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Trochanteric Bursitis: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments


The hip joint. The greater trochanter is the ridge at the top of the femur.

What is trochanteric bursitis?

Trochanteric bursitis is inflammation (swelling) of the bursa (fluid-filled sac near a joint) at the outside (lateral) point of the hip known as the greater trochanter. When this bursa becomes irritated or inflamed, it causes pain in the hip. This is a common cause of hip pain.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes trochanteric bursitis?

Trochanteric bursitis can result from one or more of the following events:

  • Injury to the point of the hip. This can include falling onto the hip, bumping the hip into an object, or lying on one side of the body for an extended period.
  • Play or work activities that cause overuse or injury to the joint areas. Such activities might include running up stairs, climbing, or standing for long periods of time.
  • Incorrect posture. This condition can be caused by scoliosis, arthritis of the lumbar (lower) spine, and other spine problems.
  • Stress on the soft tissues as a result of an abnormal or poorly positioned joint or bone (such as leg length differences or arthritis in a joint).
  • Other diseases or conditions. These may include rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriasis, thyroid disease or an unusual drug reaction. In rare cases, bursitis can result from infection.
  • Previous surgery around the hip or prosthetic implants in the hip.
  • Hip bone spurs or calcium deposits in the tendons that attach to the trochanter.

Bursitis is more common in women and in middle-aged or elderly people. Beyond the situations mentioned above, in many cases, the cause of trochanteric bursitis is unknown.

What are the symptoms of trochanteric bursitis?

Trochanteric bursitis typically causes the following symptoms:

  • Pain on the outside of the hip and thigh or in the buttock.
  • Pain when lying on the affected side.
  • Pain when you press in or on the outside of the hip.
  • Pain that gets worse during activities such as getting up from a deep chair or getting out of a car.
  • Pain with walking up stairs.

Management and Treatment

How is trochanteric bursitis treated?

Treatment goals include reducing pain and inflammation (swelling), preserving mobility, and preventing disability and recurrence.

Treatment recommendations may include a combination of rest, splints, heat and cold application. More advanced treatment options include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen or naproxen.
  • Corticosteroid injections given by your healthcare provider. Injections work quickly to decrease the inflammation and pain.
  • Physical therapy that includes range of motion exercises and splinting. This can be very beneficial.
  • Surgery, when other treatments are not effective.


How do you prevent trochanteric bursitis?

Because most cases of bursitis are caused by overuse, the best treatment is prevention. It is important to avoid or modify the activities that cause the problem. Underlying conditions such as leg length differences, improper posture, or poor technique in sports or work must be corrected.

Apply these basic rules when performing activities:

  • Take it slow at first and gradually build up your activity level.
  • Use limited force and limited repetitions.
  • Stop if unusual pain occurs.

Some tips:

  • Avoid repetitive activities that put stress on the hips.
  • Lose weight if you need to.
  • Get a properly fitting shoe insert for leg length differences.
  • Maintain strength and flexibility of the hip muscles.
  • Use a walking cane or crutches for a week or more when needed.

Living With

When should you seek medical advice?

Most cases of bursitis improve without any treatment over a few weeks. See your healthcare provider if you have any of the following signs or symptoms:

  • You experience pain that interferes with your normal day-to-day activities or have soreness that doesn’t improve despite self-care measures.
  • You have recurrence of bursitis.
  • You have a fever or the area affected appears red, swollen or warm.

In addition, see your doctor if you have other medical conditions that may increase your risk of an infection, or if you take medications that increase your risk of infection, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants.

Hip fracture – Symptoms and causes


A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age.

Risk increases because bones tend to weaken with age (osteoporosis). Multiple medications, poor vision and balance problems also make older people more likely to fall — one of the most common causes of hip fracture.

A hip fracture almost always requires surgical repair or replacement, followed by physical therapy. Taking steps to maintain bone density and avoid falls can help prevent a hip fracture.


Signs and symptoms of a hip fracture include:

  • Inability to get up from a fall or to walk
  • Severe pain in your hip or groin
  • Inability to put weight on your leg on the side of your injured hip
  • Bruising and swelling in and around your hip area
  • Shorter leg on the side of your injured hip
  • Outward turning of your leg on the side of your injured hip


A severe impact — in a car crash, for example — can cause hip fractures in people of all ages. In older adults, a hip fracture is most often a result of a fall from a standing height. In people with very weak bones, a hip fracture can occur simply by standing on the leg and twisting.

Risk factors

The rate of hip fractures increases substantially with:

  • Age. Bone density and muscle mass tend to decrease with age. Older people can also have problems with vision and balance, which can increase the risk of falling.
  • Your sex. Hip fractures occur in women about three times more often than they do in men. Women lose bone density faster than men do, in part because the drop in estrogen levels that occurs with menopause accelerates bone loss. However, men also can develop dangerously low levels of bone density.
  • Osteoporosis. If you have this condition, which causes bones to weaken, you’re at increased risk of fractures.
  • Other chronic medical conditions. Endocrine disorders, such as an overactive thyroid, can lead to fragile bones. Intestinal disorders, which can reduce your absorption of vitamin D and calcium, also can lead to weakened bones.

    Medical conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, including cognitive impairment, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and peripheral neuropathy, also increase the risk of falling.

    Having low blood sugar and low blood pressure also can contribute to the risk of falls.

  • Certain medications. Cortisone medications, such as prednisone, can weaken bone if you take them long-term. Certain drugs or certain combinations of medications can make you dizzy and more prone to falling. Drugs that act on your central nervous system — such as sleep medications, antipsychotics and sedatives — are most commonly associated with falls.
  • Nutritional problems. Lack of calcium and vitamin D in your diet when you’re young lowers your peak bone mass and increases your risk of fracture later in life. It’s also important to get enough calcium and vitamin D in older age to try to maintain the bone you have. As you age, try to maintain a healthy weight. Being underweight increases the risk of bone loss.
  • Physical inactivity. Lack of regular weight-bearing exercise, such as walking, can result in weakened bones and muscles, making falls and fractures more likely.
  • Tobacco and alcohol use. Both can interfere with the normal processes of bone building and maintenance, resulting in bone loss.


A hip fracture can reduce your independence and sometimes shorten your life. About half the people who have a hip fractures aren’t able to regain the ability to live independently.

If a hip fracture keeps you immobile for a long time, the complications can include:

  • Blood clots in your legs or lungs
  • Bedsores
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Pneumonia
  • Further loss of muscle mass, increasing your risk of falls and injuries
  • Death


Healthy lifestyle choices in early adulthood build a higher peak bone mass and reduce your risk of osteoporosis in later years. The same measures adopted at any age might lower your risk of falls and improve your overall health.

To avoid falls and to maintain healthy bone:

  • Get enough calcium and vitamin D. As a general rule, men and women age 50 and older should consume 1,200 milligrams of calcium a day, and 600 international units of vitamin D a day.
  • Exercise to strengthen bones and improve balance. Weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, help you maintain peak bone density. Exercise also increases your overall strength, making you less likely to fall. Balance training also is important to reduce your risk of falls, since balance tends to deteriorate with age.
  • Avoid smoking or excessive drinking. Tobacco and alcohol use can reduce bone density. Drinking too much alcohol can also impair your balance and make you more likely to fall.
  • Assess your home for hazards. Remove throw rugs, keep electrical cords against the wall, and clear excess furniture and anything else that could trip you. Make sure every room and passageway is well lit.
  • Check your eyes. Have an eye exam every other year, or more often if you have diabetes or an eye disease.
  • Watch your medications. Feeling weak and dizzy, which are possible side effects of many medications, can increase your risk of falling. Talk to your doctor about side effects caused by your medications.
  • Stand up slowly. Getting up too quickly can cause your blood pressure to drop and make you feel wobbly.
  • Use a cane, walking stick or walker. If you don’t feel steady when you walk, ask your doctor or occupational therapist whether these aids might help.

March 27, 2020

Show references

  1. Morrison RS, et al. Hip fractures in adults: Epidemiology and medical management. https://www. uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 18, 2020.
  2. AskMayoExpert. Hip fracture. Mayo Clinic; 2019.
  3. Hip fractures. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases–conditions/hip-fractures. Accessed Jan. 18, 2020.
  4. Hip fractures among older adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adulthipfx.html. Accessed Jan. 18, 2020.
  5. Hip fractures. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries-poisoning/fractures/hip-fractures. Accessed Jan. 18, 2020.
  6. Ferri FF. Hip fracture. In: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2020. Elsevier; 2020. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 22, 2020.
  7. Alexiou KI, et al. Quality of life and psychological consequences in elderly patients after a hip fracture: A review. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2018; doi:10.2147/CIA.S150067.
  8. Foster KW. Overview of common hip fractures in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 18, 2020.
  9. Prevent falls and fractures. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/prevent-falls-and-fractures. Accessed Jan. 22, 2020.
  10. Healthy eating: Vitamins and minerals. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/vitamins-and-minerals. Accessed Jan. 22, 2020.


