstract.

Hingham, J. M. and Shaw, R. W. A comparative study of danazol, a regimen of decreasing doses of danazol, and norethindrone in the treatment of objectively proven unexplained menorrhagia. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1993;169(5):1134-1139. View abstract.

Hogervorst, E., Yaffe, K., Richards, M., and Huppert, F. A. Hormone replacement therapy to maintain cognitive function in women with dementia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD003799. View abstract.

Hsiao, C. C., Liu, C. Y., and Hsiao, M. C. No correlation of depression and anxiety to plasma estrogen and progesterone levels in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychiatry Clin.Neurosci. 2004;58(6):593-599. View abstract.

Hunt, R., Davis, P. G., and Inder, T. Replacement of estrogens and progestins to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2004;(4):CD003848. View abstract.

Irvine, G. A., Campbell-Brown, M. B., Lumsden, M. A., Heikkila, A., Walker, J. J., and Cameron, I. T. Randomised comparative trial of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and norethisterone for treatment of idiopathic menorrhagia. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1998;105(6):592-598. View abstract.

Johnson, J. W., Austin, K. L., Jones, G. S., Davis, G. H., and King, T. M. Efficacy of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the prevention of premature labor. N.Engl.J.Med. 10-2-1975;293(14):675-680. View abstract.

Wolf, O. T., Heinrich, A. B., Hanstein, B., and Kirschbaum, C. Estradiol or estradiol/progesterone treatment in older women: no strong effects on cognition. Neurobiol.Aging 2005;26(7):1029-1033. View abstract.

Wong, Y. F., Loong, E. P., Mao, K. R., Tam, P. P., Panesar, N. S., Neale, E., and Chang, A. M. Salivary oestradiol and progesterone after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer using different luteal support regimens. Reprod.Fertil.Dev. 1990;2(4):351-358. View abstract.

Yoon, B. K., Kim, D. K., Kang, Y., Kim, J. W., Shin, M. H., and Na, D. L. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, prospective study. Fertil.Steril. 2003;79(2):274-280. View abstract.

Yovich, J. L., Edirisinghe, W. R., and Cummins, J. M. Evaluation of luteal support therapy in a randomized controlled study within a gamete intrafallopian transfer program. Fertil.Steril. 1991;55(1):131-139. View abstract.

Yovich, J. L., Stanger, J. D., Yovich, J. M., and Tuvik, A. I. Assessment and hormonal treatment of the luteal phase of in vitro fertilization cycles. Aust.N.Z.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1984;24(2):125-130. View abstract.

Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., and Liu, G. [Clinical and experimental study on yun’an granule in treating threatened abortion]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2000;20(4):251-254. View abstract.

Zweifel, J. E. and O’Brien, W. H. A meta-analysis of the effect of hormone replacement therapy upon depressed mood. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997;22(3):189-212. View abstract.

Affinito P, Di Carlo C, Di Mauro P, et al. Endometrial hyperplasia: efficacy of a new treatment with a vaginal cream containing natural micronized progesterone. Maturitas 1994;20:191-8. View abstract.

Boelig RC, Zuppa AF, Kraft WK, Caritis S. Pharmacokinetics of vaginal progesterone in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019;221(3):263.e1-263.e7. View abstract.

Bracco GL, Carli P, Sonni L, et al. Clinical and histologic effects of topical treatments of vulval lichen sclerosus. A critical evaluation. J Reprod Med 1993;38:37-40. View abstract.

Brizot ML, Hernandez W, Liao AW, et al. Vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin gestations: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;213(1):82.e1-9. View abstract.

Burnham TH, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons, Updated Monthly. Facts and Comparisons, St. Louis, MO.

Burry KA, Paton PE, Hermsmeyer K. Percutaneous absorption of progesterone in postmenopausal women treated with transdermal estrogen. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:1504-11. View abstract.

Chen FP, Lee N, Soong YK. Changes in the lipoprotein profile in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy. Effects of natural and synthetic progesterone. J Reprod Med 1998;43:568-74. View abstract.

Conde-Agudelo A, Romero R, Nicolaides K, et al. Vaginal progesterone vs. cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix, previous preterm birth, and singleton gestation: a systematic review and indirect comparison metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208(1):42.e1-42.e18. View abstract.

Coomarasamy A, Devall AJ, Cheed V, et al. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Bleeding in Early Pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(19):1815-1824. View abstract.

Coomarasamy A, Williams H, Truchanowicz E, et al. A randomized trial of progesterone in women with recurrent miscarriages. N Engl J Med 2015;373(22):2141-8. View abstract.

Cooper A, Spencer C, Whitehead MI, et al. Systemic absorption of progesterone cream from Progest cream in postmenopausal women. Lancet 1998;351:1255-6.

Cooper AJ, Whitehead MI. Correspondence. Lancet 1998;352:906.

Damario MA, Goudas VT, Session DR, et al. Crinone 8% vaginal progesterone gel results in lower embryonic implantation efficiency after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 1999;72:830-6. View abstract.

Dang VQ, Nguyen LK, Pham TD, et al. Pessary compared with vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in women with twin pregnancies and cervical length less than 38 mm: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2019;133(3):459-67. View abstract.

Darj E, Nilsson S, Axelsson O, et al. Clinical and endometrial effects of oestradiol and progesterone in post-menopausal women. Maturitas 1991;13:109-15. View abstract.

de Oliveira LA, Brizot ML, Liao AW, Bittar RE, Francisco RP, Zugaib M. Prenatal administration of vaginal progesterone and frequency of uterine contractions in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2016;95(4):436-43. View abstract.

El-refaie W, Abdelhafez MS, Badawy A. Vaginal progesterone for prevention of preterm labor in asymptomatic twin pregnancies with sonographic short cervix: a randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016;293(1):61-7. View abstract.

Espeland MA, Hogan PE, Fineberg SE, et al. Effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on glucose and insulin concentrations. PEPI Investigators. Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1589-95. View abstract.

Espeland MA, Marcovina SM, Miller V, et al. Effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on lipoprotein(a) concentration. Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Investigators. Circulation 1998;97:979-86. View abstract.

FDA MedWatch. Summary of safety-related drug labeling changes approved by FDA May 1998. Crinone (progesterone) Gel. May 11, 1998. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/1998/may98.htm#crinon.

FDA. www.verity.fda.gov/default.html.

FDA. Guide to Inspections of Cosmetic Product Manufacturers: products containing estrogenic hormones, placental extract or vitamins. 2001. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/ora/inspect_ref/igs/cosmet.html

Fitzpatrick LA, Pace C, Wiita B. Comparison of regimens containing oral micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on quality of life in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional survey. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000;9:381-7. View abstract.

Freeman EW, Rickels K, Sondheimer SJ, Polansky M. A double-blind trial of oral progesterone, alprazolam, and placebo in treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome. JAMA 1995;274:51-7. View abstract.

Freeman EW, Weinstock L, Rickels K, et al. A placebo-controlled study of effects of oral progesterone on performance and mood. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992;33:293-8. View abstract.

Gibbons WE, Toner JP, Hamacher P, Kolm P. Experience with a novel vaginal progesterone preparation in a donor oocyte program. Fertil Steril 1998;69:96-101. View abstract.

Greendale GA, Reboussin BA, Hogan P, et al. Symptom relief and side effects of postmenopausal hormones: results from the Postmenopausal Interventions Trial. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:982-8. View abstract.

Haas DM, Hathaway TJ, Ramsey PS. Progestogen for preventing miscarriage in women with recurrent miscarriage of unclear etiology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;10:CD003511. View abstract.

Ma J, Huang S, Qin S, You C. Progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;10:CD008409. View abstract.

Martorano JT, Ahlgrimm M, Colbert T. Differentiating between natural progesterone and synthetic progestins: clinical implications for premenstrual syndrome and perimenopause management. Compr Ther 1998;24:336-9. View abstract.

Miles RA, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA, et al. Pharmacokinetics and endometrial tissue levels of progesterone after administration by intramuscular and vaginal routes: a comparative study. Fertil Steril 1994;62:485-90. View abstract.

Nappi C, Affinito P, Di Carlo C, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of progesterone vaginal cream treatment for cyclical mastodynia in women with benign breast disease. J Endocrinol Invest 1992;15:801-6. View abstract.

Norman JE, Mackenzie F, Owen P, Mactier H, Hanretty K, Cooper S, et al. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy (STOPPIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and meta-analysis. Lancet 2009;373(9680):2034-40. View abstract.

Norman JE, Marlow N, Messow CM, et al. Does progesterone prophylaxis to prevent preterm labour improve outcome? A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial (OPPTIMUM). Health Technol Assess. 2018;22(35):1-304. View abstract.

Norman JE, Marlow N, Messow CM, et al. Vaginal progesterone prophylaxis for preterm birth (the OPPTIMUM study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2016 May 21;387(10033):2106-16. View abstract.

Perino M, Brigandi FG, Abate FG, et al. Intramuscular versus vaginal progesterone in assisted reproduction: a comparative study. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1997;24:228-31. View abstract.

Phy, J. L., Weiss, W. T., Weiler, C. R., and Damario, M. A. Hypersensitivity to progesterone-in-oil after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2003;80(5):1272-1275. View abstract.

Pouly JL, Bassil S, Frydman R, et al. Luteal support after in-vitro fertilization: Crinone 8%, a sustained release vaginal progesterone gel, versus Utrogestan, an oral micronized progesterone. Hum Reprod 1996;11:2085-9. View abstract.

Rai P, Rajaram S, Goel N, Ayalur Gopalakrishnan R, Agarwal R, Mehta S. Oral micronized progesterone for prevention of preterm birth. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009;104(1):40-3. View abstract.

Rode L, Klein K, Nicolaides KH, Krampl-Bettelheim E, Tabor A; PREDICT Group. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin gestations (PREDICT): a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of vaginal micronized progesterone. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;38(3):272-80. View abstract.

Romero R, Nicolaides K, Conde-Agudelo A, et al. Vaginal progesterone in women with an asymptomatic sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester decreases preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity: a systematic review and metaanalysis of individual patient data. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012;206(2):124.e1-19. View abstract.

Rosano GM, Webb CM, Chierchia S, et al. Natural progesterone, but not medroxyprogesterone acetate, enhances the beneficial effect of estrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:2154-9.

