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When excess stomach acid leaks into your esophagus, it can cause the burning and pain that leads to heartburn.

Acid indigestion is a general term that covers a wide range of digestive issues. Acid indigestion or acid reflux occurs when too much stomach acid flows backwards into the esophagus. Heartburn is a symptom of acid indigestion.





    Feeling uncomfortable fullness

Sometimes acid indigestion can be the sign of a more serious condition. Speak to your healthcare professional if you experience:

    Frequent vomiting

    Blood in vomit

    Weight loss or loss of appetite

    Black stools

    Difficult or painful swallowing

    Shortness of breath, sweating, or pain that radiates from the jaw, neck, or arm

    Symptoms that persist for more than two weeks


Your favorite foods may never cause a problem. But sometimes you can eat too much of a good thing. So your stomach has to produce extra acid to digest all that food, and the result can be uncomfortable acid indigestion.

But there are lots of common foods and beverages that can trigger acid indigestion even if you don’t consume that much. And there are lifestyle habits that can cause it too.

Tips for avoiding acid indigestion

Rolaids® helps keep your lifestyle from ruining your lifestyle. But you can make smart decisions that can help avoid acid indigestion in the first place.

Here are a few suggestions:

Food triggers

  • Try to limit the foods and beverages that worsen symptoms
  • Eat less fatty, spicy food
  • Eat less fried, greasy food
  • Drink less coffee
  • Drink fewer carbonated drinks

Medication triggers*

  • Be aware about prescription medication that can cause acid indigestion. Speak to your healthcare professional about other options.

Lifestyle triggers

  • Eat smaller, more frequent meals, so your stomach doesn’t get too full.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothes. Tight jeans may look great, but they’re tough on a full stomach.
  • Avoid stressful situations, especially right after eating.
  • Get plenty of rest. It will reduce the stress and fatigue that can make indigestion worse.
  • Avoid smoking cigarettes.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol.
  • Be aware of your weight. Excess weight can make symptoms worse. So if you are overweight, consider talking to your healthcare provider about a safe weight loss program.



Fortunately, the two active ingredients in Rolaids® — calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide — deliver effective, rapid relief for your heartburn, sour stomach, acid indigestion and upset stomach associated with these symptoms.

Find the right Rolaids® for you.

*Ask a doctor or a pharmacist before use if you are now taking a prescription drug. Antacids may interact with certain prescription drugs.





Our triple-ingredient formula works fast to relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid indigestion, and gas related to these symptoms.

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Our dual-ingredient formula works fast to relieve symptoms of heartburn and acid indigestion.


View product




Soothe the burn to achieve acid-neutralizing heartburn and acid indigestion relief.


View product

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Sometimes those awful feelings that go along with acid indigestion and heartburn are accidental or unavoidable. You eat a little too much. Or something too spicy. Or you … well, there are lots of reasons stuff like that happens.

But just as often, it can be unfortunate choices, lack of awareness, or bad habits that lead to your distress.


First of all, it isn’t a burning heart at all. It happens when stomach acid backs up into your esophagus (your throat) and creates all sorts of discomfort. You can experience:

  • A burning sensation in the chest that usually occurs after eating, and often at night
  • Discomfort that worsens when lying down or bending over
  • Bitter or acidic taste in the mouth

Here are some ways to avoid it.

Start by considering your eating habits

What happens to your stomach usually starts with what you put in it. When you face that huge, mouthwatering platter of hot wings and jalapeño poppers, maybe it’s worth taking a moment to consider your fate.

Here are a few pretty easy things you can do to avoid acid indigestion and heartburn:

    Eat less. Maybe just a couple wings and a jalapeño or two, not all of them. Or, more practically, one serving of dinner, not two.

    Eat smaller meals, more frequently. It’s much easier to digest and metabolize small amounts of food. Remember, more food creates more stomach acid.

    Eat slowly. Experts suggest putting your fork down between bites.

    Eat earlier. A good practice is to stop eating a couple hours before bedtime to allow food to digest and stomach acid to diminish. Avoid late-night snacks.