Associated Procedures

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Hip Pointer – Johns Hopkins All Children’s Hospital

    What Is a Hip Pointer?

    A hip pointer is pain and/or bruising over the top or front of the hip bone. Most hip pointers are caused by a direct blow to the soft tissue and bone in the hip area.

    What Are the Signs & Symptoms of a Hip Pointer?

    A hip pointer causes pain and tenderness over the front and top of the hip bone. The area also might look bruised. Some people have pain when moving the hip, which can range from mild to severe.

    What Causes a Hip Pointer?

    Hip pointers are caused by a hard hit to hip area, usually during an athletic activity. This can happen:

    • in contact sports like football, baseball, soccer, lacrosse, hockey, and field hockey
    • in noncontact sports from contact with equipment like the pole in pole vault or the ball in soccer
    • from landing on a hard surface (in volleyball, gymnastics, basketball, figure skating, dance, or skateboarding)
    • in a crash (during skiing, snowboarding, cycling, or inline skating)

    How Is a Hip Pointer Diagnosed?

    To diagnose a hip pointer, health care providers:

    • ask about physical activities and if there were any recent accidents
    • do an exam, paying special attention to the hip

    Sometimes doctors order an X-ray or MRI to check for a broken bone or other injury.

    How Is a Hip Pointer Treated?

    Teens with a hip pointer need to rest the area. They should avoid any activities that make the pain worse or could cause another hit to the area. This may mean taking a break from sports.

    Your health care provider also may recommend that you:

    • Use crutches to take weight off the hip.
    • Put ice or a cold pack on the hip every 1–2 hours for 15 minutes at a time. (Put a thin towel over the skin to protect it from the cold.)
    • Wrap an elastic bandage around the waist/hip area for support and comfort.
    • Raise the hips on a pillow when lying down to help with pain and swelling.
    • Go for physical therapy or do a home exercise program to help with stretching and strengthening of the area.
    • Take medicine for pain such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, or store brand) or acetaminophen (Tylenol or store brand). Follow the directions that come with the medicine on how much to take and how often.

    When Can Someone With a Hip Pointer Go Back to Sports?

    Teens who get a hip pointer can return to sports when:

    • they have full range of motion in the hip
    • they’re no longer limping
    • they’re back to their full strength
    • the pain is improved

    Going back to sports too soon puts someone with a hip pointer at risk for another injury that could possibly be more serious. Your health care provider will let you know when it’s safe for you to go back to sports.

    What Else Should I Know?

    If things don’t improve, see your doctor, as it may be a sign that you have a different or more serious condition.

Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.
© 1995-2021 KidsHealth® All rights reserved. Images provided by iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

Orthopedics 101: Understanding the Different Types of Hip Injuries

Hips are prone to a variety of injuries, some of which can occur even if the joint is healthy. Others are the result of osteoporosis or other conditions that increase the vulnerability of this joint.

If you are experiencing hip pain and aren’t certain what may be causing it, read on for a list of the most common types of hip injuries and an overview of potential treatments.

Hip Fracture

Anyone can break or fracture their hip, no matter their age. However, this type of hip injury is more common in people over the age of 65.

A young person with healthy bones will have to experience a more severe trauma to break or fracture their hip, like a car accident. On the other hand, an older person with osteoporosis (a condition that weakens bones) could fracture their hip from a simple fall.

Symptoms of a fractured or broken hip include:

  • Severe pain in the hip or groin area
  • Inability to place weight on the leg attached to the injured hip
  • Stiffness, swelling, and bruising of the hip and surrounding area
  • Inability to move immediately following a fall
  • The leg attached to the injured hip turns outwards

Unfortunately, there are limited treatment options for a fractured or broken hip. Treatment usually consists of surgery, rehabilitation, and medication. You should see your doctor immediately if you have experienced even the slightest trauma and are exhibiting any of the aforementioned symptoms.


Bursae are fluid-filled sacs between the joint and soft tissues, which reduce friction. These can become inflamed and cause severe hip pain. This condition is known as bursitis. Bursitis is often the result of repetitive minor trauma to the area or due to a major injury. Age and overuse can also be factors that lead to hip bursitis.

Symptoms include pain, especially after long periods of inactivity or repetitive activity. The joint may also feel stiff and achy at all times. You may also find it difficult to move due to the severity of the pain.

Hip treatment options for bursitis include medication, physical therapy, injections, temporary use of an assistive device, and, in extreme cases, surgery.


Dislocation of the hip occurs when the ball found at the top of the femur slips out of its socket. This type of hip injury causes intense pain and will prevent you from being able to move your leg. Dislocating your hip requires a lot of force, like from a major fall or being in a car accident. People with a shallow hip socket or hip dysplasia are more susceptible to dislocation.

Symptoms include severe pain, the leg attached to the injured hip may be shorter than the healthy leg, and the leg may also be in an abnormal position.

Treatment involves going to the emergency room, where your hip will be X-rayed. If the doctor finds no evidence of a fractured femur, you’ll likely be treated on the spot. You’ll be given medication to treat the pain and relax your muscles, after which the doctor will slip the head of the femur back into its socket.

Labral Tear

A labral tear is a hip injury where the cartilage surrounding the bony edge of the socket in the pelvis becomes damaged. This can be caused by a hip injury where the joint is twisted, such as a fall or accident. It may also occur when the hip is repeatedly stressed, especially in the early stages of osteoarthritis.

Symptoms include pain in the front area of the hip or groin, a catching or clicking sensation in the hip, stiffness, or a limited range of motion in the hip.

Some of the hip treatment options for labral tears include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen to alleviate pain and physical therapy to increase range of motion and improve the strength and stability of the hip.

If other treatment options don’t offer results, your doctor will recommend surgery.

If you have suffered any hip injury or are experiencing hip pain, the Augusta Health Joint Center can help. Give us a call at (540) 332-5047 today.

Chronic Pain from Hip Bone Bruises

Bruises happen to everyone. Bruising usually shows on the skin with dark purple markings. Small bruises are common for athletes or anytime a person accidentally trips, falls or runs into something. Some people tend to bruise more easily than others. Normal bruises are not too much of a concern. Whenever bruising is severe or reaches the bone, that is when patients may need to rest or seek treatment. The hip has surrounding muscles and bones that make up this joint. Particularly, the pelvic bone is a large part of the body that connects to the femur and the rest of the leg. Bruises to the hip may be more severe than a bruise on other bones. Hipbone bruises can lead to chronic pain symptoms that seem to last over time.


Hip Bone Contusions

Bone bruises, or bone contusions, are from an injury to the bone surface. Bone contusions do not cause breaks or fractures, but they can lead to chronic pain problems. With the hips, if a strong impact hits the hip bone, blood will begin to cover the pelvis and swell with pain. The swelling comes from the blood buildup around the hips. Severe hip bone bruising can last several months. Someone in a traumatic event may suffer from bone contusions due to a large fall or strong hit to the body. Even if the bone does not break, it is important to find professional help. Even though blood vessels breaking around the joints is common for bone bruises, patients do not want to experience blood clots and more chronic pain.


Practice Bone Health

Bone bruises should naturally heal with rest and elevation but always monitor a bone contusion injury. Numerous hip bruises can weaken the bone. Repetitive bone bruises may also be a sign of other problems. With hip osteoarthritis, cartilage begins to deteriorate so the bones rubbing together can cause bruising. Chronic pain conditions that cause intense levels of pain need attention. So, patients should care for all their bones that way they can prevent further injury. Weak hip bones can turn into osteoporosis or a total fracture. Hipbone bruises are painful, so try to prevent this injury while learning how to heal if it does happen.

Doctors usually recommend rest, ice and elevation to the initial injury. An anti-inflammatory medication may help with any swelling. Make sure you are getting enough calcium in your diet to strengthen the bones. Strong bones are less likely to bruise. Muscles can protect the bones as well. Build up muscles around the hips to prevent chronic hip bone bruising.