Ross D, Cooper AJ, Pryse-Davies J, et al. Randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study of the endometrial effects of a vaginal progesterone gel in estrogen-treated postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:937-41. View abstract.

Salim R, Hakim M, Zafran N, Nachum Z, Romano S, Garmi G. Double-blind randomized trial of progesterone to prevent preterm birth in second-trimester bleeding. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2019;98(10):1318-25. View abstract.

Schüssler P, Kluge M, Adamczyk M, et al. Sleep after intranasal progesterone vs. zolpidem and placebo in postmenopausal women – A randomized, double-blind cross over study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018;92:81-86. View abstract.

Schweizer E, Case WG, Garcia-Espana F, et al. Progesterone co-administration in patients discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine therapy: effects on withdrawal severity and taper outcome. Psychopharmacol (Berl) 1995;117:424-9. View abstract.

Skolnick BE, Maas AI, Narayan RK, et al.; SYNAPSE Trial Investigators. A clinical trial of progesterone for severe traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2014;371(26):2467-76. View abstract.

Smitz J, Devroey P, Faguer B, et al. A prospective randomized comparison of intramuscular or intravaginal natural progesterone as a luteal phase and early pregnancy supplement. Hum Reprod 1992;7:168-75. View abstract.

Sotiriadis A, Papatheodorou S, Makrydimas G. Perinatal outcome in women treated with progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: a meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;40(3):257-66. View abstract.

Veysman, B., Vlahos, I., and Oshva, L. Pneumonitis and eosinophilia after in vitro fertilization treatment. Ann Emerg Med 2006;47(5):472-475. View abstract.

Wahabi HA, Fayed AA, Esmaeil SA, Bahkali KH. Progestogen for treating threatened miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;8:CD005943. View abstract.

Warren MP, Biller BMK, Shangold MM. A new clinical option for hormone replacement therapy in women with secondary amenorrhea: effects of cyclic administration of progesterone from the sustained-release vaginal gel Crinone (4% and 8%) on endometrial morphologic features and withdrawal bleeding. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:42-8. View abstract.

Wright DW, Yeatts SD, Silbergleit R, et al.; NETT Investigators. Very early administration of progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2014;371(26):2457-66. View abstract.

Wyatt K, Dimmock P, Jones P, et al. Efficacy of progesterone and progestogens in management of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ 2001;323:776-80.. View abstract.

Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.

Zorgniotti AW, Lizza EF. Effect of large doses of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, on erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1994;6:33-5. View abstract.

Progesterone vaginal suppositories

What is this medicine?

PROGESTERONE (proe JES ter one) is a female hormone. This medicine is used to treat infertility and to prevent miscarriage in women with a condition called corpus luteum insufficiency. This medicine may also be used to prevent preterm delivery in some women. The suppositories are only available when compounded by your pharmacist.

This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): First – Progesterone VGS

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • blood vessel disease, blood clotting disorder, or suffered a stroke
  • breast, cervical or vaginal cancer
  • heart disease
  • kidney disease
  • liver disease
  • miscarriage or abortion
  • vaginal bleeding
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to progesterone, other hormones, medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

How should I use this medicine?

This medicine is for vaginal use only. Do not take by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Wash your hands before and after use. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take it more often than directed. Do not stop taking except on your doctor’s advice.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, use only that dose. Do not use double or extra doses.

What may interact with this medicine?

Interactions are not expected. Do not use any other vaginal products without asking your doctor or health care professional.

This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks on your progress.

If your doctor or health care professional instructs you to use any other medicines in the vagina while you are using this medicine, you should separate the doses by at least 6 hours.

You may notice a white discharge of medicine while using this medicine. This is normal. If it becomes bothersome, contact your doctor or health care professional.

What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • breast tissue changes or discharge
  • changes in vision
  • chest pain
  • confusion
  • dark urine
  • general ill feeling or flu-like symptoms
  • light-colored stools
  • loss of appetite, nausea
  • pain, swelling, warmth in the leg
  • right upper belly pain
  • problems with balance, talking, walking
  • severe headaches
  • shortness of breath
  • sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg
  • unusually weak or tired
  • yellowing of the eyes or skin

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • back pain
  • depressed mood or mood swings
  • increased appetite
  • fluid retention and swelling
  • nausea, vomiting
  • stomach cramps or bloating

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store in the refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F). Do not freeze. Protect from light. Keep this medicine in the orginal container until ready to use. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.

A Vital Connection For Growing Your Family

Why should I care about Progesterone?

Because it’s kind of a big deal and this is why: Progesterone, also referred to as “the pregnancy hormone,” is a common female hormone found naturally in a woman’s body. It also happens play an essential role for both before and during a pregnancy. When a fertility workup is suggested, there are two main sex hormones an overseeing medical provider will look test: estrogen and progesterone.

Progesterone (as a prescribed hormone supplementation) is often necessary during Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) procedures, such as in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Partly because the medications you may use during these procedures can suppress your body’s ability to produce progesterone. Certain procedures can even, unintentionally, remove progesterone-producing cells from your ovaries.

Sometimes, there are other reasons to use progesterone supplementation, such as little or no progesterone production from the ovaries or poorly developed follicles that do not secrete enough progesterone to develop the uterine lining.

The bottom line is this — all women who wish to become pregnant need progesterone to help their uterus prepare for and maintain a pregnancy. Read below to learn more about the important connection between progesterone and how it impacts both fertility and pregnancy.

Before Becoming Pregnant

The role of progesterone in overall fertility health, is that it helps prepare the uterus for pregnancy. After ovulation occurs, the ovaries start to produce progesterone needed by the uterus. Progesterone causes the uterine lining or endometrium to thicken. The overall goal is to have a thick lining which will helps create an ideal supportive environment in your uterus for a fertilized egg/embryo.

During Pregnancy

Progesterone balance in a pregnancy is essential. A consistent supply of progesterone to the endometrium continues helps nurture the developing fetus throughout the pregnancy. Following a successful implantation, progesterone also helps maintain a supportive environment for the developing fetus. After 8 to 10 weeks of pregnancy, the placenta takes over progesterone production from the ovaries and substantially increases progesterone production.

The Different Forms of Progesterone

Not all forms of progesterone are created equal. There are several types of progesterone are available, including vaginal products that deliver progesterone directly to the uterus. The different forms include the following:

Vaginal gel:

  • Used once a day for progesterone supplementation
  • Unique — the only once-daily FDA-approved progesterone for ART for up to 12 weeks of pregnancy
  • The only FDA-approved progesterone for replacement for donor egg recipients and frozen embryo transfers
  • Over a decade of experience and over 40 million doses prescribed
    In studies where patient preference was measured, a majority of women preferred the gel for comfort and convenience over other progesterone formulations
  • Some discharge reported during use

Vaginal suppositories:

  • Compounded at specialty pharmacists
  • Wax-based
  • Widely used but not FDA-approved
  • Used 2 to 3 times a day
  • Leakage can be messy

Vaginal inserts:

  • Designed for vaginal use
  • FDA-approved for progesterone supplementation but not for progesterone replacement
  • Effective in women under 35 years; no established results in women over 35 years
    Used 2 to 3 times a day

Progesterone oral capsules, used vaginally:

  • Not formulated or FDA-approved for vaginal use
  • Fewer side effects when capsules are used vaginally instead of orally
  • Used up to 3 times a day


  • An oil-based solution (sometimes called progesterone in oil)
  • Widely used; the oldest, most established method of progesterone delivery
  • Injected into the buttocks once a day
  • Require long, thick needle to penetrate layers of skin and fat
  • Difficult to administer by yourself
  • Injections may be painful
  • Skin reactions are common

Which supplementation is right for you?

This is a decision that you and your health care provider can make together. Progesterone is an important part of infertility treatment because it supports implantation and pregnancy. Health care providers often have a preference for which form of progesterone they prescribe for infertility treatment. Their preference is generally based on their experience with the various methods. But patient convenience and request are also important considerations.

Most women prefer a progesterone formulation that is easy, convenient, and comfortable. So, be sure to discuss your options with your health care provider.

Progesterone and Progestins – MotherToBaby

This fact sheet talks about exposure to progesterone and progestins in pregnancy and while breastfeeding. This information should not take the place of medical care and advice from your healthcare provider.

What are progesterone and progestin?

Progesterone is a hormone that is naturally made in the body by the ovaries. The body uses progesterone to build the lining of the uterus during the menstrual cycle and helps the fertilized egg attach to the wall of the uterus. During pregnancy, the placenta makes progesterone to help prevent miscarriage. Progesterone can also be made in a laboratory and is sold under many brand names including, Crinone®, Endometrin®, Prometrium®, and Prochieve®.

There are also other synthetic substances (made in a laboratory) that are similar to progesterone called progestins. Progestins are included in some forms of birth control.

Progesterone and progestins can be taken by mouth, injected, or inserted vaginally.

I take progesterone or a progestin. Can it make it harder for me to become pregnant?

Women may be given progesterone to help them get pregnant. Progestins generally prevent pregnancy It is important that you speak with your healthcare provider before beginning or discontinuing any medication.

I just found out I am pregnant. Should I stop taking progesterone or a progestin?

Talk to your healthcare providers if you are taking these medications and you are pregnant. If you are taking a progestin to prevent pregnancy (birth control) and you are now pregnant, it is no longer needed and should be stopped. If you are taking progesterone as part of a fertility treatment, to help you get/sustain a pregnancy, or to prevent miscarriage, please speak with your provider to determine how long you should continue with this medication.

Does taking progesterone or progestin increase the chance for miscarriage? 

Miscarriage can occur in any pregnancy. Progesterone use is not expected to increase the chance for a miscarriage. In fact, some women might be prescribed progesterone early in pregnancy to help prevent miscarriage.

Does taking progesterone or progestin increase the chance of birth defects?

In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a birth defect. This is called her background risk. It is unlikely that using progesterone or a progestin will increase the chance of birth defects above the background risk.

Some studies raised a concern about a chance for boys to be born with hypospadias after exposure to progestins. Hypospadias is when the opening where urine comes out is not at the correct location on the penis. Sometimes this can be treated with surgery. These studies have some design flaws. The majority of studies that have looked at the children of women who took progesterone or progestins during pregnancy did not report a higher chance of birth defects over the background risk.