    Eat about two hours before exercise. Allow food to digest and stomach acid to diminish.

    Eat foods that help minimize stomach acid. For example:                             

  • Feel more full by eating high-fiber foods like green veggies and whole grains
  • Enjoy a soothing after-dinner drink like ginger tea or lemon water
  • Minimize stomach acid with watery foods like cucumbers or melons

    Avoid foods that provoke your digestion. For example:

Deep-fried and high-fat foods, including otherwise-healthy avocados, cheese, and nutsFoods high in fat promote the release of hormones, which encourage food to sit in the stomach longer and may cause heartburn.
Mint, like peppermint and spearmintMint relaxes the stomach muscles, which can cause acid reflux. If you experience heartburn after consuming mint, avoid it.
Citrus juiceSome people experience heartburn after consuming orange or grapefruit juice. Findings suggest citric acid may be responsible.
ChocolateChocolate contains ingredients that may relax the esophageal sphincter, allowing stomach acid to escape into your throat.
Spicy foodNotorious for causing heartburn. Capsaicin, a compound that creates a burning sensation, may irritate an already-inflamed esophagus and worsen heartburn.
Whole milk dairy productsHigh-fat dairy products such as whole milk and yogurt can relax the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing stomach acid to rise into the esophagus and make heartburn symptoms worse.
OnionsStudies show onions worsen heartburn. They are also a rich source of fermentable fiber, which may cause belching and aggravate acid reflux symptoms.
AlcoholAlcohol can cause heartburn in several ways. It can relax the lower esophageal sphincter and increase stomach acid.
CoffeeCoffee has been shown to relax the lower esophageal sphincter, causing heartburn. If it gives you reflux and heartburn, avoid — or at least limit — your consumption.
Sodas and carbonated beveragesStudies show people who drink carbonated beverages — especially at night — are far more likely to experience heartburn or acid indigestion.


Aside from what you eat, you can help control acid indigestion by what you do. Here’s a list of ideas to help minimize acid indigestion:

    Lose some weight. Being overweight puts additional pressure on your stomach and increases the likelihood of heartburn. If you are overweight, speak to your healthcare professional about a safe weight loss program.

    Avoid smoking or chewing tobacco. Nicotine can weaken your lower esophageal sphincter, which can allow acid and other stomach contents to back up.

    Keep track of heartburn. Make notes about when heartburn hits and the specific things you think bring it on.

    Wear loose-fitting clothes. Tight belts, waistbands, or panty hose may push against your stomach and make heartburn worse.

    Bend and lift carefully. Bending over after eating can increase the amount of stomach acid that gets into your esophagus.

    Take a breather. Stress triggers acid indigestion and heartburn. Acknowledge that you’re under stress and consider what might be adding to it. And then perhaps figure out some ways to diminish it.

    Raise the head of your bed to a 45° angle. Extra pillows alone may not help. The important thing is getting your upper body higher than your stomach.

Sorry if this seems like a big buzzkill

Certainly, nobody here thinks you should trade in your triple-nuclear hot sauce and eat nothing but steamed veggies. 

Just saying that if you experience heartburn, you might be able to lessen the symptoms. Eat fewer jalapeños or one burger instead of three. A little moderation or minor course correction in your lifestyle could make a big difference.



Fortunately, the two active ingredients in Rolaids® — calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide — deliver effective, rapid relief for your heartburn, sour stomach, acid indigestion and upset stomach associated with these symptoms.

Find the right Rolaids® for you





Our triple-ingredient formula works fast to relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid indigestion, and gas related to these symptoms.

View product




Our dual-ingredient formula works fast to relieve symptoms of heartburn and acid indigestion.

View product




Soothe the burn to achieve acid-neutralizing heartburn and acid indigestion relief.

View product

Back to top

Treatment and prevention of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Treatment and prevention of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) therefore, not treated or treated independently and incorrectly, which is undesirable since GERD usually responds well to treatment.

