What is spit up: Spitting up in babies: What’s normal, what’s not
What It Is and How It Changes
Breast milk is a liquid source of food made by the human body to nourish babies. The body creates it in response to pregnancy and the suckling of a baby at the breast. However, people who have not been pregnant can also breastfeed with the help of hormones, medications, and stimulation such as pumping.
Breast milk not only provides a child with complete nutrition, it is also a source of protection against illness. Breastfeeding benefits parents and children in a variety of ways, and many of these benefits continue long after breastfeeding has ended.
The dynamic nature of breast milk is fascinating: its composition, color, volume, and taste can all change in response to various factors in both the baby and the breastfeeding parent.
Breast Milk Composition
Breast milk is made up of hundreds of substances, including protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, water, enzymes, and hormones. This composition isn’t constant, however; it varies from parent to parent. It can even change within the same parent, depending on the baby’s needs.
Breast milk changes during each feeding, from one feeding to another throughout the day, and over time to meet the needs of a growing child. Here are some of the changes that can occur in the composition of breast milk:
- Growth spurts cause babies to nurse more often and for longer periods, which helps increase both the volume and fat content of breast milk.
- What you eat has been shown to affect the flavor of your milk and even influence your baby’s taste preferences later in life.
- The fat content in milk increases throughout each feeding, with the hindmilk providing up to two or three times more fat than the foremilk. Foremilk is thin, watery, and lower in fat, calories, and vitamins A and E than hindmilk.
- Day vs. night: Breast milk is like a biological clock, literally changing by the hour. For instance, breast milk contains low levels of an amino acid called tryptophan (the precursor to the “sleep” hormone melatonin) in the morning and much higher levels at night. By breastfeeding, you are helping your infant establish their circadian rhythm of being awake during the day and asleep at night.
Parents who pump their milk to feed later may want to mark the time it was pumped when storing it. This way they can feed it at the same time of day to give their baby the time-appropriate factors present in the milk.
- Beneficial gut bacteria in the parent’s gastrointestinal tract may migrate to the mammary glands and get incorporated into breast milk, pointing to a close relationship between the parent’s GI health and that of their baby.
- Antibodies are produced in breast milk when either the parent or child is sick, thereby protecting both of them.
Breast Milk Stages
The production of breast milk begins during pregnancy. When your baby is born, you will have only a small amount of milk for the first day or two. Don’t worry; this is more than enough for your newborn. Your baby is getting enough milk if they have one wet diaper on day one, two wet diapers on day two, and so on.
By the third day after delivery, the production of breast milk increases. As your breast milk comes in, you should feel your breasts begin filling up. However, it could take longer (up to five days) for first-time moms .
In the first two weeks after a baby is born, breast milk progresses through three main stages: colostrum, transitional breast milk, and mature breast milk.
Colostrum, the first type of breast milk, is present at the end of pregnancy and during the first few days after a baby is born. The amount of colostrum that your body makes is small, but that small volume contains everything your new baby needs in the first few days of life.
It’s usually thick, yellow and sticky, but it can also be thin and white or orange in color. If you are pumping, the thick colostrum may get stuck in the tubing of your pump.
Some moms find it easier to hand-express colostrum into a small cup and then pour it into a bottle. (You should still use your pump to stimulate your breasts and encourage milk production.)
It’s also a natural laxative that helps prevent jaundice by clearing your baby’s body of meconium: the first thick, black, tarry poop.
Colostrum also contains high levels of lactoferrin, a protein that also has immune properties and helps with absorption of iron. Lactoferrin falls during the transition from colostrum to mature milk, but it is present in all forms of breast milk.
Transitional breast milk is a combination of colostrum and mature milk. When your breast milk begins to come in (three to five days after delivery), it mixes with colostrum and gradually transitions to mature milk over the course of a few days or a week.
Milk changes over to mature breast milk by the time a baby is about two weeks old. Compared to colostrum, mature milk is lower in protein but higher in fat and carbohydrates. Mature milk contains about 90% water to meet your baby’s fluid needs.
A 2018 study showed that the fat and protein content of breast milk increases after the 18 month mark, while carbohydrates decrease. The authors theorized that these changes are the result of breast milk adapting to the higher energy needs of growing toddlers.
Breast Milk Supply
Your body begins to make breast milk in response to pregnancy and delivery of your child. But to continue making breast milk after your baby is born, you will need to breastfeed or pump.
By removing milk from the breasts, you will stimulate your body to make more milk. The more often you breastfeed or pump, the more milk you will make.
As your baby begins to sleep for longer stretches at night, your body will adjust too. Soon you’ll be able to sleep for longer periods without experiencing engorged breasts from not feeding for several hours.
Breast Milk Color
The color of breast milk can change in response to various factors. It’s usually white, yellow, or bluish. However, depending on what you eat, it could have a green, orange, brown, or pink hue.
Occasionally, blood from rusty pipe syndrome or cracked nipples can appear in your breast milk. It may be worrisome, but it isn’t dangerous. As long as your baby is not refusing the breast, it’s safe to continue to breastfeed if your milk changes color.
If you do notice a red or pink tinge to your milk, it’s a good idea to consult your doctor or lactation consultant to get any underlying issues checked out before they interfere with breastfeeding.
Medications, including certain antibiotics, can also affect the color of your breast milk. This change in color is not harmful, as long as the medications (and any supplements you take) have been approved by your doctor to use while breastfeeding.