Does taking progesterone or progestin cause other pregnancy complications?

Most research looking at the use of progesterone and progestin in pregnancy focuses on women who receive it as an injection (called 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or Makena®) or as a vaginal suppository to prevent preterm labor. No negative effects have been reported in these studies.

Does taking progesterone or progestin in pregnancy cause long-term problems in behavior or learning for the baby?

Studies that have followed children up to the age of 5 have not found progesterone or progestin use in pregnancy to cause problems with the brain (neurodevelopment).

Can I breastfeed while taking progesterone or progestin?

Supplemental progesterone or progestins enter the breastmilk in low amounts. Breastfeeding while taking progesterone or progestin is not expected to be harmful to the nursing infant. Be sure to talk to your healthcare provider about all your breastfeeding questions.

If a man takes progesterone or progestin, could it affect his fertility (ability to get partner pregnant) or increase the chance of birth defects?https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/paternal-exposures-pregnancy/.

Please click here for references.

OTIS/MotherToBaby recognizes that not all people identify as “men” or “women.” When using the term “mother,” we mean the source of the egg and/or uterus and by “father,” we mean the source of the sperm, regardless of the person’s gender identity.

View PDF Fact Sheet

List of progesterones, uses, brands, and safety recommendations

Progesterones are used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), birth control drugs, and other medications

Progesterones list | What are progesterones? | How they work | Uses | Who can take progesterones? | Safety | Side effects | Costs

Progesterones are a class of drugs used for various conditions, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, infertility treatment, and reintroduction of missed periods. Progesterone medications are often prescribed by OB/GYN’s, who specialize in women’s health/reproductive health.

This article will discuss progesterones—what they are used for, side effects, and warnings. To understand more fully how they work check out our ovulation guide.

Here is a list of progesterone products approved by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration): 

*Micronor (norethindrone) oral contraceptive is also available under the following branded generic names:

  • Camila (norethindrone)
  • Deblitane (norethindrone)
  • Errin (norethindrone)
  • Heather (norethindrone)
  • Incassia (norethindrone)
  • Jencycla (norethindrone)
  • Jolivette (norethindrone)
  • Lyleq (norethindrone)
  • Lyza (norethindrone)
  • Nora-Be (norethindrone)
  • Norlyda (norethindrone)
  • Norlyroc (norethindrone)
  • Nor-QD (norethindrone)
  • Sharobel (norethindrone)
  • Tulana (norethindrone)
  • Skyla (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system IUD)

Other progesterones:

  • Ella (ulipristal) emergency contraception
  • Endometrin (progesterone) vaginal insert
  • Slynd (drospirenone) oral contraceptive
  • Kyleena (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system IUD)
  • Nexplanon (etonogestrel) contraceptive implant
  • Liletta (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system IUD)
  • Mirena (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system IUD)

What are progesterones?

The two main sex hormones in women are estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is involved with fertility and the menstrual cycle. Progesterones are in a class of hormones called progestogens. After ovulation, during the second half of the menstrual cycle, the female body makes a temporary hormone gland called the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum makes progesterone. 

Progestins are synthetic hormones that act like progesterones. Progestin may be used alone or in combination with estrogen. Progestins are used as contraceptives to prevent pregnancy. They also can be used as hormone replacement therapy to treat menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. There are many other uses for progesterone, too (see below).

Hormone replacement therapy may include estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. 

In women who have a uterus, hormone therapy includes estrogen and progesterone, because estrogen alone increases the risk for endometrial cancer in women with a uterus. 

Women who have had a hysterectomy (do not have a uterus) do not need to take progesterone with estrogen, and can use estrogen-only products.

How do progesterones work?

Progesterone can work as part of hormone replacement therapy, to treat symptoms of menopause. It is used along with estrogen in women who have had menopause and have not had a hysterectomy. Estrogen alone can cause an increased risk of uterine cancer, so adding progesterone to hormone replacement therapy lowers the risk of uterine cancer.  

Progesterone may also be used in women of childbearing age who have had normal periods, and stopped menstruating. It is used to help bring periods back, as a replacement for the natural progesterone that some women are missing.

Women who have low progesterone levels and infertility may need to take progesterone to help support a pregnancy. 

When used as contraception, progesterone-only pills work by thickening the cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach an egg) and causing changes in the uterus to prevent an egg from implantation if fertilization does occur. They may or may not suppress ovulation.

What are progesterones used for?

Depending on the specific formulation, progesterones have various indications. Below is a list of some of the indications for which progesterones may be used:

  • Hormone replacement therapy (with estrogen)
  • Birth control/pregnancy prevention (with or without estrogen)
  • Infertility treatment
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Amenorrhea (absence of periods)
  • Endometriosis
  • Endometrial hyperplasia 
  • Breast cancer
  • Kidney cancer
  • Uterine cancer
  • AIDS-related appetite loss/weight loss
  • Cancer-related appetite loss/weight loss
  • Diagnostic aid to see if estrogen is present

Who can take progesterones?

Can men take progesterones?

Most progesterones are not approved for use in men. However, megestrol is a progesterone medication used in women or men for AIDS-related weight loss, appetite loss, or wasting.

Can women take progesterones?

Yes. Progesterones are for use in women for a variety of indications, as long as they do not fall into one of the restricted categories below. Progesterones are often used as hormone replacement therapy, birth control, or to bring back missed periods. They should not be used in women who are pregnant. If you are breastfeeding, consult your healthcare provider for medical advice. 

Can children take progesterones?

No—progesterones are not approved for use in children. 

Can seniors take progesterones?

Older adult females can take progesterones as part of hormone replacement therapy, or for other approved indications, as long as they do not fall into one of the restricted categories listed below.

Are progesterones safe?

Progesterones recalls

Progesterones alone have not been recalled. There have been several recalls of combination medications containing estrogen and progesterone.

Progesterones restrictions

When a progesterone is combined with an estrogen, there is a boxed warning, which is the strongest warning required by the FDA. 

  • Estrogen plus progestin should not be used to prevent heart disease or dementia. The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study found higher risks of DVT (deep vein thrombosis), PE (pulmonary embolism), stroke, and MI (myocardial infarction) in postmenopausal women who took estrogen plus progestin. The study also found an increased risk of dementia in postmenopausal women who took estrogen with progestin. 
  • The WHI study also found an increased risk of invasive breast cancer with estrogen plus progestin. 

Therefore, the black box warning states, “Progestins with estrogens should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.” Talk with your healthcare provider about the risks vs benefits of various types of hormone replacement therapy. 

Progesterones are contraindicated in people with/who are:

  • Hypersensitivity to progesterones
  • Hypersensitivity to peanuts (certain progesterone products)
  • Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding
  • Smokers
  • Breast cancer or a history of breast cancer
  • Progesterone-dependent cancer
  • Venous thromboembolism or history of venous thromboembolism
  • Arterial thromboembolism within the past year
  • Liver disease/impairment
  • Pregnancy 
  • Missed abortion 

Progesterones should be used with caution in people who have/are:

  • Older adults
  • Kidney disease
  • Heart disease 
  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Hypothyroidism 
  • High cholesterol
  • Asthma
  • Seizure disorder
  • Migraine 
  • History of depression 
  • Lupus 
  • Obesity 
  • Family history of venous thromboembolism
  • Surgery or prolonged immobilization
  • Sensitive to fluid retention

Can you take progesterones while pregnant or breastfeeding?

If you are taking a progesterone medication (birth control) to prevent pregnancy, and you get pregnant or want to become pregnant, you should stop taking the medication. 

However, if you are taking progesterone as part of fertility treatment or to prevent miscarriage, consult your healthcare professional for advice on when to stop taking the medication. 

After giving birth, under your doctor’s care, you can use progesterone-only birth control (such as Depo-Provera, an implant, IUD, or mini-pill) right away. You should not use birth control that contains estrogen for at least three weeks after giving birth.

Progesterone medications can enter breast milk in small amounts. Consult your healthcare provider for guidance on progesterone and lactation.

Are progesterones controlled substances?

No, progesterones are not controlled substances.

Common progesterones side effects

Progesterones have some common side effects. Before using a progesterone medication, talk to your healthcare professional about what kind of side effects to expect, and what to do if they occur. Side effects depend on the particular progesterone product. If side effects persist or are bothersome, contact your doctor. Some common side effects of progesterones include:

  • Headache 
  • Breast pain or breast tenderness 
  • Stomach problems like abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation
  • Menstrual cramps
  • Dizziness 
  • Muscle or bone pain 
  • Viral infection 
  • Vaginal discharge 
  • Anxiety, irritability, depression
  • Fatigue 
  • Cough 
  • Chest pain 
  • Acne 
  • Fluid retention
  • Excess hair growth 
  • Weight gain
  • Menstrual irregularities

Progesterones can also cause serious side effects. Serious side effects can include:

  • Thrombosis (blood clots)
  • Retinal thrombosis (blockage of the retina of the eye) or retinal lesions
  • Optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve of the eye)
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Stroke 
  • Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • Breast or ovarian cancer 
  • Liver tumor or other liver problems
  • Depression 
  • Dementia 
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Ectopic pregnancy 

If you have symptoms of a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) such as hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the face, lips, or tongue, seek emergency medical attention right away.

This is not a full list of side effects, and other side effects may occur. Consult your healthcare provider for a full list of side effects. 

How much do progesterones cost?

The price of progesterones varies widely. The price can depend on a number of factors such as the formulation, strength, and quantity, as well as insurance coverage. You can ask your doctor to prescribe you a progesterone that is available in generic, if that is possible for your condition. For example, many “mini-pills,” or progestin-only birth control pills, are available in generic form. You can also use our free SingleCare card or coupons. Our customers can save up to 80% on their prescriptions and refills. Ask your pharmacist to compare prices between your insurance and SingleCare card.

Menopause: Medicines to Help You

Print and Share (PDF 3557 KB)

Menopause (sometimes called “the change of life”) is a normal time in a woman’s life when her period stops. During menopause, a woman’s body makes less of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Lower hormone levels may lead to symptoms like night sweats, hot flashes, and vaginal dryness along with thin bones.

Some women choose to treat their menopause symptoms with hormone medicines sometimes called Hormone Therapy. The following lists some basic information about the FDA-approved hormone medicines for menopause. Use this information to help you talk to your healthcare provider about whether hormone medicines are right for you.