GERD is treated gradually. The doctor will help you choose the right course of treatment. If the disease is mild, it will be enough for the patient to follow a certain diet, give up certain activities, and sometimes take over-the-counter medications.

In cases where symptoms are more persistent (daily heartburn, symptoms that come on at night), prescription medication may be required. Surgery is a reasonable alternative to permanent medication, especially if the disease is acquired at an early age.

Surgery is also recommended if medication does not help. However, today there is a new generation of drugs that can effectively control gastroesophageal reflux.

If symptoms are still uncomfortable after taking strong drugs, GERD is most likely not the cause. Most gastroenterologists and surgeons do not recommend surgery in such cases, since the symptoms still continue to disturb after it.

Lifestyle changes

Gastroesophageal reflux treatment begins with lifestyle changes. First you need to understand what affects the occurrence of symptoms.

If you have symptoms of GERD, use the following tips:

    • Avoid foods and drinks that stimulate the lower esophageal sphincter to relax, such as foods flavored with mint, chocolate, and alcohol.
    • Lose weight if you are overweight. Being overweight and obese contributes to GERD because being overweight increases pressure on the stomach and lower esophageal sphincter, causing acidic stomach acid to reflux into the esophagus and irritate the esophageal mucosa.
    • Do not lie down for at least two or three hours after eating. After eating it is good to take a walk. This not only prevents the onset of GERD symptoms, but also burns extra calories.
    • Avoid foods that trigger GERD symptoms. Do not eat fatty or fried foods, creamy sauces, mayonnaise or ice cream. Other foods that may exacerbate symptoms include coffee, tea, sodas, tomatoes, and citrus fruits.
    • Stop smoking. Smoking disrupts the digestive system and, according to some studies, relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter. Smoking also reduces the amount of bicarbonate in saliva and reduces its ability to protect the esophagus from stomach acid. Some types of nicotine replacement therapy (nicotine patch, nicotine gum) can cause indigestion, stomach pain, and vomiting. Talk to your doctor about possible side effects of these products before use.
    • Do not wear clothes that put pressure on your belly, such as tight belts, tight jeans, and elastic waistbands that put pressure on your stomach and lower esophageal sphincter.
    • Raise the head of the bed 15-20 cm or use a wedge-shaped pillow to force acid into the stomach by gravity.
    • Do not bend over after eating. If you need to pick something up from the floor, it’s better to squat on half-bent knees and try not to bend at the waist. Do not engage in sports and physical labor after eating.
  • Check your medications. Some medications can make symptoms worse. These drugs include theophylline, calcium channel blockers, alpha and beta blockers, anticholinergics that may be present in drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease, asthma, and some over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. If you think a drug you are taking is affecting your symptoms, talk to your doctor about alternatives. Do not interrupt the prescribed treatment without consulting a doctor.

Medication for gastroesophageal reflux

Your doctor may prescribe medication for GERD. Because GERD is often a chronic condition, you will need to take medication for the rest of your life. In some cases, long-term treatment is not required.

Be patient, it takes time to find the right drug and dosage. If the symptoms do not go away even after taking the drugs, or if they reappear immediately after completing the course, consult your doctor. If GERD symptoms appear during pregnancy, contact your obstetrician before starting medication.

The following is information about drugs commonly prescribed to treat GERD:

Over-the-counter antacids and rare symptoms. Their action is to neutralize the acidic gastric juice. Antacids are usually fast-acting and can be taken as needed. Because they do not last long, they do not prevent heartburn and are less effective for symptoms that often occur.

Most antacids contain calcium carbonate (Maalox) or magnesium hydroxide. Sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda, helps with heartburn and indigestion. It should be mixed with at least 120 ml of water and taken one to two hours after meals so as not to overload a full stomach. Talk to your doctor about the need for this treatment. Do not use this method for more than two weeks and use it only in extreme cases, since soda can lead to metabolic disorders (pH) and the formation of erosions in the esophagus and stomach. Before using it on children under 12 years of age, consult a doctor.