Breast Milk Taste
The flavor of breast milk is described as sweet and creamy. It gets its sweetness from the milk sugar lactose, and it’s creamy due to the amount of fat it contains. However, since the foremilk is low in fat, it will appear thin and watery compared to the higher-fat hindmilk.
As noted above, the foods you eat will also contribute to the flavor of your breast milk. A diet high in fruits and vegetables will expose your child to the flavors of these foods through your milk, and can help them accept the taste of fruits and vegetables when they begin eating solids.
Other factors that influence the taste of your breast milk include medications, hormones, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and infections such as mastitis. Freezing and thawing breast milk can also give it a soapy taste which some infants may not like, although it is still perfectly safe to feed.
How to Prevent and Stop a Baby from Spitting Up
A fair amount of spitting up is natural when you consider:
- There’s a valve between the esophagus and stomach that keeps food down, but in babies this valve still has to mature and develop.
- Babies’ tummies are quite little and overfeeding them can result in spit-up.
- Most babies spend a good chunk of their time lying flat on their backs, which makes reflux more common.
Spit-up or reflux usually peaks at 4 months.
While it’s not uncommon for babies to spit up the entire first year, reflux usually ends (or is greatly reduced) by a baby’s first birthday. As you wait for your baby’s digestive system to mature, these tips on how to prevent spitting up can help you give your baby reflux relief.
Breastfeeding? Check your diet.
Some moms have found eliminating certain things—like dairy products—reduces the amount of their baby’s spit-up.
Try a formula switch.
If you’re formula-feeding or supplementing, ask your pediatrician if a change to a rice-thickened formula may help. Enfamil A.R.™ is clinically proven to reduce spit-up by more than 50%*, while still providing the complete nutrition your baby needs.
Stop spit-up with a hold.
When feeding, hold your baby in an upright position. After feeding, keep your baby upright for 30 minutes. During this time, don’t put them in the swing or do too much active play.
Slow their feeding flow.
If you’re bottle-feeding, check the nipple size—your baby might be drinking too much formula too fast. Most nipples are marked to match to an appropriate age.
Try smaller meals more often.
If you’re breastfeeding your baby, try limiting his time at the breast, but feed them more often. If you’re bottle-feeding, try decreasing the amount given in each feeding, but feed them more often. That way he’s still getting the same overall amount ehttps://www.enfamil.com/products/standard-flow-nipple-latex-free/ach day, but in smaller, more manageable amounts.
Make burping a priority.
If your baby has air bubbles—or gas—this could cause spit-up or “wet burps.” Be sure to burp them throughout and after feeding. Try one of these burping positions:
- Hold your baby against your chest (their body facing yours), with their head on your shoulder. Then pat and rub their back.
- Have your baby sit on your lap and support your baby’s chest and head with one hand while patting their back with the other. Make sure you’re holding your baby’s chin, not their throat.
- Lay your baby flat against your lap, their belly facedown. Support your little one’s head and make sure it’s higher than their chest. Gently rub or pat their back. If you can’t produce a burp in your baby with one position, then try another.
Want to check with your doctor about your baby’s spit-up? Learn what questions to ask your pediatrician about spit up the next time you’re in the office.
Spitting Up | Michigan Medicine
Almost all babies spit up, especially newborns. Spitting up happens less often after the muscles of the esophagus, the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach, become more coordinated. This process can take as little as 6 months or as long as 1 year.
When spitting up becomes a problem
If your baby starts spitting up after every feeding, there may be a problem with the way he or she is being fed. He or she may be swallowing too much air when sucking, or you may not be burping the baby enough during feedings. Fever will sometimes cause a baby to spit up. Milk (lactose) intolerance and food allergies also can cause increased spitting up. Other signs of these problems include loose and watery stools, irritability, and belly pain.
Spitting up should not be confused with vomiting. Vomiting is forceful and repeated. Spitting up may seem forceful but usually occurs shortly after feeding, is effortless, and causes no discomfort. A baby may spit up for no reason at all. Vomiting may be caused by a more serious problem, such as pyloric stenosis or gastroesophageal reflux disease. If you think your baby is vomiting, contact your doctor.
Tips to reduce spitting up
The following tips may help your baby to spit up less often. If this advice does not reduce the frequency of spitting up, contact your doctor.
- Feed your baby smaller amounts at each feeding.
- Feed your baby slowly.
- Hold your baby during feedings.
- Don’t prop your baby’s bottle.
- Don’t place your baby in an infant seat during feedings.
- Try a new type of bottle or use a nipple with a smaller opening to reduce air intake.
- Limit active and rough play after feedings.
- Try putting your baby in different positions during and after feeding.
- Burp your baby frequently during feedings.
- Do not add cereal to formula without first consulting your doctor.
- Do not smoke when you are feeding your baby.
If you think a food allergy may be the cause of spitting up, talk to your child’s doctor about starting your baby on hypoallergenic formula.
Current as of:
December 17, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
Susan C. Kim MD – Pediatrics
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
John Pope MD – Pediatrics
Current as of: December 17, 2020
HELP! My Baby Spits up Clear Liquid : Could it be Reflux?
Sharing is caring!
Spit ups are common among newborn. Read on to learn why your baby spits up clear liquid and what you can do.
Worries come naturally to you when you are a first-time parent. Every little thing that newborns do differently makes you question their actions. From their every whine to sleeping longer than usual seems like a ‘red alert’.
And when it comes to newborns spitting up after breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, it is definitely a cause of concern for new parents. But take solace in knowing that spitting up is common in newborns and usually, it is nothing to worry about. But frequent and persistent spitting up, along with poor weight gain can be a sign of acid reflux in babies.