Why Does My Hip Hurt? 8 Causes of Hip Pain & Problems: Treatment Options

The hip joint can withstand repeated motion and a fair amount of wear and tear. This ball-and-socket joint — the body’s largest — fits together in a way that allows for fluid movement.

Whenever you use the hip (for example, by going for a run), a cushion of cartilage helps prevent friction as the hip bone moves in its socket.

Despite its durability, the hip joint isn’t indestructible. With age and use, the cartilage can wear down or become damaged. Muscles and tendons in the hip can get overused. Bones in the hip can break during a fall or other injury. Any of these conditions can lead to hip pain.

If your hips are sore, here is a rundown of what might be causing your discomfort and how to get hip pain relief.

Causes of Hip Pain

These are some of the conditions that commonly cause hip pain:

Arthritis.Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are among the most common causes of hip pain, especially in older adults. Arthritis leads to inflammation of the hip joint and the breakdown of the cartilage that cushions your hip bones. The pain gradually gets worse. People with arthritis also feel stiffness and have reduced range of motion in the hip. Learn more about hip osteoarthritis.

Hip fractures. With age, the bones can become weak and brittle. Weakened bones are more likely to break during a fall. Learn more about hip fracture symptoms.

Bursitis. Bursae are sacs of liquid found between tissues such as bone, muscles, and tendons. They ease the friction from these tissues rubbing together. When bursae get inflamed, they can cause pain. Inflammation of bursae is usually due to repetitive activities that overwork or irritate the hip joint. Learn more about bursitis of the hip.

Tendinitis. Tendons are the thick bands of tissue that attach bones to muscles. Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of the tendons. It’s usually caused by repetitive stress from overuse. Learn more about tendinitis symptoms.

Muscle or tendon strain. Repeated activities can put strain on the muscles, tendons, and ligaments that support the hips. When they become inflamed due to overuse, they can cause pain and prevent the hip from working normally. Learn about the best stretches for tight hip muscles.

Hip labral tear. This is a rip in the ring of cartilage (called the labrum) that follows the outside rim of the socket of your hip joint. Along with cushioning your hip joint, your labrum acts like a rubber seal or gasket to help hold the ball at the top of your thighbone securely within your hip socket. Athletes and people who perform repetitive twisting movements are at higher risk of developing this problem. Learn more about hip labral tears.

Cancers. Tumors that start in the bone or that spread to the bone can cause pain in the hips, as well as in other bones of the body. Learn more about bone tumors​​​​​​​.

Avascular necrosis (also called osteonecrosis). This condition happens when blood flow to the hip bone slows and the bone tissue dies. Although it can affect other bones, avascular necrosis most often happens in the hip. It can be caused by a hip fracture or dislocation, or from the long-term use of high-dose steroids (such as prednisone), among other causes.

Symptoms of Hip Pain

Depending on the condition that’s causing your hip pain, you might feel the discomfort in your:

  • Thigh
  • Inside of the hip joint
  • Groin
  • Outside of the hip joint
  • Buttocks

Sometimes pain from other areas of the body, such as the back or groin (from a hernia), can radiate to the hip.

You might notice that your pain gets worse with activity, especially if it’s caused by arthritis. Along with the pain, you might have reduced range of motion. Some people develop a limp from persistent hip pain.

Hip Pain Relief

If your hip pain is caused by a muscle or tendon strain, osteoarthritis, or tendinitis, you can usually relieve it with an over-the-counter pain medication such as acetaminophen or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen or naproxen.

Rheumatoid arthritis treatments also include prescription anti-inflammatory medications such as corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) like methotrexate and sulfasalazine, and biologics, which target the immune system.

Another way to relieve hip pain is by holding ice to the area for about 15 minutes a few times a day. Try to rest the affected joint as much as possible until you feel better. You may also try heating the area. A warm bath or shower can help ready your muscle for stretching exercises that can lessen pain.

If you have arthritis, exercising the hip joint with low-impact exercises, stretching, and resistance training can reduce pain and improve joint mobility. For example, swimming is a good non-impact exercise for arthritis. Physical therapy can also help increase your range of motion.

When osteoarthritis becomes so severe that the pain is intense or the hip joint becomes deformed, a total hip replacement (arthroplasty) may be a consideration. People who fracture their hip sometimes need surgery to fix the fracture or replace the hip.

Call your health care provider if your pain doesn’t go away, or if you notice swelling, redness, or warmth around the joint. Also call if you have hip pain at night or when you are resting.

Get medical help right away if:

  • The hip pain came on suddenly.
  • A fall or other injury triggered the hip pain.
  • Your joint looks deformed or is bleeding.
  • You heard a popping noise in the joint when you injured it.
  • The pain is intense.
  • You can’t put any weight on your hip.
  • You can’t move your leg or hip.

Common Causes of Hip Pain and When to Seek Treatment

This blog post was updated in January 2021, and is part of the Ultimate Guide to Hip Pain Relief.

Without a fully functional hipbone, you would not be able to stand, walk, run or dance. So, when you suffer from chronic hip pain and certain day-to-day activities suddenly become troublesome, it can feel as if your entire life is being put on hold. Keep reading to learn more about common causes of hip pain and when to seek treatment from a specialist.

The ball-and-socket hip joint fits together in a way that allows for fluid, repeated motion and a fair amount of wear and tear. Whenever you use the hip (for example, by going for a run), a cushion of cartilage helps prevent friction as the hip bone moves in its socket. The hip joint isn’t indestructible. With age and use, the cartilage can wear down or become damaged. Muscles and tendons in the hip can get overused. The hip bone itself can be fractured during a fall or other injury. All of the above can cause hip pain.

Symptoms of Hip Pain

Depending on the condition that’s causing your hip pain, you might feel the discomfort in your:

  • Thigh
  • Inside or outside of the hip joint
  • Groin
  • Buttocks

Sometimes pain from other areas of the body, such as the back or groin can radiate to the hip. You might notice that your pain gets worse with activity, especially if it’s caused by arthritis. Along with the pain, you might have reduced range of motion. Some people develop a limp from persistent hip pain.

Common hip pain causes and when you should seek treatment.

Common Causes of Hip Pain

If your hips are sore, here is a rundown of some of the most common causes of hip pain. The first step to fighting your pain is figuring out its source.



Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent causes of hip pain. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), it affects around 27 million people every day. Due to age, trauma or other factors, the cartilage in the hip that cushions your joints start to break down causing the bones to rub together during any movement. The bone-on-bone action creates pain, stiffness, and loss of movement. If conservative treatments fail, hip replacement surgery is an option.

Learn More About the Symptoms of Osteoarthritis.


Trochanteric Bursitis

Trochanteric bursitis is an extremely common problem that causes inflammation of the bursa over the outside of the hip joint.   Bursa is the fluid-filled sac that works to reduce friction and cushion the points between the bones, tendons, and muscles. Bursa is located throughout the body, including the hips. It causes degeneration of the soft tissues that surround the muscles and bones of the hip. Rest, ice and pain medications can help treat the condition.

See How Bursitis Affects Your Hip



Tendons are a fibrous structure used to join the muscles to the bone. Tendonitis can occur in any of the tendons that surround the hip joint. When the tendons in the hip become inflamed, irritated or swollen, it can cause immense pain. The most frequently encountered tendonitis around the hip is iliotibial band (IT band) tendonitis. Tendinitis can be caused either by injury or overuse of the tendons. It also happens with age as the tendon loses their elasticity.



Osteonecrosis is a condition that occurs when an inadequate amount of blood flow reaches the bone, the cells die and the bone may collapse. One of the most common places for osteonecrosis to occur is in the hip joint.


Snapping Hip Syndrome

Snapping hip syndrome is a word used to describe three distinct hip problems. The first is when the IT band snaps over the outside of the thigh. The second occurs when the deep hip flexor snaps over the front of the hip joint. Finally, tears of the cartilage, or labrum, around the hip socket can cause a snapping sensation.

Learn More About Snapping Hip Syndrome


Hip Labral Tear

The labrum is the cartilage that surrounds the hip joint. The purpose of the labrum is to hold the ball of the thighbone firmly in the hip’s socket. Trauma, repetitive motions, and hereditary conditions can all cause painful tears in the labrum. Hip labral tears are being recognized as a cause of pain and catching sensations in the joint. Often hip arthroscopy is a treatment option.

Check Out How a Labral Tear Affects Your Hip


Stress Fracture

Stress fractures of the hip are most common in athletes who participate in high-impact sports, such as long distance runners. Treatment usually is successful by avoiding the impact activities.