Another type of antacid contains alginate or alginic acid (eg Gaviscon). The advantage of such an antacid is that it does not allow fluid to seep back into the esophagus.

Antacids can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb other drugs, so if you are taking other drugs, check with your doctor before taking antacids.

Ideally, you should take antacids at least 2-4 hours after taking other drugs to minimize the chance of them not being absorbed. People with high blood pressure should avoid taking high sodium antacids (Gaviscon).

Finally, antacids are not a reliable treatment for erosive esophagitis, a disease that must be treated with other drugs.

Hydrochloric Acid Suppressants

These drugs reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach and are available with or without a prescription. Usually, the same drugs are dispensed on prescription, but in a larger dosage. They may help those who are not helped by antacids. Most patients get better if they take drugs that suppress the production of hydrochloric acid and make lifestyle changes.

According to the mechanism of action, two groups of such drugs are distinguished:

– H blockers 2 – Proton pump inhibitors

Most likely, the doctor recommends taking the drug for several weeks at first in a standard dose, and then if it is not possible to achieve the desired effect, prescribe a drug with a higher dosage.

Traditional h3 blockers include:

– nizatidine (Axid AR Axid AR)

– famotidine (Pepcid AS Pepcid AC)

– cimetidine (Tagamet HB Tagamet HB)

– wounds idine (“Zantac 75” Zantac 75)

Pepcid Complete is a combination of famotidine, calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide found in antacids.

Conventional proton pump inhibitors include:

– lansoprazole (Prevacid)

– omeprazole (Prilosec, Prilosec)

– rabeprazole (AcipHex, AcipHex, Pariet)

– pantoprazole (Protonix Protonix, Nolpaza Nolpaza)

– esomeprazole angry (“Nexium” , Nexium)

– omeprazole + sodium bicarbonate (Zegeride)

– dexlansoprazole (Dexilant)

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) also reduce acidity, but are more powerful than h3 – blockers. Proton pump inhibitors are most commonly prescribed to treat heartburn and acid reflux.

These drugs block the secretion of acid from the cells of the gastric mucosa and significantly reduce the amount of stomach acid. They don’t work as fast as antacids, but they can relieve reflux symptoms for hours.

PPIs are also used to treat inflammation of the esophagus (esophagitis) and erosions of the esophagus. Studies have shown that the majority of patients with esophagitis who took these drugs recovered after 6-8 weeks. It is likely that your doctor will re-evaluate your health after 8 weeks of taking proton pump inhibitors and, according to the results, reduce the dosage or stop treatment. If symptoms do not return within three months, you will only need to take medication occasionally. People with liver disease should consult their doctor before taking these drugs.


Prokinetics, e.g. They also increase the contractions of the esophagus and stomach to some extent, so that the stomach is emptied more quickly. These drugs may be used as an adjunctive treatment for people with GERD.

Surgical treatment of GERD

Surgery is an alternative to conservative treatment of GERD. Surgery is most commonly performed on young patients (because they would otherwise require long-term treatment) with typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and belching) who are helped by medication but are looking for an alternative to daily medication.

Patients with atypical symptoms or patients who are not responding to medical treatment should undergo surgery only when there is no doubt about the diagnosis of GERD and the relationship between symptoms and reflux is confirmed by research results.

Fundoplication is used in most cases. During this operation, the upper part of the stomach is wrapped around the lower esophageal sphincter, which increases its tone. These days, minimally invasive (laparoscopic) techniques are commonly used instead of traditional “open” surgery. One of the benefits of a fundoplication is that the hiatal hernia can also be repaired during the operation.

Surgery is not always effective and some patients still need to take medication after surgery. The results of this surgery are usually positive, but complications can still occur, such as difficulty swallowing, bloating and gas, difficult recovery after surgery, and diarrhea that occurs due to damage to the nerve endings that are adjacent to the stomach and intestines.

Prevention of GERD

First of all, you need to pay attention to lifestyle and avoid situations that can trigger the onset of the disease.