Let’s look at why the baby spits up clear liquid and what you can do to help your baby.
Disclosure: This post contains affiliate links. As an affiliate and amazon associate, I earn commission on qualified purchase at no extra cost to you.
My Baby Spits up Clear Liquid..should I worry about it?
Nearly 40% of normal, healthy babies spit up after feeding. Spitting up clear liquid is often due to saliva, formula, breastmilk, or a combination of all three. Spit up, also called gastroesophageal reflux (GER) or physiological reflux, is common in babies, occurs throughout the day in infants.
My son was a big spitter. He was exclusively breastfed, and he would spit up clear liquid after every feed. I was worried and convinced that he was starving since he was spiting after every single feed. Despite all the spit up, he was never fussy and was gaining weight. My pediatrician reassured me that he is healthy and spitting up due to GER.
Babies often spit up when they are overfed or get too much milk too fast. This may happen when the mom’s breasts are too full or the baby feeds aggressively.
If the baby is pulling off the breast or fussy at the breast, she may swallow air and spit up more often. Some babies spit up more when they are teething or starting solid foods.
If you are worried about the quantity of spit up then you shouldn’t. It may look like a lot and makes you wonder if the baby getting enough milk or tempts you to feed again. You might be surprised to know that, most spit up is only a teaspoon of liquid, according to our pediatrician.
To put my mind to ease, our pediatrician also suggested trying a simple experiment: Pour a tablespoon of liquid on the floor and compare the spit ups. You will notice that the liquid on the floor is larger.
Baby spit up usually drools or spurt out of their mouth. Occasionally, the baby spits up forcefully or projectile. Frequent spitting up or vomitingwithout any other condition – is called acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is mostly due to the anatomy of the digestive tract in infants.
If the baby is a ‘Happy Spitter’ (without discomfort, content, and gaining weight), then spitting up is a laundry and social problem rather than a medical issue.
Lose Weight NOT Milk Supply While Breastfeeding
Why is baby Spitting up Clear Liquid?
Wondering, why some baby spits up clear liquid and do it frequently? Most babies have some level of reflux during the first year of their life.
The most common causes for baby to spit up clear liquids are,
Immature Digestive System
Babies spit up because…they are just being a baby. The lower esophageal sphincter muscle that separates the esophagus and stomach is underdeveloped in babies. Which allows the content of the stomach to wash back into the baby’s food pipe – esophagus and sometimes throat- causing spit-up.
Breastmilk oversupply or fast letdown
Sometimes, mama’s breasts are too full and it’s hard for the baby to keep it up with milk flow. It can cause the baby to take in excess air while swallowing all that milk. Overactive letdown can also cause the baby to take in air while feeding. It can be easily remedied by pumping out some milk before feeding or trying different breastfeeding positions. If you are bottle-feeding, make sure you have a slow flow nipple and try paced bottle feeding.
Improper latch while breastfeeding or bottle-feeding can also cause the baby to take in an excessive amount of air. Ensuring proper latch while feeding may help with spit up and also save you from clogged milk ducts and other discomforts while breastfeeding.
Sensitivities to food or milk can also lead to excessive spitting in babies. Look out for allergies to cow’s milk or something in mom’s diet (if you are breastfeeding).
You may also notice clear liquid coming out of the baby’s mouth when they burp. It is called a wet burp. This is again due to an immature digestive system backing up liquids from the stomach.
The wrong size of diapers could cause spit-up in babies. Too tight diapers around the abdomen can put pressure and cause the baby to spit up clear fluid.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease can also cause the baby to spit up clear liquid. This is more serious than physiological reflux.
As mentioned earlier, reflux in babies is due to a poorly coordinated digestive system. Anything that causes the lower esophageal sphincter to relax, can cause GERD. Reflux (spit-up) becomes GERD or Acid reflux when acid in the reflux irritates or injures the esophagus. Remember that GERD is not as common as reflux. Approximately one in 300 infants show abnormal signs and symptoms of GERD.
Many infants with GERD are healthy. However, some infants can have problems affecting their nerves, brain, or muscles. Most infants grow out of the condition by their first birthday. Read on to learn the difference between spit-up and GERD below.
Pyloric stenosis is a condition where a baby’s thickened and narrow pyloric sphincter muscle restricts food in the stomach from entering the small intestine. To empty stomach, it contracts and causes the liquid to come back up as a clear liquid or curdled milk. This stomach contraction causes the liquid to come out forcefully, often referred to as projectile vomiting.
Pyloric Stenosis is a serious condition, and it requires immediate medical attention.
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How do you know if your Baby has Reflux (Spit-up) or GERD/Acid reflux?
Symptoms may vary, here are some common ones to look out for. Diagnosis of GERD may require doctor’s intervention.
|Reflux (Spit-up)||GERD or Acid reflux|
|Frequent spit up||Frequent vomiting, projectile vomiting|
|Normal after eating|| • Frequent crying after eating
• Irritability after eating
• Back arching after eating
• Resistant to lying on the back
• Gassy and/or foamy bowel movement
• Colicky, unhappy
|Prolonged or refused feeding|| • Feeding refusal or lengthy feedings
• difficulty swallowing
• pain when swallowing
• Hiccups, burps, or sour breath
|Normal weight gain||Poor weight gain, weight loss, and failure to thrive|
|No significant respiratory symptoms||Coughing or choking regularly, wheezing, or hoarseness, apnea, recurrent pneumonia|
|No neurobehavioral symptoms||Neck tilting in infants|
Natural Remedies for Baby Spitting up Clear Liquid
Natural remedies for spit up are not aimed at curing the condition but to help baby feel better until she outgrows it.