Do not take hormone therapy if you:
  • have problems with vaginal bleeding
  • have or have had certain cancers such as breast cancer or uterine cancer
  • have or have had a blood clot, stroke or heart attack
  • have a bleeding disorder
  • have liver disease
  • have allergic reactions to hormone medicine

Menopause Hormone Therapy

There are different types of hormone medicines used during and after menopause:

Information about non-hormone medicines for menopause is not included. Ask your healthcare provider about the FDA-approved non-hormone medicine for menopause called Brisdelle (paroxetine).

Side Effects

Hormone medicines have side effects. Serious health problems can happen in women who take menopause hormone therapy.

  • For some women, hormone medicines may raise their chances of blood clots, heart attacks, strokes, and breast cancer.
  • For some women who are 65 years old or older, hormone medicines may raise their chances of dementia.
  • For women who still have their uterus, taking estrogen-only medicines raises their chance of getting cancer of the lining of the uterus or endometrial cancer. These women need to take progestin to prevent endometrial cancer.

All side effects and warnings for each hormone medicine are not listed. Ask your healthcare provider about all the risks of taking hormone medicines.

Estrogen-Only Medicines

Brand Name Generic Name Product Type
Alora estradiol Patch
Cenestin synthetic conjugated estrogens Pill
Climara estradiol Patch
Delestrogen estradiol valerate Injection (Shot)
Divigel estradiol Gel
Elestrin estradiol Gel
Enjuvia synthetic conjugated estrogens Pill
Esclim estradiol Patch
Estrace estradiol Pill
Vaginal Cream
Estraderm estradiol Patch
Estrasorb estradiol Skin Cream
Estring estradiol Vaginal Insert
EstroGel estradiol Gel
Evamist estradiol Skin Spray (Transdermal)
Femring estradiol acetate Vaginal Ring
Femtrace estradiol acetate Pill
Menest esterified estrogen Pill
(only used to prevent osteoporosis)
estradiol Patch
Minivelle estradiol Patch
Ogen estropipate Pill
Vaginal Cream
Ortho-Est estropipate Pill
Osphena (not estrogen only) ospemifene Pill
Premarin conjugated estrogens Pill
Vaginal Cream
Injection (Shot)
Vagifem estradiol Vaginal Tablet
Vivelle estradiol Patch
Vivelle-Dot estradiol Patch

Estrogen-Only Medicines

Do not use if you:

  • have unusual vaginal bleeding
  • have or have had certain cancers such as breast cancer or uterine cancer
  • have or have had blood clots in the legs or lungs
  • have a bleeding disorder
  • have had a stroke or heart attack
  • have liver problems
  • have serious reactions to estrogen medicines
  • think you are pregnant

Serious Side Effects

  • Stroke or blood clots
  • Endometrial Cancer in women who still have their uterus and who do not use progestin with estrogen-only medicines
  • Dementia in women 65 years and older
  • Gallbladder disease or high triglyceride (cholesterol) levels that could lead to problems with your pancreas
  • Vision loss caused by a blood clot in the eye
  • Liver Problems
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Severe allergic reactions

Less Serious, Common Side Effects

  • Headaches
  • Painful or tender breasts
  • Vaginal spotting
  • Stomach cramps/ Bloating  
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Hair loss
  • Fluid retention 
  • Vaginal yeast infection

For more information about the risks and side effects for each drug, check [email protected]

Progestin-Only Medicines

Brand Name Generic Name Product Type
Prometrium micronized progesterone Pill
Provera medroxyprogesterone acetate Pill

Progestin-Only Medicines

Estrogen-only medicines are usually taken with progestin-only medicines to lower the chance of getting endometrial cancer in women who still have their uterus.

The side effects listed below are for women who take a progestin-only medicine and an estrogen-only medicine.

Do not use if you:

  • have unusual vaginal bleeding
  • have or have had certain cancers such as breast cancer or uterine cancer
  • have or have had blood clots in the legs or lungs
  • have a bleeding disorder
  • have had a stroke or heart attack
  • have liver problems
  • have serious reactions to estrogen medicines
  • think you are pregnant

Serious Side Effects

  • Heart attack or stroke
  • Blood clots
  • Breast cancer
  • Dementia in women 65 years and older
  • Gallbladder disease or high triglyceride (cholesterol) levels that could lead to problems with your pancreas
  • Vision loss caused by a blood clot in the eye
  • Liver problems
  • High blood pressure
  • Severe allergic reactions

Less Serious, Common Side Effects

  • Headaches
  • Painful or tender breasts
  • Vaginal spotting
  • Stomach cramps/bloating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Hair loss
  • Fluid retention
  • Vaginal yeast infection

For more information about the risks and side effects for each drug, check [email protected].

Combination Estrogen and Progestin Medicines

Brand Name Generic Name Product Type
Activella estradiol/
norethindrone acetate
Angeliq estradiol/ drospirenone Pill
Climara Pro estradiol/
Combipatch estradiol/
norethindrone acetate
Femhrt norethindrone acetate/
ethinyl estradiol
Prefest estradiol/
Prempro conjugated estrogen/

Combination Estrogen and Progestin Medicines

Do not use if you:

  • have unusual vaginal bleeding
  • have or have had certain cancers such as breast cancer or uterine cancer
  • have or have had blood clots in the legs or lungs
  • have a bleeding disorder
  • have had a stroke or heart attack
  • have liver problems
  • have serious reactions to estrogen medicines
  • think you are pregnant

Serious Side Effects

  • Heart attack or stroke
  • Blood clots
  • Breast Cancer
  • Dementia in women 65 years and older
  • Gallbladder disease or high triglyceride (cholesterol) levels that could lead to problems with your pancreas
  • Vision loss caused by a blood clot in the eye
  • Liver problems
  • High blood pressure
  • Severe allergic reactions

Less Serious, Common Side Effects

  • Headaches
  • Painful or tender breasts
  • Vaginal spotting
  • Stomach cramps/bloating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Hair loss
  • Fluid retention
  • Vaginal yeast infection

For the most recent information about each drug, check [email protected]

Combination Estrogen and Hormone Medicines

Brand Name Generic Name Product Type
Duavee conjugated estrogen/bazedoxifene Pill

You should not use Duavee if you are taking medicines that have estrogen, progestin or both hormones.

Do not use if you:

  • have unusual vaginal bleeding
  • have or have had certain cancers such as breast cancer or uterine cancer
  • have or have had blood clots in the legs or lungs
  • have a bleeding disorder
  • have or have had a stroke or heart attack
  • have liver problems
  • have had a serious allergic reaction to estrogen medicines
  • think you are pregnant or may become pregnant
  • are breastfeeding (nursing)

Serious Side Effects

  • Stroke or blood clots
  • Dementia in women 65 years and older
  • Gallbladder disease or high triglyceride (cholesterol) levels that could lead to problems with your pancreas
  • Vision loss caused by a blood clot in the eye
  • Liver problems
  • High blood pressure
  • Severe allergic reaction

Less Serious, Common Side Effects

  • Muscle spasms
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Upset stomach/stomach pain
  • Throat pain
  • Dizziness
  • Neck Pain

For more information about the risks and side effects for each drug, check [email protected].

Important Questions to Ask about Menopause Hormone Medicines

  • Are hormones right for me? Why?
  • What are the benefits?
  • What are the serious risks and common side effects?
  • How long should I use hormone therapy?
  • What is the lowest dose that will work for me?
  • Are there any non-hormone medicines that I can take?

Want more information about menopause? Check the FDA website at: www.fda.gov/menopause

The drug and risk information in this booklet may change. Check [email protected] for the latest facts on each product listed in this booklet.

Resources For You

  • Content current as of:

Progesterone: Uses, Interactions, Mechanism of Action


Gelatinized capsules

The gelatinized capsules are indicated for use in the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia in non-hysterectomized postmenopausal women who are receiving conjugated estrogens tablets. They are also indicated for use in secondary amenorrhea Label.

Vaginal gel

Progesterone gel (8%) is indicated as progesterone supplementation or replacement as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (“ART”) treatment for infertile women with progesterone deficiency. The lower concentration progesterone gel (4%) is used in the treatment of secondary amenorrhea, with the use of the 8% concentration if there is no therapeutic response to the 4% gel 20.

Vaginal insert

This form is indicated to support embryo implantation and early pregnancy by supplementation of corpus luteal function as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment program for infertile women 21.

Injection (intramuscular)

This drug is indicated in amenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology, such as submucous fibroids or uterine cancer 23.

Tablets, contraceptive

The tablet form of progesterone in contraceptive formulations is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy 22.

Reduce drug development failure rates

Build, train, & validate machine-learning modelswith evidence-based and structured datasets.

Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings

Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events

Improve clinical decision support with information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.

Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.


Progesterone, depending on concentration and dosage form, and timing of exposure may have several pharmacodynamic effects. These actions, according, to various preparations, are listed below:

General effects

Progesterone is the main hormone of the corpus luteum and the placenta. It acts on the uterus by changing the proliferative phase to the secretory phase of the endometrium (inner mucous lining of the uterus). This hormone, stimulated by a hormone called luteinizing hormone (LH) is the main hormone during the secretory phase to prepare the corpus luteum and the endometrium for implantation of a fertilized ovum. As the luteal phase concludes, the progesterone hormone sends negative feedback to the anterior pituitary gland in the brain to decrease FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) levels. This prevents ovulation and maturation of oocytes (immature egg cells). The endometrium then prepares for pregnancy by increasing its vascularity (blood vessels) and stimulating mucous secretion. This process occurs by progesterone stimulating the endometrium to decrease endometrial proliferation, leading to a decreased uterine lining thickness, developing more complex uterine glands, collecting energy in the form of glycogen, and providing more uterine blood vessel surface area suitable for supporting a growing embryo. As opposed to cervical mucous changes observed during the proliferative phase and ovulation, progesterone decreases and thickens the cervical mucus, rendering it less elastic. This change occurs because the fertilization time period has passed, and a specific consistency of mucous amenable to sperm entry is no longer required 16.

Gelatinized capsules

Progesterone capsules are an oral dosage form of micronized progesterone which, chemically identical to progesterone of ovarian origin. Progesterone capsules have all the properties of endogenous progesterone with induction of a secretory phase endometrium with gestagenic, antiestrogenic, slightly antiandrogenic and anti-aldosterone effects 24. Progesterone opposes the effects of estrogen on the uterus, and is beneficial in women with unopposed estrogen exposure, which carries an increased risk of malignancy 24.