Remember that GERD happens when stomach acid backs up into the esophagus, which connects the throat to the stomach.

To keep the lower esophageal sphincter functioning properly, follow these guidelines:

Avoid bending over and other physical exercises that increase pressure on the abdominal cavity. Don’t exercise on a full stomach.

Do not wear clothes that are tight around the waist, such as elastic waistbands and belts, which can increase pressure on the stomach.

Do not lie down in the field of food. If you lie on your back after a large meal, it will be easier for the contents of the stomach to pass into the esophagus. For a similar reason, don’t eat before bed. The head of the bed should rise 15-20cm so that gravity keeps the acid in the stomach where it should be while you sleep.

Do not overeat. Due to the fact that there is a large amount of food in the stomach, pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter increases, as a result of which it opens.

To keep your lower esophageal sphincter and esophagus functioning properly, follow these tips:

Quit smoking and avoid products containing tobacco. Smoking relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter, reduces the amount of acid-neutralizing saliva in the mouth and throat, and damages the esophagus.

Avoid foods that aggravate symptoms, such as tomato sauces, mints, citrus fruits, onions, coffee, fried foods, and carbonated drinks.

Do not drink alcoholic beverages. Alcohol causes the lower esophageal sphincter to relax, and the esophagus may begin to contract unevenly, causing acid to reflux into the esophagus and cause heartburn.

Check your medications. Some medications can make symptoms worse. Do not interrupt the prescribed treatment without consulting your doctor. Drugs that have this effect include asthma and emphysema drugs (such as theophylline), anticholinergics for Parkinson’s disease and asthma, sometimes found in over-the-counter drugs, some calcium channel blockers, alpha blockers, and beta-blockers to treat heart disease or high blood pressure, some drugs that affect the nervous system, iron supplements.

While some drugs exacerbate GERD symptoms, others can cause drug-induced esophagitis, a condition that causes the same symptoms as GERD but is not due to reflux. Drug esophagitis happens when a pill is swallowed but does not reach the stomach because it sticks to the wall of the esophagus. Because of this, the mucous membrane of the esophagus is corroded, chest pain, esophageal ulcers and pain during swallowing occur.

Drugs that cause drug-induced esophagitis include aspirin, non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Mortin Motrin, Aleve Aleve), alendronate (Fosamax Fosamax), potassium, and some antibiotics (especially tetracycline). and doxycycline).

You can get more detailed information about the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease from the gastroenterologists of the Health 365 clinic in Yekaterinburg.

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Laryngopharyngeal reflux: symptoms and treatment

Treatment of the disease laryngopharyngeal reflux is engaged in


Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is the reflux of gastric contents (acid and enzymes such as pepsin) into the larynx, resulting in hoarseness, a sensation of a lump in the throat, difficulty swallowing, coughing, and a feeling of mucus in the hypopharynx.

Reflux as the cause of the above symptoms without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is constantly questioned. Guidelines issued by specialized societies in the field of laryngology and gastroenterology represent different points of view. Both groups acknowledge that the interpretation of existing studies is difficult due to the uncertain diagnostic criteria for LPR, varying response rates to treatment, and the significant placebo effect of the current treatment.

Relatively limited data are available on the prevalence of LPR: approximately 30% of healthy individuals may have episodes of reflux on 24-hour pH measurements or characteristic changes in the larynx.

LPR may directly or indirectly cause laryngeal symptoms. The direct mechanism includes irritation of the mucous membrane of the larynx with caustic substances – refluxes (acid, pepsin). An indirect mechanism involves irritation of the esophagus, leading to laryngeal reflexes and symptoms.

Helicobacter pylori infection may also contribute. The prevalence of H. pylori among patients with LPR is about 44%.

Laryngophangeal reflux and GERD

Although gastric acid is common to both LPR and GERD, there are many differences that make LPR a distinct clinical entity.