Aim for frequent breastfeeding, rather than larger, less frequent feedings. These smaller, less frequent feeding can be easier to digest. If you are formula feeding or baby on solid, feed smaller quantities more often.
Try feeding baby in an upright position – called the koala or upright football hold while feeding. This position ensures that milk goes into the stomach rather than staying up in the esophagus reducing spit-up. A Boppy pillow can help position the baby upright after meals.
Try lots of skin to skin contact or breastfeed in motion if the baby is fussy and refuses to feed.
Don’t switch breasts often when the baby is actively sucking. Switching sides too often can cause excessive spitting up.
Allow baby comfort sucking at the breast or offer pacifier after feeding since it reduces irritation and speeds gastric emptying.
Hold baby upright after feeding
Hold baby upright for a minimum of 30 min after feeding. You can babywear in an infant wrap or sling to make things easy. You can walk around the house or have the dad walk around the house with the baby after feeding. After feeding, if the baby needs to go to sleep make sure they sleep elevated to reduce acid reflux in the baby.
Our favorite woven wrap to maintain baby in upright position is Moby Wrap. The material is breathable, soft and it does not contain any buckle or straps that could pinch a baby. This wrap supports entire back and shoulders to distribute baby’s weight, making it comfortable for both of you. Check out the Moby Wrap here.
Don’t forget to Burp!!
Make sure to burp the baby frequently after each feeding. My grandmother suggested burping the baby at least 2 times after feeding. I know that sounds crazy (I thought so too!!) but worked for my son. He was less gassy and reduced spit ups.
If your baby seems fussy at feeding, stop and burp your baby and then begin feeding again. Try burping baby every 5 min if you are breastfeeding or early ounce if you are bottle feeding.
Avoid compressing the baby’s stomach while burping as it can increase reflux. Try another position of burping such as—support the baby’s chest and head with one hand by gently holding your baby’s chin in your palm (not throat). Use your other hand to pat your baby’s back.
Check out this video to learn about burping method.
If the baby is uncomfortable laying on his back, swaddle her and put her in a rocker/sleeper. Several research studies have compared various positions to determine which works best for babies with reflux. Studies have shown that lying baby on the left and baby on his tummy helped reduce reflux significantly. These should ONLY be done when the baby is awake under continuous monitoring. These positions should be avoided during sleep due to the increased SIDS risk.
Dress baby in loose clothing with loose diaper waistbands. While changing a diaper, roll baby on his side rather than lifting legs toward tummy..
Probiotics can boost the health of the gut thereby improves digestion. Including me, some mothers have seen improvement in acid reflux symptoms after feeding probiotic supplements (L.reuteri) to their babies. Research study has shown that giving infants a probiotic during first three months of their lives can improve colic, acid reflux symptoms, and constipation (source).
Try switching formula if you are formula feeding your baby. Try cow milk-free formula or ask your doctor for a better option.
Aethusa cynapium is an herb used in homeopathy to treat the digestive issue. Aethusa is especially beneficial for infants who have a problem in digesting milk resulting in spit ups or vomiting.
I have used Aethusa 200x for acid reflux in my 2 months old son. I was a little hesitant to give my 2-month-old baby anything that is not breastmilk, but I am glad that I chose with the doctor’s permission.
He was much better in the 4th month, stopped spitting up or showing any other symptoms of acid reflux. I gave him five globules dissolved in 1 tsp of breastmilk three times a day for 5 days.
Some moms have also benefited from the use of Nat Phos a natural cell salt for acid reflux in their babies. Nat Phos 6X is a natural cell salt that aids with digestion. Some babies don’t make enough of it. Consult your doctor before administering homeopathic remedies to your infant. Dissolve ½ tablet in breastmilk (1 tsp) or formula and give it to a baby with a syringe.
Some moms also tried Gripe water or Colic calm successfully for baby reflux. Although it did not work for my son’s reflux.
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Is there any Medication for Baby Spitting up clear Liquid?
There are no medications if your baby is normal other than spitting up clear liquid. However, the pediatrician may prescribe medication to help reduce stomach acids in case the baby is diagnosed with GERD.
Doctor may recommend
- Proton pump inhibitor such as Prilosec
- Histamine-2 blocker such as Zantac, Pepcid
- Antacids such as Mylanta
Keep in mind that they can occasionally cause side effects such as an increased risk of intestinal and respiratory infections. These medications should only be used under doctor’s supervision in babies with GERD.
Does Thickening Formula help Spitting-up clear Liquid?
Baby cereal mixed with breastmilk or formula has been used to treat reflux in babies. Thickening feeds may help food to stay down in the stomach but it is not a good idea for several reasons.
Thickened formula or breast milk may reduce spitting up, but silent reflux is still present in babies. It may cause increased coughing after feeding and decreased gastric emptying time as the baby’s digestive system is not ready for solids.
Your baby may take in less milk overall-decrease in nutrient intake– if you are thickening feeds. Early introduction of solids before 3 months increases the baby’s risk for allergies, respiratory infections, type 1 diabetes.
The early introduction of solids also affects the breastfeeding relationship and is associated with early weaning.
How long does Spit-up in babies last?
Babies usually start spitting up clear liquid between weeks 2 and 4. They peak around 2-4 months of age and begin to subside around 6-7 months when the baby begins to sit upright. And usually resolves by 12 months of age.
What does it mean when a Baby Spits Up Curdled Milk?