Vaginal gel and vaginal insert

The gel preparation mimics the effects of naturally occurring progesterone. In the presence of adequate levels of estrogen, progesterone converts a proliferative endometrium into secretory endometrium. This means that the endometrium changes from a growing and thickening stage into a subsequent preparation stage for pregnancy, which involves further preparatory changes. Progesterone is necessary for the development of decidual tissue (specialized tissue amenable to supporting a possible pregnancy). Progesterone is required to increase endometrial receptivity for the implantation of a fertilized embryo. Once an embryo is implanted, progesterone helps to maintain the pregnancy 20.

Injection (intramuscular)

Intramuscularly injected progesterone increases serum progesterone and aids in the prevention of endometrial tissue overgrowth due to unopposed estrogen (which leads to abnormal uterine bleeding and sometimes uterine cancer) 18, 25. In the absence or deficiency of progesterone, the endometrium continually proliferates, eventually outgrowing its limited blood supply, shedding incompletely, and leading to abnormal and/or profuse bleeding as well as malignancy 18.

Tablets, contraceptive

Progesterone-only contraceptive tablets prevent conception by suppressing ovulation in about half of users, causing a thickening of cervical mucus to inhibit sperm movement, lowering the midcycle LH and FSH hormone peaks, slowing the movement of the ovum through the fallopian tubes, and causing secretory changes in the endometrium as described above 22.

Mechanism of action

Progesterone binds and activates its nuclear receptor, PR, which plays an important part in the signaling of stimuli that maintain the endometrium during its preparation for pregnancy.

Progesterone receptor (PR) is a member of the nuclear/steroid hormone receptor (SHR) family of ligand-dependent transcription factors that is expressed primarily in female reproductive tissue as well as the central nervous system. As a result of its binding its associated steroid hormone, progesterone, the progesterone receptor (PR) modulates the expression of genes that regulate the development, differentiation, and proliferation of target tissues 14. In humans, PR is found to be highly expressed in the stromal (connective tissue) cells during the secretory phase and during pregnancy 10.

Progesterone may prevent pregnancy by changing the consistency of cervical mucus to be unfavorable for sperm penetration, and by inhibiting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which normally causes ovulation. With perfect use, the first-year failure rate for progestin-only oral contraceptives is approximately 0.5%. The typical failure rate, however, is estimated to be approximately 5%, due to late or missed pills 22.


Oral micronized capsules

Following oral administration of progesterone in the micronized soft-gelatin capsule formulation, peak serum concentration was achieved in the first 3 hours. The absolute bioavailability of micronized progesterone is unknown at this time. In postmenopausal women, serum progesterone concentration increased in a dose-proportional and linear fashion after multiple doses of progesterone capsules, ranging from 100 mg/day to 300 mg/day Label.

IM administration

After intramuscular (IM) administration of 10 mg of progesterone in oil, the maximum plasma concentrations were achieved in about 8 hours post-injection and plasma concentrations stayed above baseline for approximately 24 hours post-injection. Injections of 10, 25, and 50 mg lead to geometric mean values for maximum plasma concentration (CMAX) of 7, 28, and 50 ng/mL, respectively 25. Progesterone administered by the intramuscular (IM) route avoids significant first-pass hepatic metabolism. As a result, endometrial tissue concentrations of progesterone achieved with IM administration are higher when compared with oral administration. Despite this, the highest concentrations of progesterone in endometrial tissue are reached with vaginal administration 11.

Note on oral contraceptive tablet absorption

Serum progestin levels peak about 2 hours after oral administration of progesterone-only contraceptive tablets, followed by rapid distribution and elimination. By 24 hours after drug administration, serum levels remain near the baseline, making efficacy dependent upon strict adherence to the dosing schedule. Large variations in serum progesterone levels occur among individuals. Progestin-only administration leads to lower steady-state serum progestin levels and a shorter elimination half-life than concurrent administration with estrogens 22.

Volume of distribution

When administered vaginally, progesterone is well absorbed by uterine endometrial tissue, and a small percentage is distributed into the systemic circulation.
The amount of progesterone in the systemic circulation appears to be of minimal importance, especially when implantation, pregnancy, and live birth outcomes appear similar for intramuscular and vaginal administration of progesterone 11.

Protein binding

96%-99% bound to serum proteins, primarily to serum albumin (50%-54%) and transcortin (43%-48%) Label.


Progesterone is mainly metabolized by the liver. After oral administration, the major plasma metabolites found are 20 a hydroxy-Δ4 a-prenolone and 5 a-dihydroprogesterone. Some progesterone metabolites are found excreted in the bile and these metabolites may be deconjugated and subsequently metabolized in the gut by reduction, dehydroxylation, and epimerization Label. The major plasma and urinary metabolites are comparable to those found during the physiological progesterone secretion of the corpus luteum 24.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Progesterone metabolites are excreted mainly by the kidneys. Urinary elimination is observed for 95% of patients in the form of glycuroconjugated metabolites, primarily 3 a, 5 ß–pregnanediol (pregnandiol) 24. The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pregnanediol and pregnanolone are excreted in the urine and bile. Progesterone metabolites, excreted in the bile, may undergo enterohepatic recycling or may be found excreted in the feces.


Absorption half-life is approximately 25-50 hours and an elimination half-life of 5-20 minutes (progesterone gel) 20.

Progesterone, administered orally, has a short serum half-life (approximately 5 minutes). It is rapidly metabolized to 17-hydroxyprogesterone during its first pass through the liver 11.


Apparent clearance

1367 ± 348 (50mg of progesterone administered by vaginal insert once daily) 11.

106 ± 15 L/h (50mg/mL IM injection once daily) 11.

Adverse Effects

Improve decision support & research outcomes

With structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates.

Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.


Intraperitoneal LD50 (rat): 327 mg/kg MSDS.

Use in pregnancy

Only forms of progesterone that are indicated on product labeling for pregnancy should be used. Some forms of progesterone should not be used in pregnancy Label, 22. Refer to individual product monographs for information regarding use in pregnancy. Many studies have found no effects on fetal development associated with long-term use of contraceptive doses of oral progestins. Studies of infant growth and development that have been conducted have not demonstrated significant adverse effects, however, these studies are few in number. It is therefore advisable to rule out suspected pregnancy before starting any hormonal contraceptive 22.

Effects on fertility

Progesterone at high doses is an antifertility drug and high doses would be expected to impair fertility until cessation 25. The progesterone contraceptive should not be used during pregnancy.


Progesterone has been shown to induce or promote the formation of ovarian, uterine, mammary, and genital tract tumors in animals. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown 24. Certain epidemiological studies of patients using oral contraceptives have reported an increased relative risk of developing breast cancer, especially at a younger age and associated with a longer duration of use. These studies have mainly involved combined oral contraceptives, and therefore, it is unknown whether this risk is attributable to progestins, estrogens, or a combination of both. At this time, there is insufficient data to determine whether the use of progestin-only contraceptives increases the risk in a similar way to combined contraceptives. A meta-analysis of 54 studies showed a small increase in the frequency of breast cancer diagnosis for women who were currently using combined oral contraceptives, or had used them within the past 10 years. There was no increase in the frequency of having breast cancer diagnosed ten or more years after cessation of hormone use. Women with breast cancer should not use oral contraceptives, as there is no sufficient data to fully establish or negate the risk of cancer with hormonal contraceptive use 22.

Use in breastfeeding

Progesterone has been detected in the milk of nursing mothers 21, 22. No adverse effects, in general, have been found on breastfeeding ability or on the health, growth, or development of the growing infant. Despite this, isolated post-marketing cases of decreased milk production have been reported 22.

Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Duphaston instructions for use: indications, contraindications, side effects – description Duphaston Film-coated tablets (1048)

Before starting treatment with dihydrosterone for abnormal uterine bleeding, it is necessary to find out the cause of the bleeding. With prolonged use of dihydrosterone, periodic examinations by a gynecologist are recommended, the frequency of which is determined individually, but at least once every 6 months. In the first months of treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding, breakthrough bleeding or spotting spotting may occur.If “breakthrough” bleeding or spotting spotting occurs after a certain period of taking dihydrosterone or continues after a course of treatment, you should consult your doctor and conduct an appropriate additional examination, if necessary, do an endometrial biopsy in order to exclude neoplasms in the endometrium.

HRT should be prescribed for the treatment of menopausal symptoms that adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. The benefit / risk ratio of HRT should be assessed annually.Therapy should be continued until the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk.

Medical examination. Before starting the use of a combination of dydrogesterone and estrogen (for HRT), a complete individual and family history should be collected. An objective examination (including examination of the pelvic organs and mammary glands) should be carried out in order to identify possible contraindications and conditions requiring precautionary measures.

During treatment, it is recommended to periodically monitor the individual tolerance of HRT.

Endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. In women with an intact uterus, the risk of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer increases with prolonged estrogen monotherapy. Cyclic use of progestogens, incl. dydrogesterone (for at least 12 days of a 28-day cycle), or the use of a sequential combined HRT regimen in women with a preserved uterus may prevent the increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer with estrogen monotherapy.

Breast cancer. Available data indicate that the risk of breast cancer is increased in women who received HRT with estrogen-progestogen drugs, and possibly also with estrogen monotherapy. The level of risk depends on the duration of HRT. While taking medications for HRT, especially with combination therapy with estrogens and progestogens, there may be an increase in breast tissue density during mammography, which can complicate the diagnosis of breast cancer.

Ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is much less common than breast cancer. There is evidence of a slight increase in risk for women receiving HRT in the form of estrogen monotherapy or combination therapy with estrogens and progestogens. An increase in this risk becomes evident with the duration of therapy for more than 5 years, and after its termination, the risk gradually decreases over time.

Venous thromboembolism. HRT is associated with 1.3 to 3-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), i.e. deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. The likelihood is highest in the first year of HRT than in the following. Patients with diagnosed thrombophilia have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism, and HRT may increase the risk. For this reason, HRT is contraindicated in such patients.