  • A prerequisite for GERD is heartburn, which is reliably observed only in 40% of patients with LPR.
  • Most patients with GERD have evidence of esophagitis on biopsy, while patients with LPR only in 25% of cases.
  • GERD is thought to be a lower esophageal sphincter problem and occurs mainly in the supine position. In contrast, LPR is seen primarily as an upper esophageal sphincter problem, and occurs primarily in the upright position during exercise.
  • LPR requires much less acid exposure than GERD.

There are significant differences between the mucous membrane of the esophagus and the larynx.

  • The upper limit of normal for acid reflux into the esophagus is up to 50 episodes per day, while 4 episodes of reflux into the larynx is no longer a normal option.
  • In the larynx, unlike the esophagus, which eliminates acid during peristalsis, the refluxate persists much longer, causing additional irritation.
  • The epithelium of the larynx is thin and poorly adapted to combat caustic chemical damage from the same pepsin and acid.

Symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux

  • Dysphonia or hoarseness;
  • cough;
  • sensation of lump in throat;
  • discomfort and feeling of mucus in the throat;
  • dysphagia (swallowing disorder).

Some researchers believe that chronic irritation of the larynx may lead to the development of carcinoma in patients who do not drink alcohol or smoke, although there is no evidence to support this.

Symptoms characteristic of LPR may also be due to the following conditions:

  • postnasal syndrome;
  • allergic rhinitis;
  • vasomotor rhinitis;
  • upper respiratory infections;
  • habitual cough;
  • use of tobacco or alcohol;
  • excessive use of voice;
  • change in temperature or climate;
  • emotional problems;
  • environmental irritants;
  • vagus neuropathy.


There is considerable controversy regarding the appropriate method for diagnosing LPR.

Most patients are diagnosed clinically based on symptoms associated with LPR.

During laryngoscopy (examination of the larynx), swelling and hyperemia (redness) of varying degrees are noted. However, the relatively weak correlation between symptoms and endoscopic findings is an argument against the use of endoscopic diagnostic methods.

The Reflux Signs Score and the Reflux Symptoms Index are well suited for both diagnosis and monitoring of response to therapy.

Daily Ph-metry with a dual sensor probe, despite excellent sensitivity and specificity, is questioned because the results of this diagnostic method often do not correlate with the severity of symptoms.

Another diagnostic option may be empiric PPI therapy.

Treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux

Lifestyle modification and diet are the main approach in the treatment of LPR and GERD. The role of drug therapy is more controversial. Whether asymptomatic patients with incidental signs of LPR require treatment is unknown. There are theoretical concerns that LPR may increase the risk of malignancy, but this has not yet been proven. In any case, patients with asymptomatic LPR are advised to follow a diet.

Patients are advised to stop smoking, alcohol, foods and drinks containing caffeine, chocolate, mint. Prohibited foods also include most fruits (especially citrus fruits), tomatoes, jams and jellies, barbecue sauces and most salad dressings, and spicy foods. Small meals are recommended.

Exercise should be avoided for at least two hours after meals, and food and drink should be avoided three hours before bedtime.

Drug therapy usually includes proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), h3 blockers, and antacids. PPIs are recommended for six months for most LPR patients. This figure is based on the results of endoscopic studies (this is the time needed to reduce laryngeal edema), as well as a high percentage of relapse in the case of a three-month course of therapy. Termination of therapy should be carried out gradually.

If PPIs and H2 blockers have failed, treatment with tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, and pregabalin should be considered, as laryngeal hypersensitivity is one possible mechanism for reflux.

How is laryngopharyngeal reflux treated at the Rassvet Clinic?

All patients with complaints of hoarseness, feeling of a lump in the throat, difficulty swallowing, coughing, feeling of mucus in the laryngopharynx are examined by an otorhinolaryngologist and a gastroenterologist.

An endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx is performed to exclude other diseases that, in addition to LPR, can provoke these symptoms. The gastroenterologist also prescribes the entire range of necessary examinations, including the elimination of H. Pylori infection.

The key to successful therapy is the joint management of the patient by an otorhinolaryngologist, a gastroenterologist, in some cases a psychiatrist and a psychotherapist.