Baby spits up curdled milk when milk from breastfeeding or formula sits in the stomach for a little bit and mixes with stomach juices. Immediate baby spits up after feeding is usually a clear liquid but as time passes, spits up look like curdled milk.
Baby Spits-up Clear Liquid I Conclusion
It may be exhausting to deal with baby spitting up clear liquid but remember that they do outgrow it at some point. As always, watch your baby, take a note of what bothers your baby and what works best to ease the reflux in babies.
Did your baby spit-up clear liquid? What remedy worked for you? Leave your comment below.
Behrman RE, Kliegman R, Jenso HB, eds. Nelson Textbook of pediatrics. 16th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2000:1125–6.
Carroll AE, Garrison MM, Christakis DA. A systematic review of non pharmacological and nonsurgical therapies for gastroesophageal reflux in infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002;156:109-13
Corvaglia L, Rotatori R, Ferlini M, et al. The effect of body positioning on gastroesophageal reflux in premature infants: evaluation by combined impedance and pH monitoring. J Pediatr 2007;151:591-6
Image Credit – Photo by Hollie Santos on Unsplash
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Baby spit up: Should I worry? We have some tips
Your baby is spitting up? Join the club! Most babies spit up. In fact, mild reflux occurs in at least 50 percent of infants and usually doesn’t cause them any discomfort, stress or complications. Reflux improves with age. Many babies get better once they learn to sit well.
Need a pediatrician? Find a Sanford doctor near you
What defines “normal” spit up?
Involuntary spit up (reflux) consists of approximately one or two mouthfuls of stomach contents. “Wet burps” happen when a smaller amount of spit up accompanies the burp. Larger spit ups may occur if the baby is overfed.
When is spit up most common?
It begins in the first few weeks after birth and may continue up to about 1 year old. It usually occurs during or shortly after feedings.
What can I do to decrease my baby’s spit up?
- Give your baby smaller amounts per feeding (provided baby is over 1 month old). Filling baby’s stomach to capacity makes spitting up worse. It takes two or more hours for the stomach to empty.
- Breastfeeding moms can try nursing on one side per feeding and pumping the other side. Extend the times between feedings to at least two hours.
- Bottle-feeding moms can give baby one ounce less per feeding and keep the total time to less than 20 minutes. Wait at least 2 1/2 hours between feedings
- Burp baby two or three times during each feeding. Try not to interrupt the baby’s rhythm but wait until he or she looks around or pauses during feeding and then burp baby. If no burp occurs within one minute, stop. Some babies don’t need to burp often.
- After feeding, hold your baby in an upright or vertical position for 15 to 30 minutes. If you can’t hold baby upright that long, use a front-pack, infant seat, swing or jump seat, depending on your baby’s age and ability.
- Reduce sucking time. Using a pacifier constantly can fill the stomach with swallowed air. Likewise, a bottle with a nipple hole that is too small can do the same. When held upside down, formula in the bottle should drip out at a rate of one drop per second. If it doesn’t, clean out the nipple and/or enlarge the hole.
- Avoid making diapers too tight because this adds pressure on the stomach.
- Avoid playing vigorously with your baby immediately after meals.
When is spit up of concern?
Serious complications related to spit up occur in less than 1 percent of infants. Talk to your doctor if your baby seems to be choking when spitting up milk. If your baby cries frequently and is often unhappy and/or seems to be in constant discomfort, talk to your doctor. This can be evidence of heartburn from acid on the lower esophagus. If your baby isn’t gaining weight, it’s also possible that the valve on the stomach’s upper end isn’t closing properly
What is the difference between spit up and vomit?
If your baby appears to have no discomfort, no diarrhea and is generally happy, hungry and looks good, he or she just has reflux. If your baby’s spit up is forceful or projectile and your baby is uncomfortable when it happens, vomiting is the likely answer. If your baby looks or acts sick, he or she is vomiting.
Call your doctor if:
- Your child is under 1 month old, looks or acts abnormal in any way and/or vomits.
- Your baby looks or acts very sick.
- You see blood in the spit up.
- There is bile (bright yellow or green) in the spit up.
- Your baby isn’t gaining weight, has frequent unexplained fussiness or is spitting up more and more.
- You can’t tell if your child is spitting up or vomiting.
- You are worried and think your child needs to be evaluated.
- Your baby isn’t improving or becomes worse even when you have implemented changes to decrease the spitting up.
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Baby Spit Up Through the Nose (What is Normal?)
As the mother of a newborn or infant, you’ve probably seen your baby spit up more than once. Possibly even seen the milk come through your baby’s nose.
It can be quite frightening watching all that milk or formula make a reappearance, especially when it pours through the nose. It can make your little one upset but rest assured it’s a regular and natural occurrence.
Babies spit-up. A lot. To ease your mind, we’re here to discuss why it happens and how you can reduce the chances of it happening again.
Spit up Through the Nose. Is It Normal?
Reflux in infants is when the milk comes back up from the baby’s stomach and out the mouth or nose. It usually isn’t a serious problem, and it can happen in healthy babies several times per day, though it’s less common after 18 months (1).
The natural reflex that pushes the milk back up is something your baby has no control over. The nose and throat are connected (2), and if spit-up happens quickly, it can be projectile and take you by surprise.
Several things may cause your baby to spit up frequently:
- Stomach valve: A sphincter muscle connects your baby’s stomach and esophagus. This muscle, the lower esophageal sphincter, is immature in newborns and sometimes allows food to escape into the esophagus (3).