Risk factors for venous thromboembolism include estrogen intake, advanced age, major surgery, prolonged immobilization, obesity (BMI> 30 kg / m2 2 ), pregnancy, postpartum period, systemic lupus erythematosus, cancer.There are no unambiguous data on the possible role of varicose veins in the development of venous thromboembolism.

If long-term immobilization is necessary after surgical interventions, you should stop taking medications for HRT 4-6 weeks before the operation, resuming their intake is possible after the woman’s motor activity is fully restored.

In case of detection of thrombophilia associated with thrombosis in family members or in the presence of a severe defect (for example, lack of antithrombin III, protein C, protein S, or a combination of defects), HRT is contraindicated.

If the patient is taking anticoagulants, the benefit / risk of HRT should be carefully assessed. Until a thorough assessment of the factors for the possible development of thromboembolism is completed or the initiation of anticoagulant therapy, drugs for HRT are not prescribed. If thrombosis develops after starting therapy, HRT should be discontinued.

An urgent need to consult a doctor in case of any of the symptoms indicating a possible thromboembolism (soreness or swelling of the lower extremities, sudden chest pain, shortness of breath, blurred vision).

Ischemic heart disease (IHD). There is evidence that there is no protective effect against the development of myocardial infarction in women with and without coronary artery disease, receiving HRT in the form of combination therapy with estrogens and progestogens or estrogen monotherapy.

The relative risk of coronary heart disease is slightly increased during combined HRT. The absolute risk of coronary heart disease depends on age. The number of cases of ischemic heart disease against the background of the use of HRT is less in healthy women at an age close to the onset of natural menopause, but it increases in subsequent years.

Ischemic stroke. Combination therapy with estrogens and progestogens or estrogens alone is associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke. The relative risk does not change with age and does not depend on the time of menopause. However, the incidence of stroke varies with age, and the overall risk of stroke in women receiving HRT will increase with age.

Influence on the ability to drive vehicles and mechanisms

Care should be taken when driving vehicles and mechanisms, given the possibility of adverse reactions from the nervous system (mild drowsiness and / or dizziness, especially in the first hours of admission).


STADA Arzneimittel AG is an international group of companies, one of the
the largest manufacturers of generics and products in the Consumer HealthCare segment.
The concern has more than 20 production sites around the world, in
including Russian factories – NIZHFARM (Nizhny Novgorod) and HEMOFARM

STADA’s Russian product portfolio includes medicines
of the 17 top-selling therapeutic groups in the pharmacy

STADA’s gynecological portfolio includes such well-known medicinal
funds like Tranexam, Depantol, Femileks, Geksikon, Ginestril,
Miropriston, Mirolyut and Antiadgezin. Since 2020 the company’s portfolio
was replenished with the brands Vitrum Prenatal Plus and Calcium-Dz Nycomed.
For 125 years STADA has been taking care of people’s health by building
trusting relationships with partners and consumers. STADA helps
make a confident choice in favor of high-quality and safe medicines for
fair price.


Ginestril® is a progesterone receptor modulator.

Used to treat uterine leiomyoma.
The greatest efficiency is observed in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with medium-sized nodes (3 – 6 cm).
The course of treatment is 3 months.

Ginestril® is the drug of choice for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

• Ginestril® reduces the size of myomatous nodes by 46%, the volume of the uterus by 36%, which allows leveling symptoms and avoiding surgical treatment or organ-preserving intervention.
• Ginestril® does not cause symptoms of estrogen deficiency during treatment, does not increase thrombotic risk.
• Ginestril® is the only progesterone receptor blocker
that does not exhibit hepatotoxicity, which has been proven in clinical use for 15 years.
• MnN mifepristone has been used on the market for over 20 years and has been proven to be safe at various doses (including ultra-high doses: the drug Corlim in the USA for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome 300-900 mg mifepristone / day for a long time).


Tranexam® is a hemostatic agent.

Available in two dosage forms: solution for intravenous administration and tablets.
Tranexam® is used for the short-term treatment of bleeding associated with increased fibrinolysis in various fields of medicine.

In obstetrics and gynecology, Tranexam® is used for the following pathological conditions:

– abnormal uterine bleeding;
– surgical procedures on the cervix;
– obstetric-gynecological bleeding (including bleeding during gynecological surgery).
– bleeding during pregnancy.

Tranexam® is the gold standard for treating abnormal uterine bleeding.

• Level A efficacy / safety evidence.
• Tranexamic acid is included in the standards of medical care for all types of obstetric and gynecological bleeding.
• Tranexamic acid is included in international guidelines for the treatment of obstetric and gynecological bleeding.
• Tranexam® is the only brand of tranexamic acid in Russia produced from the original Japanese substance.

Birth of a tablet – analytical portal POLIT.RU

Livebook Publishing House publishes a book by American journalist Jonathan Eig “The Birth of a Pill. How four enthusiasts rediscovered sex and made a revolution ”(translated by Anna Sinyatkina).

The heroes of the book are the founder of the American League of Birth Control Margaret Sanger, physiologist Gregory Pincus, a deeply religious Catholic doctor John Rock and the determined heiress of millions, the leader of the women’s rights movement Catherine McCormick, whose joint efforts led to the birth of birth control pills.

The Birth of a Pill is an incredible story about the most radical social breakthrough of the 20th century, driven by courage, unconventional thinking and faith in what you do. About the discovery that proclaimed the sex revolution, changed the life of the whole society and gave millions of women new opportunities and freedom.

This passage describes the circumstances in which a new contraceptive was tested.

Pincus was pleased with the results of his previous tests on rabbits and rats.Equally, if not more, he was pleased with John Rock’s findings that progesterone did not harm women. Rock did not test hormones specifically as a method of protection, but Pinkus did not care much. It doesn’t matter if women could conceive or not. He needed living warm bodies; women who are ready not only to take the experimental medicine, but also to undergo daily temperature measurements, daily vaginal smears, urine tests every two days and endometrial biopsies from time to time – when the doctor takes pieces of tissue from the uterine lining.Rock’s patients had a goal – they believed that in the end Rock would help them get pregnant. Without such an incentive, Pincus would hardly have gathered volunteers. In addition, conducting his experiment ostensibly as part of Rock’s work with fertility, Pincus could claim with a blue eye that he was not involved in birth control issues. If he had frankly confessed what he was studying, he and Rock would both be found to be violators of Massachusetts’ all form of contraception law, and would receive five years in prison and a fine of up to a thousand dollars.

In an application for a new Family Planning grant, Pincus wrote that he intends to conduct trials for “two or three menstrual cycles on thirty to forty women.” In the meantime, laboratory tests on animals continued.

Here’s another splash of Pincus’ improvisational genius – a scheme so bizarre it seems to have come straight from Hollywood. He was going to test a contraceptive disguised as a fertility drug. If he was still at the faculty at Harvard, and even if he was still in alliance with Clark University, he would not have gotten away with it.The head of the faculty, fearing problems with the law or a bad reputation, could simply forbid him from giving women contraceptives. But Pincus was in his own service and was not afraid to take risks. When Henshaw asked him if it was dangerous to break the law by giving birth control to women in Massachusetts, Pincus replied emphatically, “You can research the fundamental facts in either Worcester or Timbuktu [sic].” In these trials, he continued, we are not researching preservatives: “They are looking at the very specific effects of the drugs we work with, and research into the biology of those effects is not against any Massachusetts law.”It can be difficult to carry out large-scale trials on many women, but this is not the question of today. The first thing to do is find out if progesterone is working. Pincus concluded: “Thus, I would like to know from you what you think is possible in terms of your resources.”

Pincus believed it was the duty of a scientist to be aggressive. Too many of his colleagues, he complained, were content with publishing in scientific journals and thinking about how work could drive change.”Call-to-action programs,” he wrote, “mostly pass by the researcher’s laboratory.”

Pincus now saw himself as more than just a research scientist, he was an activist, fighter and businessman. He was also the creator of all kinds of coalitions, even the most implausible. He is not the first to experiment with progesterone, and he is not even the first to suggest that progesterone can work as a means of protection for women. But he was the first to establish the necessary connections, linking together pharmaceutical companies, gynecologists and biologists who have coincided interests.Pincus was not looking for a moment of insight – he was looking for the pieces of the puzzle that make up his mental image: a functioning birth control pill. Faced with another obstacle, he did not retreat from the project, did not postpone it for himself or for the future, but continued to move forward, using all the means and all allies that he had.

John Rock has already given women progesterone and estrogen to see if it helps them get pregnant. Pincus didn’t do anything else – he just did it for a different reason.

Was it dishonest? Most will say yes. However, this did not violate any laws or medical standards of the time.

In the 50s of the twentieth century, the US laws on the testing of experimental drugs were among the most progressive, and still there was still no law obliging doctors to inform patients that they were being experimented with. Rock’s patients weren’t exactly fooled. They were told that the progesterone they were given would stop the ovaries from working and make pregnancy impossible.They were told that the treatment would cause a condition similar to pregnancy and could cause nausea. And they were honestly told that, according to Rock, after the experiment was completed, their chances of getting pregnant would be much higher.

Only one detail was not said.

❍ ❍ ❍

Human trials began in 53. Pincus and Rock enrolled twenty-seven of Rock’s patients at the free women’s hospital for a three-month trial. The study was different from Rock’s earlier progesterone experiments.This time, because Pincus wanted to make sure hormones effectively prevent ovulation, the study did not include women who did not ovulate regularly. Those who entered the group were also sterile, but Rock did not know why. Instead of the mixture of progesterone and estrogen that Rock had previously used, women received only progesterone. The tablets were taken every day for three weeks, followed by a break so that menstruation could occur.

The work turned out to be laborious.Among Rock’s nurses and technicians, the new round of studies was called Pinkus’ progesterone project – PPP. Some people joked that PPP stands for pee-pee – a lot of urine samples were tested. Having collected enough bottles of urine, Rock sent a courier from Boston, and Pincus sent a courier from Shrewsbury. They met halfway, Pinkus’s messenger collecting urine and driving back to Shrewsbury.

Pincus was so delighted with this approach that he was eager to find more test subjects. In the spring of 53, when Rock’s trials were just beginning, he turned to scientists and gynecologists in Worcester, Israel and Japan with a request if they would agree to include their patients in similar studies.He also recruited members from the nurses at Worcester State Hospital. Their assistance could be extremely important for Pinkus: they, unlike Rock’s patients, were not treated for infertility. They were presumably fertile, some used contraception. Unfortunately, the nurses weren’t the best patients. Most of them came out of the experiment.