View What Happens When You Have a Hip Fracture


Muscle Strains

Strains of the muscles around the hip and pelvis can cause pain and spasm. The most common strains are groin pulls and hamstring strains.

See What Happens to Your Body When You Have A Muscle Strain Injury to the Hip


Hip Fracture

Hip fractures are most common in elderly patients with osteoporosis. Treatment of broken hips requires surgery to either replace the broken portion or repairing with a metal plate and screws.

See How to Prevent Hip Fractures

Learn More About Hip Fracture Recovery and Treatment



A blunt force trauma such as an automobile accident or sports injury can cause the hip joint to become dislocated, where the ends of the bones become forced from their normal position. Hip dislocation is a very painful injury that can immobilize your hip joint, making walking near impossible. If you believe that you have dislocated your hip, seek medical attention at once.

See What Happens to Your Body When You Have a Hip Dislocation

When to Seek Treatment?

Always consult your physician for personal medical advice, however here are common times to seek treatment for your hip pain:

  • The hip pain came on suddenly.
  • A fall or other injury triggered the hip pain.
  • Your joint looks deformed or are bleeding.
  • You heard a popping noise in the joint when you injured it.
  • If you have hip pain at night or when you are resting.
  • The pain is intense.
  • You notice swelling, redness or warmth around the joint.
  • You can’t put any weight on your hip.
  • You can’t move your leg or hip.

There are many conditions that may cause hip pain. Some conditions are more serious than others and that’s why it’s important to not self-diagnose and seek treatment from a physician–especially if you have chronic pain that is altering your day-to-day activities.

Our experienced physicians have the solutions for your hip pain, no matter the cause. Find a hip specialist and make your appointment today and get on the path to recovery.

*The blog is for general information and educational purposes only regarding musculoskeletal conditions. The information provided does not constitute the practice of medicine or other healthcare professional services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor-patient relationship is formed. Readers with musculoskeletal conditions should seek the advice of their healthcare professionals without delay for any condition they have. The use of the information is at the reader’s own risk. The content is not intended to replace diagnosis, treatment or medical advice from your treating healthcare professional.

90,000 Dangerous consequences of bruises

The consequences of bruises and bruises as a result of sports can be very serious, up to the need for resuscitation and surgery.

Contusions of the limbs and joints are a characteristic injury when training with a barbell, dumbbells and kettlebells. Boxing and fights without rules are especially traumatic.”The consequence of bruises can be ongoing bleeding deep in the tissues, which often leads to additional trauma to adjacent tissues as a result of their compression, which is accompanied by a gradual increase in pain and dysfunction,” says Magomet Urusov, a traumatologist-orthopedist at the Capital-Polis medical center …

Dangerous consequences

The most common soft tissue bruises are , and they are capable of rejecting soft tissues from the periosteum, which causes further necrosis of these areas.It is very difficult to restore normal blood flow and trophic nutrition in such parts of the body, says Magomet Urusov. There are frequent and dangerous cases when a severe bruise provokes the formation of cracks and punctures of the periosteum.

The danger of bruises is determined by their localization. Facial contusions are often complicated by edema and are fraught with concussion. A complication of a bruise in the chest area can be hemorrhage. Bruises in the lumbar region and abdomen are dangerous by crushing internal organs: liver, spleen, kidneys, stomach.Lung contusion has several stages, in each of which the very first symptom of injury is chest pain. The third stage is dangerous by the development of a lung hematoma. Heart contusion is one of the most severe injuries – with severe contusion, as a rule, myocardial infarction develops, according to Magomet Urusov.

Impacts and injuries to the outer surfaces of the body are relatively safe, since vital vessels do not pass there. However, if the blow falls on the area where the vessels of the neck, inner thigh, groin are located, it can be deadly, as it can lead to internal bleeding.The most vulnerable area in this sense is the vessels of the neck. “In case of blunt trauma in the area of ​​the location of the vessels, complications such as bleeding and thrombosis are possible. Both of them are deadly and are manifested by edema, enlargement of the limb in size, cyanosis or extensive bruising,” says Dmitry Rosukhovsky, head of phlebology and vascular surgery at the Longevity clinic …

First aid

Most bruises, bruises, sprains and muscle tears do not require any complex intervention.Nevertheless, in order to prevent the development of serious complications, after receiving a severe bruise, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible. “The first hours after the injury are the most important,” says Dmitry Rosukhovsky. To relieve pain, drug blocks are made, which quickly relieve inflammation and swelling. To immobilize the affected area, orthotics are used with modern means: bandages, belts, corsets, etc. To improve metabolism in the affected area, and, accordingly, improve healing factors, shock wave therapy is successfully practiced, which, by stimulating recovery, eliminates the consequences of violations . ..In addition, proper rehabilitation is an important aspect of recovery and prevention of re-injury.

For the period of stabilization, usually , a therapeutic massage is prescribed, which improves blood circulation and relieves tension, recreational exercise, which restores elasticity to the ligaments, and tone to the muscles. Kinesio taping of joints, physiotherapy are also used. These procedures make it possible, in the shortest possible time, to return to a person the opportunity to play sports without restrictions and reduce the likelihood of injury recurrence.

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90,000 Injuries and bruises: how to provide first aid?

Illustration by Roman Zakharov specially for Informburo. kz

You stumbled while walking, lost balance while cycling, or bumped while cleaning the house.The result is a bruise. This is the most common type of injury, so it is especially important to know how to properly provide first aid in case of injury.

What to look for first of all?

For bruises. A bruise is an injury to the soft tissues of the body (skin, fatty layer, blood vessels), which occurs due to a fall or hit with a blunt object. The site of the bruise usually hurts a lot, swelling, swelling and bruising appear on it. But do not rush to assess the severity of the injury by the hematoma – people with fragile vessels and the elderly, even with a light blow, have large, frightening bruises. In this case, a head injury, which may be accompanied by a concussion, is most often manifested by a small inconspicuous bump. The absence of bruising does not mean that the injury is harmless. On the contrary, with a slight bruise, the bruise becomes visible almost immediately, and with a deeper one, the hematoma will appear only after 2-3 days.

How to distinguish a bruise from a fracture?

Bruises are less painful and do not greatly affect performance. For example, if you break your foot, you will not be able to walk.With a bruise, you can move, but this is accompanied by severe pain. At the time of injury and immediately after, the pain is intense, but over time it diminishes and goes away in a few days. Compare the injured limb with the healthy one. With a fracture, the limb is sometimes deformed: it is stretched or, conversely, shortened due to the displacement of the bones, which does not happen with a bruise.

Roman Zakharov for Informburo. kz

How can you help at the scene?

Immobility is the most important condition for a speedy recovery.The less a person moves the damaged part of the body, the more likely it is to avoid the unpleasant consequences of the injury.

If the blow fell on an arm or leg, try to lie down with your limb on a hill and fix it in a calm state. Apply ice to the bruise to reduce the bruise. It is advisable to cool the injury site on the first day after the injury. After a couple of hours, you can apply a tight bandage to the sore spot to squeeze the tissue and prevent the hemorrhage from spreading. It is worth wearing it for at least a couple of days.If the pain persists for a long time, and bruises and swelling grow, be sure to consult a doctor.

Roman Zakharov for Informburo.kz

For what bruises is it better to see a doctor right away?

In case of bruises of the head, face and body of the victim, it is especially important to lay down and leave alone so as not to harm. In the first minutes, a cold compress will also come to the rescue, but in no case should you self-medicate such an injury. The doctor should examine the patient.It is important to understand if the bones and internal organs are damaged.

It turns out that bruises can only be healed by rest?

Pain relievers can be used to speed up recovery and reduce pain and bruising. If the skin at the site of the injury is not damaged and there are no open wounds, it is better to get rid of the pain pointwise. For example, the company JSC “Khimfarm” sells a drug and a gel that help reduce pain. When using an ibuprofen gel, apply a strip of gel and rub gently into the skin until completely absorbed.It has a local analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect mainly due to inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins – mediators of pain and inflammation.

If the hematoma is too unpleasant to touch, take ibuprofen capsules. They have no taste or smell, the shell dissolves quickly, and its contents are easily digested.

Adults and children over 12 years old (over 40 kg) can take 1 capsule up to 3-4 times a day every 6-8 hours. To achieve a faster therapeutic effect in adults, a single dose can be increased to 2 capsules (400 mg) up to 3 times a day (do not exceed the daily dosage).If, after taking the drug for 2-3 days, the symptoms persist or worsen, it is necessary to stop treatment and consult a doctor

Roman Zakharov for Informburo.kz

By the way, what doctor should I go to in case of bruises?