- Distractions: When your baby gets distracted while feeding, the suck-swallow reflex can be disrupted. Large amounts of milk may be swallowed, causing slight choking, sending milk back out the nose.
- Swallowing air: If your baby is really hungry, he or she might feed in a rushed, gulping manner. This can cause them to ingest air as well. The air can then return later, bringing the milk with it.
- Coughing or sneezing: Your baby has little control over their body when newborn (4). The simple act of sneezing or coughing can cause milk to come back up the esophagus.
Spit-up Versus Vomit
Spit-up is normal and happens often, but it is less severe than vomiting. Vomiting is the forceful expulsion of the stomach’s contents (5). Spit-up is an easy flow, like the milk that comes out with a burp.
Many things can trigger the part of the brain that stimulates the reflex action of vomiting. They include:
- The nerves in the stomach or intestine reacting to inflammation or irritation due to an infection or a blockage.
- Chemicals that are present in the blood, likely from drugs or poison.
- Motion sickness that is triggered by the middle ear.
Your baby may occasionally vomit due to rotavirus or a mild stomach infection (6). However, it shouldn’t be a regular occurrence. If it doesn’t pass quickly and your child shows signs of illness, we recommend contacting your healthcare provider.
How Can I Reduce How Often My Baby Spits Up?
Let’s face it, spit-up isn’t a pleasant part of child-rearing. It stains clothes, and your blankets will require frequent washes and changes. Plus, if your baby is on formula, it doesn’t exactly smell great.
There’s good news, though. Here are a few things that you can do to reduce the chances of frequent spit up from your little one:
- Try to feed your baby on time as much as possible: If your baby is overly hungry, they may gulp and swallow air, increasing the chance for spit up later on.
- If your baby is bottle-fed, make sure that the hole on the nipple isn’t too large: A larger nipple hole may cause your baby to get too much milk too quickly.
- Feed your baby in a room with minimal distractions: A nice quiet spot will keep your baby focused on eating instead of what is going on around them. This may be the most difficult thing to fix if you have other children to care for.
- Finally, don’t overdo the feeding: If your baby is acting full, even if they’ve eaten less than usual, trust their instincts (7). Don’t try to force them to eat more than they want or need.
- Immediately after your baby is done feeding, burp them: You can reduce a lot of spit-up by simply making sure your baby has been properly burped.
- Try to keep your baby upright for a few minutes: This will allow the milk to flow down into the stomach and not be left in the esophagus.
- If your baby falls asleep, put them on their back: Your baby will automatically swallow or cough out any milk in their throat. Sleeping on the back will help them clear the fluids, should they spit up in their sleep (8).
- Refrain from putting tight clothing on your baby after feeding: You’ll want to avoid putting pressure on the stomach. This can include pulling the diaper on too tight.
When to Call Your Doctor
Spitting up is a bit bothersome in general, and spitting up through the nose, in particular, may freak you out. Try to keep in mind that it’s completely natural. However, there are a few symptoms that you may want to discuss with your doctor, should they occur:
At the End of the Day
Spitting up, even out of the nose, is a normal part of your baby’s development. So, as long as they’re feeding well, gaining weight, and aren’t overly fussy, things are probably just fine.
Taking precautions like burping, holding your baby upright, and not overfeeding, will minimize as much of the spit up as possible. If concerned, be sure to contact your baby’s pediatrician or doctor.
Why Do Babies Spit Up?
Baby spit up is a fact of life for new parents: It’s so common, there are even special cloths dedicated to cleaning up the stuff. But when it’s your child who seems to be spitting up constantly, it’s understandable that baby spit up would suddenly become a concern. Fortunately, experts say, most of the time it shouldn’t be. How much or how frequently a baby spits up varies from baby to baby, says Jeffrey Bourne, MD, a pediatrician at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California. Overall, he says, baby spit up is “very, very common and generally not worrisome.” Whether baby is prone to spitting up or you just want to be prepared for what to expect in those first few months, here’s what you need to know.
To understand why babies spit up, it’s worth knowing what spit up is—and what it isn’t. Spit up is different from vomit. Vomiting is a forceful elimination of something by the body, while spit-ups tend to be “gentle regurgitations,” says Ashanti Woods, MD, a pediatrician at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore. Plus, baby spit up tends to be in small amounts, while vomiting has more volume.
There are a few reasons why babies might spit up:
• They have reflux. Babies often spit up because of gastroesophageal reflux, a condition in which things that are ingested come back up from the stomach and out the mouth and nose, Woods explains. A valve at the bottom of the esophagus, called the sphincter, typically prevents that—but it doesn’t work very well in newborns. So the food climbs back up, Bourne says. Until that mechanism matures, babies are prone to frequent spit up.
• They had too much milk. The size of baby’s stomach in ounces is about half of his weight in pounds, Woods says, so a newborn who weighs seven pounds has a stomach capacity of about 3.5 ounces. “If a family were to feed baby four ounces of milk at one feeding, it’s a good chance the baby may have some spitting up,” he says.
• Their formula is not agreeing with them. If baby is fed formula, it’s possible she may be intolerant to the type you’re using, Woods says. If you suspect that’s the reason for baby spit up, talk to your pediatrician about switching brands.
• Something in your diet doesn’t sit well with them. If you’re breastfeeding, it’s possible that something you’re having, like too much caffeine, is increasing the amount of spit up, Woods says. But talk to baby’s pediatrician before removing things from your diet, especially since there are so many other reasons why baby might be spitting up. “We don’t want moms unnecessarily doing a huge elimination from their diet,” Bourne says.
When Do Babies Stop Spitting Up?