In Worcester, a forty-seven-year-old gynecologist named Henry Kirkendall agreed to help Pinkus and include some of his patients in his research.Kirkendall served at St. Vincent’s Hospital and was the chief obstetrician at Memorial Hospital, both based in Worcester. If you were born in Worcester or nearby in the 40s or early 50s of the twentieth century, it is likely that you were received by Dr. Kirkendall. Like John Rock, Kirkendall was a devout Catholic. Like John Rock, he became a proponent of family planning as a result of his work with women. Pincus met with Kirkendall and asked if the gynecologist could find thirty women willing to participate in a study like the one that Rock was doing.Women will have to take their temperature every day and record the results themselves. They will also have to take a daily swab and collect their own urine for hormone tests, or visit a doctor for a nurse to do it.

Progesterone doses were extremely high – between two hundred fifty and three hundred milligrams per day. These women were not paid to participate, nor were they informed that the results could help invent an innovative remedy. Most of them only did it because they were asked by a doctor they trusted.

Testing began in June. All summer, Dr. Kirkendall had been stuffing the trunk of his blue Pontiac with urine ampoules and slides and dropping them off to the Worcester Foundation in Shrewsbury for analysis or asking him to take them to his son.

In the first year of testing, Pincus, Rock, and Kirkendall recruited sixty women. In itself, this alone was somewhat of an achievement, given that the work had to be done in secret. But half of the participants withdrew from the experiment: some because of the complexity of the procedures, some because of too unpleasant side effects.And although Rock was pleased with the results – four out of thirty observed infertile women were able to become pregnant due to the so-called rebound effect – Pincus was disappointed: fifteen percent of women who received progesterone showed signs of ovulation – much worse than rabbits and rats. The matter was complicated by the fact that for women who received two hundred milligrams of progesterone and four hundred milligrams each, the results were the same.

Up to this point, everything has developed rapidly and inspiringly.However, a remedy that prevented pregnancy only eighty-five percent of the time was no good.

Suddenly, Pinkus had reason to doubt his own elegant decision.

90,000 What drugs are available in support after IVF?

After the in vitro fertilization procedure, there is a need for medication support. This is due to the need to maintain the optimal degree of indicators of the amount of hormones in the body: progesterone and estradiol.Their level is often amenable to disruption due to the use of hormonal drugs during the previous stages of IVF.

Do not forget that the use of the IVF method indicates the presence of certain problem factors in the reproductive sphere, and therefore an increase in the likelihood of the risk of fetal loss.

Progesterone support

The sex hormone progesterone belongs to the category of the most important hormones for the restoration of reproductive function and further pregnancy.It has a number of features and functions:

  • Creates the maximum level of favorable conditions for the endometrium. This factor contributes to the reliable fixation of the embryo in the future.
  • Maintains the closed state of the cervical canal.
  • Reduces the risk of contraction of uterine tissue, which prevents the likelihood of termination of pregnancy.

The following essential drugs are used during the progesterone support phase:

Dufaston tablets,

Utrozhestan in the form of vaginal capsules,

oily solution of Progesterone injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously at a dosage of 1 ml 2.5 or 1%,

Lutein tablets used intravaginal or oral,

Gel preparation for vaginal use Krynon.

It should be borne in mind that the cancellation of drugs that contain progesterone should be carried out according to a scheme with a gradual decrease in the level of the dose used. A complete refusal to use the drug often occurs during pregnancy with a period of 15 weeks.

Extradiol support

The hormonal substance estradiol is secreted by the adrenal glands and, like progesterone, is responsible for the preservation of pregnancy.After the embryo transfer procedure, the hormone estradiol also controls endometrial tissue thickness. Preparations with extradiol are prescribed for:

  • ensuring growth and increasing the level of stretching of uterine tissues;
  • performance by the body of a function that contributes to the normal formation of the skeletal system of the embryo;
  • normalization of the fetoplacental system;
  • the process of stimulating all metabolic processes in the body;
  • delivery of the required level of nutrients, vitamins and microelements to the displaced embryo;
  • activation of the level of blood circulation in the tissues of the uterus.

In Russian medical practice, support with the help of extradiol is carried out using the following drugs:

  • Proginov’s tablets and Estrofem medicines;
  • Divigel or Estrogel for cutaneous gel;
  • with Klimar’s medical plaster.

Cancellation of the listed drugs occurs no later than the gestational age of 15 weeks.

In addition to the drugs listed above, after embryo transfer, the following can be used for further support:

  • Hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex.These are drugs such as Dexamethasone, Prednisolone, Cortisol. They are relevant when creating links of an immune nature between the expectant mother and the embryo, help to reduce androgen levels, eliminate the risk of possible fetal hypoxia and prevent the onset of premature birth.
  • Medicinal preparations for blood thinning. This category includes Aspirin, Clexane, Fraxiparine, Trombo-ass or Curantil. Their use helps to maintain the optimal level of blood density, reduces the process of platelet aggregation, which are responsible for the blood circulation in the placenta and in the uterus itself, eliminating the risk of oxygen starvation of the embryo.
  • Vitamins from the group of antihypoxants: folic acid tablets, beta-carotene and vitamin preparations A, B, E. This helps to maintain the immune system at an optimal level.
  • Medicines, the action of which is based on the use of human hormones of menopausal or follicle-stimulating origin. These are the drugs Menopur, Puregon, Elonva, Gonal-F. Their use is important for the physiological maintenance of all basic mechanisms during pregnancy.
  • Medicines Profazi or Pregnyl, which contain an analogue of chorionic gonadotropin, which completely duplicates the natural hormones of the woman’s body, are responsible for the process of preserving the transplanted embryo.

It must be remembered that each individual case involves the use of a specific category of drugs or a combination of them in an individually selected dosage. You should not try to independently carry out treatment, which can not only worsen the condition, but also destroy the transferred embryo.

90,000 Reviews Dufaston, prices, instructions for use

Featured Products

  • Victoria
    2020-11-16 16:00

    Tell me please.Are there those who took a poultice when diagnosed with uterine hypoplasia?

  • Maria
    2017-03-01 14:05

    Duphaston took early in pregnancy to support her. Of course, only as prescribed by a doctor. The cost, despite the fact that the drug is specific, is low.The effectiveness of duphaston is already a legend, it helped many and, fortunately, I was no exception. An excellent drug, and the main thing is that the manufacturer’s promises are fulfilled for 100.

  • Alla Leonidovna
    2017-02-28 12:16

    My diagnosis is progesterone deficiency.On the advice of a gynecologist, she began to take Dufaston as soon as she found out about her pregnancy. Its price is average, it does not bite. Everything went well, the embryo was fixed. They canceled this drug for me at 17 weeks, gradually. It was scary to interrupt the intake of these pills, there is the main hormone of pregnancy, but I was afraid in vain. The pills saved my baby’s life.

  • Guzal
    2017-02-27 14:33

    For a long time, my man and I could not conceive a child, but we really wanted to.We tried for a long time, but unsuccessfully, and shyness took to go to the doctor. Well, then I had to. After we went to the doctor with our problem, he advised the hormonal drug Dufaston, 1 tablet every 4 days, with a gradual decrease in dosage. I am very grateful to the drug and the doctor who advised him, the pregnancy has finally come.

  • Arina
    2017-02-27 11:26

    I have problems with the cycle and I went to the gynecologist, they said that I should always drink the drug.The reason was quite simple, hormone deficiency, so the absence of menstruation occurred. Duphaston has no side properties for me. I drink it in courses without problems. Unfortunately, I have to drink every month, as the doctor prescribed. It normalizes the cycle well, and I like the price for it.

  • Helena
    2017-02-27 11:04

    Duphaston hormonal tablets.A great helper for those who postponed pregnancy for a certain period using contraceptives. The moment in life has come when I really wanted a child, but at the expense of the funds used earlier. there were difficulties in conception. But as soon as she managed to get pregnant, Dufaston was prescribed. No side effects were observed. The drug Duphaston helps in preserving the child during the entire pregnancy. Convenient to use.

  • Maria
    2017-02-26 21:50

    Beginning to feel discomfort during intimacy.At first I thought it would pass, but no. As a result, I went to the doctor who discovered I had an ovarian cyst. Although I had a positive tendency, he recommended Dufaston to me. I took it 2 tablets a day for three months. As a result, after taking it, I did not find any problems with the ovaries at all, and ovulation returned to normal. In general, a good drug, it really helps.

  • Maid Lyubov Viktorovna
    2017-02-26 15:52

    When they threatened to miscarry at 12 weeks, she sobbed like mad and was ready to do anything to save the baby.Duphaston was prescribed to drink. I had to take pills for a long time, a lot and often. Even at night. It is very important to observe the time break. Decently hits the wallet. But happiness at the birth of a child is not worth any money in the world. And I would also like to tell those who read this review (and many people read it who find themselves in the same situation as me) that the dose should be reduced gradually, you cannot stop taking the drug right away.

  • Galina
    2017-02-26 09:50

    Visited the gynecologist when I had an irregular menstrual cycle for several months.The doctor recommended taking Duphaston, which is not expensive for the price. The composition of the drug was found to be safe for the human body. After using this drug, the menstrual cycle has completely returned to normal. The main thing is not to forget to follow the instructions.

  • Anna
    2017-02-25 22:23

    I met Dyufaston when I was carrying my first child.Prescribed almost from 13 weeks, when I started to bleed slightly, in order to exclude premature birth. So I drank it throughout the pregnancy, until they put the ring at 22 weeks. Thanks to Dyufaston, a miscarriage was ruled out, even the slightest bleeding disappeared during the intake. I felt fine.


Criteria for participation: Clinical diagnostic laboratories performing this type of research are invited to participate in the proficiency testing program.

Criteria for evaluating performance are presented in the ISI Program.

Information on the frequency and timing of the transfer of samples to the ISI participants for research, the last deadline for submitting the results to the ISI participants is published in the personal account of the ISI participant.

When an ISI participant goes through a section cycle (for sections with several cycles – all cycles), he is given a Certificate of Participation.