After providing first aid, it is advisable to see a doctor as soon as possible, even if it seems that the injury is not serious. Go to the emergency room or the emergency room of a hospital where there is a trauma or surgery department.If this is not possible, a therapist or pediatrician can help you, who also need to know the rules of first aid for injuries.

And you can somehow protect yourself from bruises:

To reduce the risk, follow some rules:

  • Choose comfortable shoes with flat or wide heels;
  • In winter, avoid snow-covered paths, under which there may be ice;
  • Carry bags in both hands to distribute the weight evenly;
  • If you feel that you are falling, do not put your hands in the direction of the fall, so as not to break your hands and forearms;
  • If you lose your balance, try to group or bend your legs;
  • It is better to fall on your side and thus distribute the blow to the whole body.

Knee Contusion Treatment | Artromedicenter

If the pain persists the next day after receiving a bruise, then it is necessary to re-take non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (Diclofenac, Ketorol, Indomethacin, Ketonal, Diclac, Oksigan). Accept according
instructions. Some medicinal NSAIDs are available in the form of ointments, for example, Diclofenac, Ketonal, Ketorol, Indomethacin.They can be applied simultaneously with taking the tablets to damaged areas, this will increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Ointment
apply 3 to 4 times. The course is approximately 2 weeks, unless otherwise prescribed by the doctor. You also need to apply
means with cooling and anti-inflammatory properties (Menovazin, Voltaren, Nise).

After reducing puffiness, the end of the acute period of inflammation, you need to start applying ointments with warming
properties. They will enhance blood circulation at the site of injury, stimulate tissue healing. Effectively act
the following drugs:

  • Viprosal;
  • Camphor ointment;
  • Analgos;
  • Fastum gel;
  • Apizartron;
  • Chondroprotectors, for example, Arthra Dona, accelerate the healing and recovery process.Active ingredients are active
    participate in the restoration of damaged soft tissue cells.

For knee bruises, medications with decongestant, absorbable properties are prescribed. The best are considered
Troxevasin, Traumeel, Heparin ointment. They can be used immediately after injury and continued until the end.
recovery period.Ointment is applied to the area of ​​inflammation in the morning and before bedtime with light movements until absorbed.
It is necessary to apply until the edema and redness on the skin disappear.

Complex drugs are on sale, for example, Indovazin. It contains two ingredients – troxevasin and indomethacin. it
the agent works as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, dissolves hematomas well.

It is effective to use special plasters – Nanoplast Forte. It must be glued to the affected area. It improves
movement of blood, accelerates healing. Apply the patch from 3 to 9 days, depending on the condition of the victim
person. 12 days after the injury, it is recommended to undergo a massage course, begin to engage in special
exercises to restore the mobility of the knee joint.

If you have certain symptoms, we advise you to seek advice from
specialist. Diagnostics
will allow you to start timely treatment of the knee joint, which will avoid the risk of developing
serious pathologies and
will allow you to forget about the pain.

Do you need expert advice?

Do you have questions and would like to get expert advice? Leave your contact details and we will contact you!

Childhood Injuries

The process of a toddler’s cognition of the environment is rarely without trauma.And if it was not possible to protect the baby from a fracture, cut, bite or burn, then it is important to use the “golden hour” as efficiently as possible – the first 60 minutes after what happened, when the health and sometimes the life of the child depends only on the actions of adults.

Parents need to be ready for literally anything. Steps, sharp corners, sockets, a stove with a hot saucepan and a cup of boiling water on the table – this is a far from complete list of areas dangerous for a small child. Therefore, it is necessary to have an idea of ​​possible domestic injuries and know how to act in this or that case.The first thing that parents should do if a baby is injured is not to panic themselves, not to be helpless and unable to help the baby. Then you need to calm the child, provide him with first aid and show the baby to the doctor as soon as possible.


Contusion is perhaps the most common childhood injury. Whether the child has fallen or hit something, swelling and bruising appear at the site of the injury. In case of bruises, the integrity of the tissues is not violated, the main damage occurs in the vessels, which burst, forming a hematoma (hemorrhage).

In this case, you need to apply something cold to the site of the injury: an ice bag, a towel moistened with ice water. Cooling the site of injury will relieve pain and prevent the growth of swelling or hematoma. If the bruise rapidly increases in size and volume, you need to call a doctor or take the child to a traumatologist. Most likely, an increase in hematoma occurs, and it is necessary to evacuate the blood using a puncture (the doctor will puncture the skin and suck out the blood).


Joints in children are not as strong as in adults, since the child’s connective tissue is more elastic and less dense.Therefore, any careless, sudden movement or fall can lead to subluxation or dislocation. More often, children have dislocations of the radial head, shoulder, fingers. Such trauma is accompanied by pain, the child cannot move the dislocated arm or leg, sometimes the limb takes an unnatural position due to “springy” fixation (when the dislocated part of the limb provides springy resistance when trying to return it to its natural position and cannot “fall into place”).

If the arm is injured, immobilize it by applying a kerchief.The bandage is made of a square scarf that folds into a triangle, and the two outer corners are tied around the child’s neck. The forearm is laid on the plane of the scarf at an angle of 90 ° C. The middle corner of the fabric wraps around the shoulder and elbow and is secured with a pin on the front of the bandage.

In case of dislocation, the leg can be fixed with a bandage to an improvised tire: thick cardboard, plywood, board, etc. The main thing is to achieve a comfortable, painless position of the limb, without trying to overcome the springy resistance.To do this, you can use pillows rolled into diapers or blankets. Then you should put an ice pack (or other cold object) on the sore spot, give the child anesthetic. And then, as soon as possible, show the injured baby to the traumatologist. The dislocation should be corrected as quickly as possible. Then a bandage is applied to the child for 2-3 weeks.


Symptoms of sprain may not appear immediately, but after a while. This usually causes swelling at the site of the stretch, and the child feels severe pain.

In this case, it is necessary to immobilize or reduce the load on the damaged joint, apply cold to the place of pain. Then you can apply a fixing cruciform bandage in the place of stretching (with oblique bandage moves, alternately apply it above and below the injured joint) and consult a traumatologist. If the injury occurs late at night, and you can only see a doctor in the morning, no bandages should be applied to the damaged joint.Give the baby’s limbs an elevated position. Give your child pain medication and go to the trauma doctor in the morning. Often, with symptoms of stretching, a fracture is detected in a baby.


Without special skills and X-ray, it is rather difficult to recognize a closed fracture. Painful sensations arise in the child at the very moment of the fracture and appear when trying to move or when touching the affected area. Also, a fracture may be accompanied by a tumor (due to tissue edema) and rupture of soft tissues.Fractures of fingers, bones of the forearm, shoulder, collarbone, and also the lower leg are more common in children.

First of all, you need to immobilize the broken limb with the help of available means (thick cardboard, ruler, plank, etc.), give it an elevated position and apply cold to the place of pain.

If the leg is injured, eliminate any vertical or horizontal stress on it. Fix the joints above and below the site of a possible fracture with a long splint, bandaging it to the leg.Give your child pain reliever and call an ambulance.

In case of tissue damage, in no case should you touch the wound above the fracture site with your hands in order to avoid infection. Cover it with a clean cloth dampened with antiseptic. Do not bandage tightly, it is better to secure the napkin with a plaster. Do not try to correct the displacement of the bone fragments yourself, so as not to aggravate the injury. Take the injured child to a trauma specialist as soon as possible. He will choose an adequate surgical or conservative treatment strategy (for example, apply a cast).

Injuries with damage to the skin


A small foreign body (sliver, thorn, etc.) that has entered the skin gives the baby unpleasant sensations. If the splinter is not removed, suppuration may begin.

Use tweezers to remove the splinter as gently as possible and treat the wound with hydrogen peroxide and any other available antiseptic (zelenil, iodine). If you cannot reach a splinter with tweezers, in no case should you expand the wound with a needle – you need to contact a surgeon or traumatologist at the clinic.The doctor, with the help of special tools, quickly, without causing pain and additional injury to the child, will remove a foreign body and, if necessary, prevent possible infectious complications by prescribing antibiotics in the form of tablets or ointments.

Scratch or abrasion

These are superficial lesions of the skin. It is almost impossible to protect a child from them. But you can teach him to seek help from his parents in case of injury and in no case touch the wound with his hands, so as not to infect.