Babies don’t spit up forever—something worth remembering if you feel as if all of your clothes have been spit up on. While every child is different, Bourne says most babies will stop spitting up by 6 months. “Usually it just gets better and better with time,” he says.
Baby Spitting Up a Lot: How Much Is Normal?
Baby spit up should generally be a couple of tablespoons or less than an ounce, Woods says. If baby is spitting up more than that or is spitting up after every feeding, tell your pediatrician. Chances are, he’s fine—some babies simply spit up more often than others. “If your baby is still gaining weight and doesn’t seem bothered by his spit up, it’s usually not cause for concern,” Bourne says. “We call [these babies] ‘happy spitters.’”
When is baby spit up a concern?
If baby is lethargic, experiencing weight loss or has blood in her spit up, call the pediatrician, Woods says. A greenish tinge should also be flagged because, in rare cases, it may signal an obstruction in baby’s gastrointestinal system. Finally, if baby is spitting up and she seems bothered by it, it’s also worth calling the doctor. The acid in the spit up might be causing discomfort, and certain medications can make it less acidic.
If baby spits up a lot, you might need to do a little detective work to track down what causes baby to spit up. Here are a few methods that might provide clues—as well as some relief for baby:
• Hold baby facedown at a 30- to 45-degree angle after feeding. “This is often the position you would hold a baby to burp him,” Bourne says. Resting baby on your shoulder in this position for 15 to 20 minutes after a feeding should make a big difference in reducing baby spit up, Bourne says.
• Try feeding baby less at a time. If she seems hungry, you can make up for it by feeding her more frequently, Woods says.
• Consider changing your formula. It’s possible that another brand will sit better with baby.
If those methods don’t work, or you still have concerns about baby spitting up, talk to your pediatrician about next steps. Usually, though, there’s no need to worry. “Most babies will do fine with no changes,” says Woods—you may just need to wait it out.
90,000 Why does a baby often spit up – what to do if a baby spits up after feeding
Regurgitation after feeding is a normal breastfeeding reaction. Up to three months, about half of newborns spit up at least once a day, but by six months this phenomenon weakens. Rarely, regurgitation persists for up to a year, therefore, under certain conditions, parents should be alert and consult a doctor with this problem.
Why does a child often vomit
In a newborn, the digestive tract functions physiologically differently.He is not yet fully matured, as is the nervous system, which is responsible for the contractions of the smooth muscles of the stomach. Therefore, in children under one year old, functional abnormalities are common, which most often go away on their own and do not require special treatment.
Regurgitation, or regurgitation, is the involuntary throwing of food eaten from the stomach into the esophagus and mouth. At the same time, the baby’s diaphragm and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall do not contract, as with ordinary vomiting. The baby is not worried about this process, he does not cry, the body temperature and skin color are maintained at a normal level.The volume of the poured milk is small, usually it does not exceed 1-2 tablespoons.
The reasons why a child often spits up should be sought in the characteristics of the baby’s feeding. The main factors include the following:
- overfeeding – if the volume of food does not correspond to the age norm, the stomach cannot accommodate it and digest it quickly, therefore milk presses on the sphincter between the stomach and the esophagus, part of it comes out;
- aerophagia – swallowing air during feeding, if the mother does not breastfeed correctly or uses the wrong nipple on the bottle;
- the accumulation of gases in the stomach and intestines, colic – the air reduces the volume of the stomach, and after eating it tends to go outside, as a result of which the baby spits up;
- tight swaddling – the diapers press on the stomach and prevent it from stretching after eating;
- Incorrectly selected formula when artificial feeding or intolerance to cow protein;
- high activity after eating, laying on the stomach or on the back.
The reason for regurgitation may be a lack of feeding regimen. It is wrong to regard every cry of a baby as a sign of hunger. Even when feeding on demand, time intervals of at least an hour in the first month of life must be observed and gradually increased.
A baby born prematurely or with signs of intrauterine growth retardation will spit up more often than other babies. This is due to the anatomical and physiological features: the stomach of such children has a spherical shape, a reduced volume.the sphincter at the border of the stomach and intestines is often spasmodic and cannot pass food quickly. But by the first year, the baby will stop spitting up.
Sometimes the causes of regurgitation are associated with various pathologies. You cannot do without a doctor if the baby has persistent pylorospasm, has malformations of the gastrointestinal tract, or had an injury to the nervous system.
What to do if a child spits up
If a child spits up for physiological reasons, you can reduce the frequency and severity of this condition on your own.Start with nutritional correction. When breastfeeding, the correct grip of the nipple along with the areola and the position of the baby is monitored. The mother should feed him while sitting, holding the baby at an angle of 45-60 °. In this position, air naturally leaves the stomach and there is less risk of food being thrown into the esophagus. After eating, the baby should be kept upright for 20-40 minutes.
You can remove part of the air from the stomach before feeding, for this newborn baby is laid out on the stomach for 10-15 minutes.If the baby has a tendency to intestinal colic, a gentle massage of the abdomen, which is done between meals, helps.
Regurgitation in an infant is not an indication for switching to artificial formula, the woman should continue to breastfeed. But it is recommended to adhere to the intervals between meals, and the mother should follow a hypoallergenic diet, as well as exclude cabbage, black bread and legumes.
In order for a bottle-fed newborn to stop burping, you need to buy an anti-colic feeding bottle or a special nipple.Their design differs from traditional ones. The bottle contains a special valve that prevents air from being swallowed while eating. It is also necessary to control that the diameter of the hole on the nipple does not allow the milk to flow out in a stream, it should drip slowly.