Proficiency test item information

Part number 131
Analyte Biological cellular material – laboratory preparation.
Control material Routine stained immunohistochemical preparations
Coordinator Zaikin Evgeny Viktorovich
Tsimbalov Ivan Andreevich (trainee)
Description One cycle of assessment of the quality of routine immunohistochemical micropreparations made in the laboratory and the correctness of the assessment of the expression level of type II epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2 / neu) in breast tumors.

The laboratory transfers to the courier sent to it 4 packed in a container received from ASNP “TsVKK” 4 routine histological preparations selected by its choice and the results of their examination. After reviewing the preparations by experts, the laboratory receives a conclusion on the quality of the preparations and the correctness of the formulation of the cytological diagnosis, as well as recommendations for improving the quality of this type of research. If necessary, drugs are returned to the laboratory.

Forms are filled out in personal account

FSVOK – 2019

Program MCI


FSVOK – 2020

Program MCI


90,000 Progesterone – a new look at a long-known drug (Literature review)

Zygmunt Malgorzata, Sapa Jacek
Jagiellonian University, St.Krakow, Poland

Based on a literature review, the role of progesterone in modern medicine is presented, taking into account various routes of administration. A review of the available literature on the role of progesterone in modern obstetric and gynecological practice suggests that after 80 years of using this steroid, it has every chance of continuing to be used in clinical practice.

Replacement of exogenous progesterone is considered a recognized method of treating hormonal deficiency that occurs in phase II of the menstrual cycle and in threatened pregnancy, and its future in gynecology and obstetrics is beyond doubt.On the contrary, it can be said that it is of great interest, especially given the emergence of new possibilities for the vaginal or sublingual route of administration.

An additional advantage is the new directions of action used in medicine – anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and anti-migraine. A review of the literature confirms that the treatment of luteal malaise with natural rather than synthetic progesterone is safer, which indicates that such hormone replacement is well tolerated.

The listed various and multidirectional effects of the effects of progesterone, as well as selective modulators of progesterone receptors on the woman’s body, are possible due to specific nuclear progesterone receptors, which are located in target cells, including the mucous membrane of the uterus, mammary glands, central nervous system and pituitary gland.

Keywords : progesterone, bioavailability, route of administration, effectiveness of therapy.


1.Al-Asmakh, M. “Reproductive functions of progesterone.” Middle East Fertility Society Journal 12 (2007): 147-52.

2. Andréen, L., Nyberg, S., Turkmen, S., et al. “Sex steroid induced negative mood may be explained by the paradoxical effect mediated by GABAa modulators.” Psychoneuroendocrinol 34 (2009): 1121-32. ”

3. Biela, A., Pacholska-Bogalska, J. “Nowotwory hormonozalezne u kobiet.” Nowa Medycyna 4 (2012) 76-81.

4. Brazert, M., Korman, M. P, Pawelczyk, L.A. “Zastosowanie selektywnych modulatorow receptora progesteronowego w leczeniu mięśniaków macicy oraz ich przyszłość w ginekologii.” Ginekol Pol 84 (2013): 794-800.

5. Bomba-Opoń, D. “Rekomendacje Polskiego Towarzystwa Ginekologicznego dotyczące stosowania progesteronu w ginekologii i położnictwie” Ginekol Pol (2012).

6. Bomba-Opon D. “Rekomendacje Polskiego Towarzystwa Ginekologicznego dotyczące stosowania progesteronu w ginekologii i położnictwie.” Ginekol Pol 86 (2015): 234-8.

7. Chakmakjian, Z.H., Zachariah, N.Y. “Bioavailability of progesterone with different modes of administration.” J Reprod Med 32 (1987): 443-8.

8. Chetmicki, A., Skrzypulec-Plinta, V., Chetmicki, Z. “Dopochwowe stosowanie progestagenow.” Przeg Menopauz 5 (2010): 344-8.

9. Czajkowski, K. “Wspotczesne poglqdy na stosowanie gestagenoterapii w ciązy zagrozonej poronieniem.” Ginekol Prakt 2 (2003): 54-64.

10. Dodd, J.M., Flenady, V., Cincotta, R., Crowther, C.A. “Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth.” Cochrane Database Sys Rev 1 (2006): CD004947.

11. Doll, A., Abal, M., Rigau, M., et al. “Novel molecular profiles of endometrial cancer – new light through old windows.” J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 3-5 (2008): 221-9.

12. Ford, O., Lethaby, A., Roberts, H., et al. “Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome (Review).” The Cochrane Collaboration 11 (2010): 1-35.

13.Kalinka, J. “Progesteron w profilaktyce porodu przedwczesnego.” Perinatologia, Neonatologia i Ginekologia 4 (2011): 6-10.

14. Karaca, I., Kurt, S., Toz, E., et al. “Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with progesterone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.” Ginecol Obstet 3: 1-6.

15. Kazmierczak, W. “Rak endometrium – aspekty hormonalne.” Ginekol Prakt 2 (2004): 13-6.

16. Krzysiek, J., Krzyczkowska-Sendrakowska, M., Milewicz, T. “Podstawy stosowania i drogi podazy progestagenow w zespole policystycznych jajnikow.”Endokrynol Pol 6 (2005): 1002-7.

17. Levy, T., Gurevitch, S., Bar-Hava, I., et al. “Pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the form of a vaginal tablet.” Hum Reprod 14 (1999): 606-10.

18. Maguire, J., Mody, I. “GABA (A) R plasticity during pregnancy: relevance to postpartum depression.” Neuron 59 (2008): 207-13.

19. Malinowski, A., Wilczynski, J.R. “Immunologiczne mechanizmy utrzymania ciąży” Ginekol Prakt 11 (2003): 47-56.

twenty.Mazurek, A., Pawet Kuc, P, Laudanski, T. “Progestageny w hormonalnej terapii zastçpczej i antykoncepcji.” Przeg Menopauz 4 (2003): 40-5.

21. Mitan, A., Grzesiak, M. “Ciatko zötte – maty gruczot o wielkim znaczeniu.” Prob Nauk Biol 2 (2015): 247-59.

22. Motta, E., Gola, A., Ostrowska, Z., et al. “Progesterone therapy in women with epilepsy.” Pharmacol Rep 65 (2013): 89-98.

23. Norman, J. E., Marlow, N., Messow, C. M., et al. OPPTIMUM study group. “Vaginal progesterone prophylaxis for preterm birth (the OPPTIMUM study): a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial.”Lancet 387 (2016): 2106-16.

24. Norman, T.R., Morse, C.A., Dennerstein, L. “Comparative bioavailability of orally and vaginally administered progesterone.” Fertil Steril 56 (1991): 1034-9.

25. Opala, T., Rabiega, D. “Hormonalna terapia zastçpcza a nowotwory trzonu macicy.” Przeg Menopauz 1 (2003): 23-6.

26. Padwick, M. L., Endacott, J., Matson, Ch., Et al. “Absorption and metabolism of oral progesterone administered twice daily.” Fertil Steril 46 (1986): 402-9.

27. Paszkowski, T. “Krwawienia z macicy podczas ztozonej ciągtej hormonalnej terapii zastçpczej – pröba oceny klinicznej problemu i propozycja algorytmu postçpowania.” Przeg Menopauz 3 (2002): 26-32.

28. Paszkowski, T., Koztowska, J. “Progesteron – druga młodość.” Ginekol Prakt 11 (2003): 52-7.

29. Paszkowski, T., Czajkowski, K., Dçbski, R. “Rekomendacje Zespotu Ekspertöw Polskiego Towarzystwa Ginekologicznego dotyczące zastosowania progesteronu w profilaktyce porodu przedwczesnego.”Ginekol Pol 80 (2009): 147-9.

30. Paszkowski, T., Wozniakowska, E., Wrona, W., et al. “Zastosowanie mikronizowanego progesteronu w terapii hormonalnej okresu menopauzy w swietle najnowszych wyniköw badan.” Przeg Menopauz 4 (2011): 267-70.

31. Piasecka, D., Sktadanowski, A. C., Kordek, R., et al. “Aspekty regulacji aktywnosci receptora progesteronu (PR) – znaczenie w progresji raka gruczotu piersiowego.” Post Biochem 61 (2015): 198-206.

32. Posacil, C., Smitz, J, Camus, M., et al. “Progesterone for the luteal support of assisted reproductive technologies: clinical options.” Hum Reprod 15 (2000): 129-48.

33. Rapkin, A.J., Akopians, A.L. “Pathophysiology of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.” Menopause Int 18 (2012): 52-9.

34. Schiller, C.E., Meltzer-Brody, S., Rubinow, D.R. “The role of reproductive hormones in postpartum depression.” CNS Spectr 20 (2015): 48-59.

35. Schindler, A.E. “Progestogen deficiency and endometrial cancer risk.” Maturitas 4 (2009): 334-7.

36. Somerville, B.W. “The role of progesterone in menstrual migraine.” Neurology 21 (1971): 853-8.

37. Stovall, D. W., van Voorhis, B. J., Mattingly, K. L., et al. “The effectiveness of sublingual progesterone administration during cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles: results of a matched follow-up study.” Fertil Steril 65 (1996): 986-91.

38. Szymanska, B., Gardyszewska, A., Pabich, J., et al. “Rozrosty endometrium: skutecznosc leczenia naturalnym mikronizowanym progesteronem podawanym dopochwowo.” Przeg Menopauz 2 (2006): 75-9.

39. Stopinska-Gtuszak, U., Wasilewska-Dziubinska, E., Stowinska-Srzednicka, J. “Progesteron – neurosteroid syntetyzowany w uktadzie nerwowym.” Post Nauk Med 3 (2008): 154-8.

40. Tkaczuk-Wtach, J., Sobstyl, M., Syty, K., et al. “Zespöt napiçcia przedmiesiqczkowego.” Przeg Menopauz 6 (2009): 339-43.

41.Tomaszewski, J., Baranowski, W. “Progestageny w hormonalnej terapii zastçpczej.” Przeg Menopauz 1 (2003): 6-13.

42. Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A., Mçczekalski, B. “Progesteron mikronizowany. Jego wtasciwosci oraz zastosowanie w ginekologii i potoznictwie. ” Przeg Menopauz 1 (2005): 15-9.

43. Wahabi, H.A., Abed Althagafi, N.F., Elawad, M. “Progestogen for treating threatened miscarriage (Review).” The Cochrane Collaboration 4 (2008): 1-16.