A scratch or abrasion should be treated with any drying antiseptic. When the wound heals, do not allow the baby to tear off the dry crust so that a rough scar does not form, which may remain for a long time. If inflammation is suspected (redness around the abrasion, swelling, fluid secretion), it is necessary to show the child to a surgeon or traumatologist.


This is a fairly deep damage to the skin, accompanied by bleeding.

If the wound is caused by a broken cup or glass, or a Christmas tree toy, or any other fragile object, it is necessary to remove the fragments remaining in the baby’s wound if possible.The main thing is not to drive the fragments deeper. After washing the wound under running water, treat the edges with an antiseptic and apply a pressure bandage (tightly bandaging a gauze napkin to the wound).

In case of cuts, regardless of their depth, the main thing is to stop the bleeding. If the pressure bandage does not help, you need to apply a tourniquet above the injury site and show the baby to the doctor no more than 60 minutes later. A tourniquet is applied to the leg in the upper third of the thigh or lower leg, and on the arm – in the upper part of the shoulder or forearm.It is imperative to put cotton wool or a napkin under the tourniquet. Overexposing the tourniquet is dangerous – this can lead to tissue necrosis, since blood temporarily does not flow to them.

To avoid the possibility of wound infection, poor healing, gross scarring and, of course, tetanus infection, take any cuts to your doctor. Otherwise, the responsibility for possible complications falls on you.

Only the doctor decides whether to apply stitches or strengthen the edges of the wound with a plaster, or just treat it with drugs.

Prevention of tetanus is carried out in children who are not vaccinated against this infection in trauma centers or hospitals. Antitoxin from tetanus is injected urgently once to those babies whose wound was contaminated with injury.

Tetanus vaccination is included in the National Vaccination Schedule and is given to all children at 3-4.5-6 months. Revaccination is carried out at 1.5 years old, at 7 and at 14 years old. After 18 years of age, the vaccine is given every 10 years.


A baby can get burned not only by fire, but also by boiling water.In this case, burns are of three categories: light, characterized by reddening of the skin; medium, when a liquid-filled bubble forms; as well as severe, in which there is carbonization of the skin and underlying tissues – to the bone. In any case, the child will experience tingling to sharp pain.

In these cases, firstly, it is necessary to stop the effect of heat as soon as possible and cool the affected area either under running cold water or using a damp and cold frequently replaced napkin. A good effect for mild and moderate burns is given by alcohol applications – applying a napkin soaked in alcohol to the burn site until it warms up and dries up. Alcohol, evaporating from the skin, will carry away the heat from the burnt surface, and the fabrics will gradually cool down.

After 5-10 minutes of cooling (during this time, not only the superficial tissues, but also the deep layers of the affected skin cool down), you need to assess the baby’s condition, give him an anesthetic, calm him down and, applying a bandage moistened with an antiseptic, contact a surgeon or traumatologist.It is better to show a child, even with a mild, in your opinion, degree of a burn to a specialist in a polyclinic.

In case of burns, do not apply ointment dressings and do not treat the skin of the crumbs with coloring antiseptics – such as brilliant green, fukarcin, etc. This will make it difficult for a physician to assess the extent of tissue damage. Only he can correctly determine the degree of the burn, remove necrotic (dead) tissue and choose the further tactics of treating the child.

It is not necessary to lubricate the burned area with oil or urine, as in the first case, a film forms that disrupts heat exchange in the tissues (the burned layers of the skin cannot cool down), and urine dehydrates tissues that have already lost water as a result of the burn.

Other injuries

Blood from the nose

Children tend to break the nose, thereby violating the integrity of the capillaries (shallow vessels), which causes blood to flow from the nose. At an early age, this is mainly due to falling. Older children may experience nosebleeds due to damage to the nose in a fight.

A common mistake in helping with nosebleeds is tipping the baby’s head back.This cannot be done, since the baby can simply choke on the blood that gets down the throat. The child should be seated and asked to tilt his head forward slightly, pressing the damaged nostril against the nasal septum with a finger for a few seconds.

If blood continues to flow, place a cotton swab or a piece of bandage soaked in hydrogen peroxide into your nostril and apply ice or something cold to your nose. If this does not help, an examination by an otolaryngologist, surgeon or traumatologist who can stop the bleeding is needed.

Objects in the nose

Sometimes it can be difficult to determine that a child has put something in his nose. If nothing is visible in the nostril, and there is also no unnatural protrusion of one of the nasal passages, but at the same time a healthy baby breathes with a whistle, it is possible that there is a foreign object in the nasal cavity.

If you have not seen how the child was thrusting something into his nose, but you do not exclude this possibility, ask him about it if the baby already knows how to talk.In any case, even if you think you can remove the object from the child’s nose on your own, do not do this so as not to damage the nasal septum.

If you find (or suspect) something foreign in the nose, show the baby to the surgeon, traumatologist or otolaryngologist. The doctor will use special instruments to remove a foreign object from the nose.

Toy swallowed

Signs that a toy is not completely swallowed or is stuck in the child’s airway include choking, wheezing, coughing, voice changes or loss of voice.

In these cases, call an ambulance immediately. If the child is suffocating, action must be taken immediately! Place the baby face down, supporting him with your hand, for example, in the waist area so that his head is below the level of the body, and pat several times on the back between the shoulder blades or, lowering the child upside down, shake him.

If the foreign body did not come out, try to open the baby’s mouth and, pulling out your tongue, assess the situation: if there is a toy in your field of vision, it is advisable to remove it as soon as possible.But only if you are sure that you can do it with your finger or long tweezers.

If all else fails, and the child continues to suffocate, start doing artificial respiration before the ambulance arrives. The child should be laid on his back on a hard surface; throw his head back; covering your nose with your fingers, inflate the baby’s lungs with your breath, combining this with a closed heart massage (pressing on the sternum). Ha 1 breath, perform 5 pressures on the sternum area. If the child is very young, press with two crossed fingers.For an older baby, an indirect heart massage is performed by pressing the sternum with several fingers. Remember, all these manipulations need to be done very quickly!

If the child has swallowed a small object and does not present any complaints, it is better to discuss further actions with the doctor after the X-ray of the gastrointestinal tract. Buttons, beads and other small, smooth objects, as a rule, are self-evacuated from the intestines along with the feces. In other cases, surgery may be required.

Electric shock

Modern parents know that with the appearance of a child, all sockets in the house must be closed, and electrical appliances must be removed to a distance unattainable for the baby. However, it is not always possible to comply with all precautions, and children often suffer electrical injuries while exploring outlets or electrical appliances.

In case of electrical injury, a child may have a burn at the point of contact with the wire, weak or irregular heartbeat, and intermittent breathing.

In this case, the parents should provide the injured baby with peace and immediately call an ambulance, even if at first glance it seems that the electric shock was not strong. Often, the heart suffers from an electric shock, so do not delay calling a doctor for your child. It is necessary to observe the doctor for several days.


Bites are different: insects or animals. Minor insect bites (for example, mosquitoes) should be treated with special antihistamines (antiallergic), antipruritic agents, and the child should not be allowed to comb the damaged area.

In case of a stinging insect bite (wasp, bee), it is necessary to completely remove the sting with tweezers and treat the wound with any antiseptic (brilliant green, iodine).

In case of a tick bite, be sure to consult a surgeon. In no case do not try to remove it from the baby’s skin with your fingers on your own, since the contents of the tick’s internal organs (and if it is infected, then the encephalitis virus), like from a syringe, is released into the wound. And this significantly increases the risk of contracting tick-borne encephalitis. Remember: the rate of spread and the severity of the disease depends on the dose of the virus that has entered the body.

When bitten by an animal, including a domestic one, wash the bite site very thoroughly with soap and water to remove the animal’s saliva. Through punctate skin wounds, microbes can enter deep under the skin and cause inflammation. After rinsing, apply a loose, clean and dry aseptic (sterile) dressing to the area and show the child immediately to the doctor.

When bitten by animals suspected of rabies, children are given specific prophylaxis with rabies gammaglobulin and rabies vaccine.

Dangerous areas

A child, especially a small one, may be injured, it would seem, out of the blue. In living quarters, the main danger is posed by sharp corners of furniture, sockets, household electrical appliances, sharp and cutting objects, slippery carpets or parquet – in general, almost any interior and household items.

A playground in the yard can also pose a threat: slides, ladders, swings and trees often cause various childhood injuries.Even a seemingly safe park bench can turn into a cause of splinters or become the culprit of a fracture due to an unsuccessful jump.

The first line in the list of causes of child injuries is occupied by transport. And this is not only serious injuries due to road accidents – very often children pinch their fingers in the doors of cars, hit their heads on the handrails in buses or on the glass in cars without being fastened.

You are unlikely to be able to completely protect your child from injury. However, small children should never be left unattended. As they grow older, teach your child safety precautions and tell them what kind of injuries he can get if he is not careful.

Childhood is not complete without bruises and scratches, but keep them as few as possible in your child’s life.

Help with bruises and bruises on the body


Perhaps, bruises are one of the most common types of domestic or sports injuries.Sometimes a slight collision and push, fall, collision or impact is enough to create a painful bruise and swelling on an arm or leg. And although in everyday life, a bruise is not considered a serious injury, it can bring significant inconvenience and have quite serious health consequences. That is why it is so important to know what needs to be done in the first hours after the injury.

article 1

Symptoms and effects of bruises

The most common symptoms of a bruise are pain, swelling, and bruising. The intensity of their manifestation depends on the degree of soft tissue damage as a result of trauma. They range from minor scratches to bruising and swelling that can cover a large area of ​​a limb, such as the thigh, lower leg, or forearm.

A bruise – or more correctly, a hematoma – is an accumulation of blood at the site of injury, caused by damage to the blood vessels, which manifests itself 2-3 days after the injury. Over time, the bruise changes color from blue to black or yellow, this is due to the processes of decay of blood elements.Swelling or swelling at the site of injury occurs due to hemorrhage and the development of an inflammatory reaction. The stronger the hematoma and swelling, the more severe the pain is. This is due to stretching of soft tissues and compression of nerve endings.

First aid for bruises

Timely and correct first aid measures taken in the first 24 hours after an injury will help you recover faster, manage pain, and reduce the effects of the injury.

What to do in case of injury [1] :

  • assess the condition, make sure that there are no serious injuries – dislocations or fractures of the limbs;

  • ensure rest, since physical exertion on the injured arm or leg can aggravate the situation;

  • cool the bruised area with ice or a cold compress – this will help reduce pain, reduce swelling, and prevent bruising;

  • if necessary, you can apply a compression – squeezing – bandage;

  • if the injury is extensive and accompanied by significant swelling, and the site of the injury is located on the arm or leg, then to facilitate the outflow of blood and lymph from the affected area, it is worth raising the limb above the level of the head during rest;

  • use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of gels, ointments, or creams to reduce pain and swelling.

An injury can have serious health consequences, therefore, regardless of the severity of the injury, you should seek the advice of a doctor.

article 2

How to choose an effective cream for bruises and bruises?

As a local non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, you can choose a European-made drug – Aertal® cream.It has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, suppresses the development of edema and erythema. It is the only aceclofenac-based product in the form of a cream. It has established clinical efficacy with good tolerability.

The active ingredient – aceclofenac – is in the cream in the form of tiny particles. Once applied, it is absorbed, rapidly reaching saturation. The active substance accumulates in the absorption zone. This contributes to an increase in anti-inflammatory activity.Aceclofenac enters the systemic circulation in small amounts, therefore the risk of side effects of Aertal® cream, including on the gastrointestinal tract, is minimized.

To prevent the development of edema, relieve pain and reduce bruising, apply the cream with rubbing movements to the site of the injury 3 times a day.

Recovery from injury

If the bruise is strong enough and is accompanied by large swelling and hematoma, the restoration of the function of the injured limb must be approached with caution.Begin by gently stretching the limb to restore muscle elasticity. Gradually, the intensity of the exercise can be increased until the volume and strength of movement are fully restored.

[1] Collier JAB, Longmore JM, Harvey JG Oxford Handbook for Clinicians. M .: Medicine, 2000.S. 808.

About cream

Aertal ® cream has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and decongestant effects.

Chronic pain

Back pain: causes and treatment

What is the difference between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ointments, creams, gels

90,000 we find out the cause with the help of ultrasound diagnostics (ultrasound)

Reporting of soft tissues in the knee joint area is a fairly common symptom with which patients go to the doctor. This condition can develop for several reasons, and in order to prescribe an accurate treatment, a specialist must make an accurate diagnosis.

For this, a comprehensive examination is assigned, in which, in addition to collecting anamnesis, examination and laboratory tests, instrumental techniques are also included. This can be MRI, arthroscopy, X-ray, or ultrasound. The latter method is distinguished by its safety, availability, simplicity and high information content. That is why ultrasound of the knee joint is often prescribed as one of the first.

Possible causes

In the simplest case, swelling in the knee area is the result of an injury. The patient can clearly indicate the circumstances and time of receipt, but even in this case, the doctor prescribes an ultrasound scan, which will help identify characteristic lesions and plan subsequent treatment. Other reasons, which are not always obvious, include:

  • bursitis. It is accompanied by acute or chronic inflammation of the articular bag of the knee joint. In addition to swelling, the patient is worried about pain and redness of the skin, in some cases the range of motion in the knee joint may decrease. In a chronic course, the symptoms of bursitis may disappear, but sooner or later the disease will worsen again.
  • Tendinitis. In this case, the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle or the patella’s own ligament becomes inflamed. Pathology is often observed in athletes, but it can also occur in other categories of people. Other manifestations of tendonitis include pain that first occurs during exercise and then becomes constant.Without proper treatment, the ligaments lose their strength, which increases the risk of rupture.
  • Dislocation of the patella. It develops as a result of excessive physical exertion, injury, muscle weakness, and knee instability. Often, when the patella is dislocated, its ligaments are damaged, which leads to the development of inflammation and pain.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. It is characterized by autoimmune damage to the cartilage of the joint. The disease develops gradually and does not manifest itself in the initial stages.With the destruction of cartilage, the anatomy of the joint changes, it deforms and loses its function. Other signs of rheumatoid arthritis include pain, a local increase in temperature, and the formation of Baker’s cysts, which are localized in the area of ​​the generation fossa.
  • Osteoarthritis. It is a chronic disease characterized by degenerative-dystrophic changes in cartilage tissue. There are 4 degrees of arthrosis, each of which is characterized by certain changes. In the early stages of the disease, the patient is usually worried about moderate painful sensations, which are noted only after physical exertion.Gradually, the pain becomes more pronounced, swelling, crunching, deformation of the joints join.
  • Gout. Another chronic disease that develops due to metabolic disorders, as a result of which crystals (salts) of uric acid are deposited in the joints. Most often, gout affects the joints of the toes, but the knee joint may also be involved. In addition to swelling, patients are worried about redness and itching of the skin, pain during movement and at rest, and other extra-articular manifestations.

As you can see, the diseases described above have many common symptoms, so it can be difficult for even an experienced doctor to make an accurate diagnosis based on just one examination. Ultrasound of the knee joint provides important information that will not only help determine the cause of soft tissue swelling, but also choose the right treatment.

How the study is conducted

When conducting ultrasound, both knee joints are necessarily examined, even if swelling is noted on one of them.No special preparation is required for the study, and its duration is about 20 minutes. The knee joint is large enough, so it is impossible to thoroughly examine it from one side.

There are 4 types of access to get the maximum information:

  • Front. Allows you to study the condition of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh, patella and ligaments, as well as the condition of the surrounding soft tissues.
  • Rear. Part of the meniscus, vessels and nerves localized in the popliteal fossa, tendons and part of the gastrocnemius muscle are examined.
  • Medial (inner lateral part of the knee joint). The inner part of the meniscus, joint capsules and ligaments are accessible for examination. In addition, this type of access allows determining the level of articular fluid and calculating the thickness of the cartilage.
  • Lateral (outer lateral part of the knee joint). The ligament of the biceps femoris muscle, the outer part of the meniscus, and the outer portion of the joint capsule are examined.

Ultrasound of the knee joint is painless, and upon completion, the patient can immediately return to normal life without any restrictions.In the future, the doctor may prescribe a second study, which will help determine the dynamics of changes or evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.

90,000 Bursitis – treatment, symptoms, causes, diagnosis

Wherever bones, tendons, or ligaments move and rub against each other, especially around the joints, the points of contact are softened by small fluid-filled sacs called bursa. The bags are lined with special cells called synovial cells that produce a fluid rich in collagen and protein.By reducing friction, each of these bags (there are about 150 of them in the body) helps the joints work, smoothly providing the necessary range of motion. Bursa allows you to provide movements with different vector movements in such joints as shoulder, elbow, knee, femur, ankle. Inflammation and swelling of the bursa is called bursitis .

Causes of bursitis

Excessive stress on the joint or trauma, as well as prolonged stress, can cause inflammation of the periarticular bursa.The bag fills with excess fluid, which puts pressure on the surrounding tissue. The immediate first signal of bursitis is pain, often accompanied by redness, swelling and soreness. This is a distinguishing feature of bursitis in contrast to tendinitis, which is inflammation of the tendon where the muscle tendon attaches to the bone. Age is of a certain importance in the onset of bursitis, and the shoulder joint, which has the greatest range of motion among all joints, is most often prone to bursitis at an older age.Typically, shoulder bursitis pain occurs after sleep and gradually regresses over the course of the day (pain is usually localized to the top of the shoulder). Other areas where bursitis is most common are the elbows, thighs, knees and thumb.

The main causes of bursitis are trauma, infections and rheumatologic diseases.


Trauma can be both a provoking factor and directly lead to the development of bursitis.

Bursitis often develops due to the peculiarities of a person’s work. Heavy physical work associated with long, repetitive and heavy loads The most common cause of chronic bursitis is minor trauma that can occur, for example, in the shoulder when the ball is thrown sharply. Or, for example, prepatellar bursitis arises from prolonged kneeling while washing floors.

It is also possible to develop acute bursitis from a blow, for example to the knee, which leads to the accumulation of blood in the bursa.


The bags are close to the surface of the skin and are often susceptible to infection as a result of this – such bursitis is called infected. The most common microorganism causing bursitis is staphylococcus aureus. The most susceptible to infected bursitis are people with weakened immune systems (diabetes patients, chronic alcoholics, patients taking long-term corticosteroids). In 85% of cases, infected bursitis occurs in men. Rheumatological conditions.

Rheumatological diseases

In various rheumatological conditions, secondary inflammation of the bursae is possible. In addition, diseases such as gout or pseudogout due to the deposition of salts in the bag can cause the development of bursitis.


Common symptoms of bursitis include:

  • Pain, inflammation, and swelling in the shoulder, elbow, hip, or knee, especially noticeable when the joints are extended.
  • Stiffness or decreased range of motion in a joint with or without pain.
  • Muscle weakness due to pain. Bursitis can cause pain and tenderness in the area of ​​the bone or tendon involved. The bags can grow in size, which can make it difficult to move. As a rule, bursitis occurs in the area of ​​the shoulder, elbow, knee and hip.


In the shoulder, the bursa subacromial (bursa subdeltoid) separates the supraspinatus tendon from the underlying bone and deltoid muscle. Inflammation of this bursa is usually the result of trauma to the surrounding structures, usually the rotator cuff.This condition limits the range of motion of the shoulder leading to “impingement syndrome” and is characterized by pain in the front and side of the shoulder. Discomfort is caused by placing the arm over the head and stress on the shoulder.

The pain increases at night, the range of motion in the shoulder decreases and soreness appears in certain areas.


Bursitis of the tip of the elbow (olecranon) is the most common form of bursitis.

  • Pain may increase in the elbow in flexion, as the pressure on the bag increases.
  • This type of bursitis most often has a post-traumatic nature and can be associated with direct trauma as well as with excessive rotation and flexion at the elbow (for example, when painting).
  • Infection is also quite common with this type of bursitis.


  • Prepatellar bursitis of the anterior patella. Swelling on the front of the kneecap can be caused by chronic injury (such as kneeling) or from a blow to the knee.The swelling may appear within 7-10 days after a single blow to the area, usually from a fall. Prepatellar bursitis is also called the cleric’s knee or carpet cleaner’s knee.
  • Popliteal bursitis is located in the area of ​​the three main tendons of the inner part of the knee. This type of bursitis occurs most often in patients with arthritis and is usually overweight, middle-aged women. Popliteal bursitis is manifested by pain when bending the knee and at night.Moreover, pains at night force patients to sleep in certain positions in which the pain becomes less. In addition, this bursitis is characterized by an increase in pain when climbing stairs, possibly with irradiation along the inner surface of the thigh. Popliteal bursitis is also common in athletes, especially long-distance runners.


Ankle bursitis occurs when the bursa under the Achilles tendon becomes inflamed behind the heel. Most often caused by local trauma associated with wearing poorly fitting shoes (often high heels) or walking for long periods

Also, this bursitis can be a consequence of Achilles tendonitis.

Bursitis in this part of the body often occurs as a consequence of excessive exertion in young athletes, skaters, and in female adolescents who begin to wear high-heeled shoes. The pain is usually located at the end of the heel and increases with movement of the foot.


Bursitis ischio-gluteal (Ischiogluteal) is caused by inflammation of the ischial sac, which is located between the base of the pelvic bone and the great muscle of the buttock (musculus gluteus maximus).Inflammation can be due to prolonged sitting on a hard surface or cycling. Ischiogluteal bursitis is also called weaver’s disease. Pain occurs when sitting and walking.

  • Possibly soreness in the pubic region that worsens when bending and extending the leg.
  • Pain may radiate to the back of the thigh.
  • When pressing in the area of ​​the inflamed bursa, acute pain appears.
  • The pain intensifies in the supine position with passively flexed hips.
  • Difficulty standing on tiptoe from the affected side is possible.


Bursitis of the iliopsoas muscle . This bursa is the largest and is located deep in the tissues of the thigh near the joint. Bursitis of this location is usually associated with problems in the hip such as arthritis or hip injury

Pain with ilio-lumbar bursitis is localized in the front of the thigh radiating to the knee and increases with hip extension and rotation.Extension of the hip while walking is painful so that you have to shorten your stride and limit the load on your leg. Potential soreness in the groin area. Sometimes an enlarged bursa can resemble a hernia. Sensations such as tingling or numbness are also possible if there is a compression of sensory nerves with an enlarged bag

Acetabular bursitis (bursitis trochanteric) located in the upper part of the thigh bone occurs, as a rule, in overweight middle-aged women.Acetabular bursitis is manifested by pain in the lateral part of the thigh, radiating to the buttocks or knee. The pain is aggravated by movement of local pressure or stretching of the leg. The pain is worse at night and makes it difficult to sleep on the affected side. Considering that bursitis can be infectious in nature and antibiotic treatment will be necessary or a puncture of the bursa, it is necessary to seek medical help in the following cases.

  • Pain in the joint for more than a few days.
  • Restriction of mobility in the statute.
  • The presence of puffiness that does not disappear after taking NSAIDs.
  • Fever in the presence of pain in the joint.
  • Hotter joint or redness.
  • Areas of tenderness in the joint area.


The diagnosis of bursitis is made on the basis of a combination of symptoms, clinical manifestations, history of the disease and instrumental diagnostic methods. The medical history allows you to find out the presence of concomitant somatic pathology.

Some diagnostic procedures may be prescribed to rule out other causes of pain. They include the following diagnostic procedures:

  • X-rays can be used to visualize the presence of osteophytes or arthritis.
  • Analysis of punctate (microscopy), which was obtained as a result of puncture of an enlarged bursa, allows to exclude gout and the presence of infection. Bursitis in the knee and elbow is the most common infection.
  • Blood tests rule out rheumatological diseases (eg rheumatoid arthritis) and metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus).
  • MRI can be prescribed if you need a detailed visualization of the morphological picture.


Although bursitis usually heals on its own and disappears after a few days or weeks, measures should be taken to reduce the burden or trauma. There are patients who prefer to endure painful manifestations, but this can lead to the development of chronic bursitis and the formation of calcium deposits in soft tissues, which ultimately will lead to limited mobility in the joint.

First of all, drug treatment is usually carried out. NSAIDs can reduce pain and inflammation. It is also possible to use steroids in a short course (taking into account the presence of somatic diseases). In case of infected bursitis, a course of antibiotics must be prescribed.

Puncture of the inflamed bursa allows aspiration of excess fluid and relieves pressure on the surrounding tissue. Injecting anesthetics along with steroids into the inflamed bursa can help reduce inflammation.

Physiotherapy (ultrasound or diathermy) can not only reduce the discomfort and inflammation associated with bursitis, but can also relax spasmodic muscles and relieve stress on nerves and tendons. In addition, it is possible to use local exposure to cold or modern cryotherapy techniques.

Sometimes, with persistent bursitis and the presence of painful appearances, surgical removal of the inflamed bursa is recommended.

Prevention of bursitis is the elimination of loads that led to the development of bursitis.Wearing orthopedic appliances is often recommended, especially if the work involves a certain risk of traumatic movements. Exercise therapy also allows you to optimize the work of muscles and ligaments.