When buying a formula for a baby who constantly spits up, you should consult a pediatrician. He may recommend a hypoallergenic formula or milk without cow protein. In some cases, you have to completely avoid animal protein in the composition.
Normally, complementary foods begin to be introduced from the fourth month, but when regurgitating milk to children older than 1-2 months, various thickeners can be included in the diet. It can be special mixtures with rice flour or dairy-free rice porridge, but use no more than 1 teaspoon at a time.
When to see a doctor
Regular regurgitation occurs before the age of four to five months. Then their number per day decreases. If special measures do not work, it is necessary to show the baby to the pediatrician.When contacting a doctor, they are told about the nature of the diet, the timing of the onset of symptoms and the course of labor, so that he can suggest the cause of regurgitation.
The pediatrician can prescribe medication:
- preparations for colic and bloating;
- antacids that help reduce stomach acidity;
- Prokinetics will improve the promotion of food, but will not lead to diarrhea;
- drugs from the group of histamine receptor blockers.
But they start taking medications only on the recommendation of a doctor, if other methods have not helped. The course of treatment, the dosage is selected individually, focusing on the weight of the baby.
Parents must strictly follow the doctor’s recommendations and monitor the child’s condition. In the absence of organic pathology, the listed methods should reduce the frequency of unpleasant symptoms. And after 6 months, when the baby begins to sit on its own, they almost completely disappear.
An urgent need to go to the doctor if symptoms begin one hour after eating.The food comes out in a fountain, has a sour smell, the milk is curdled. This is no longer spitting up, but vomiting. It can be an indicator of severe neurological impairment. If the baby vomits several times in a row, other symptoms appear, emergency help is needed.
If a month has passed after the start of treatment, and the number and frequency of regurgitation does not decrease, additional examination is necessary. Methods of X-ray of the stomach, esophagoduodenoscopy are used. It shows the state of the sphincter between the stomach and the esophagus, the doctor can examine the mucous membrane, and in severe cases, conduct a targeted biopsy.Some children undergo esophagotonokymography. This method allows you to assess the tone of the sphincter, stomach contractions and motor function.
According to the results of the examination, the treatment is adjusted. If malformations are found, surgical treatment is recommended to parents. But sometimes the causes of vomiting after eating are in neurological pathologies. In this case, consultation and treatment with a neurologist is needed.
90,000 Why does the baby spit up?
Regurgitation is one of the most common functional digestive disorders in infants.
In the first months of his life, the baby gets used to the world around him, and his body adapts to new conditions. This also applies to the fragile gastrointestinal tract of the child, which can react in different ways to the “change of scenery”. This “reaction” is also regurgitation – one of the most common functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants.
When the baby spits up, the milk or formula in the stomach after feeding is thrown back into the baby’s mouth.
According to studies, regurgitation occurs in more than half of healthy babies in the first year of life and in most cases is normal. Most often they are observed in the first half of a child’s life.
There are many reasons why a baby spits up after feeding. The main reason is the immaturity of the baby’s digestive system. Also, regurgitation is facilitated by: the baby swallowing air due to improper attachment to the breast or improper bottle feeding, as well as a violation of the feeding regime, overfeeding of the baby, tight swaddling, and so on.
As already mentioned, most often regurgitation is an age-related feature of children in the first year of life and does not pose a danger to their development. If your baby has frequent and profuse regurgitation, be sure to consult a pediatrician at the next appointment. He will help determine the cause of regurgitation, and also advise on how to reduce their manifestation.
One of the first recommendations of the doctor will be the use of the so-called postural therapy (changing the position of the child’s body).The pediatrician will explain to you how to hold the baby during feeding in order to reduce the likelihood of regurgitation: feed the baby while sitting, holding him at an angle of 45–60 °. After feeding, be sure to keep it in a “column” for a few minutes. This should be done at every feeding, not only during the day, but also at night.
If you are breastfeeding, it is important to create a calm environment while breastfeeding to avoid possible lactation problems.And also normalize the baby’s feeding regime, which excludes overfeeding, control the correct attachment to the breast so that he does not swallow air during sucking. Since spitting up in a baby can be a manifestation of food intolerance, a hypoallergenic diet may be prescribed to you if necessary.
Do not worry and remember that regurgitation is almost never an indication to stop breastfeeding. Usually, after 6 months, the number of regurgitation episodes decreases significantly.
With artificial feeding
Since one of the common reasons for regurgitation is overfeeding of the baby and swallowing air during feeding, you need to pay attention to the mode of feeding it, the choice of the correct nipple (read how to choose the nipple here), as well as the adequacy of the choice of milk formula. Pay attention to compliance with the mixing rules specified by the manufacturer on the label.
To avoid overfeeding your baby, keep track of how many times a day you feed him, as well as the volume of the mixture at each feeding (information about which is also on the product label).The amount of the mixture must necessarily correspond to the age and body weight of the baby. To find out more, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with our material on how much mixture should be given to the baby and consult a pediatrician. And remember, children should receive modern adapted milk formulas.
In the absence of a positive result, you should consult a doctor, the doctor will check the baby’s health and, if necessary, may advise an antireflux milk formula.Such mixtures differ from others in that they contain thickeners – substances that give the product a thicker consistency. The mixture can become thick either immediately in the bottle, or after it enters the baby’s stomach.
Anti-reflux mixtures are available from most manufacturers. They are well tolerated by babies and provide them with all the nutrients for proper growth and development, helping to reduce the frequency and intensity of regurgitation. An example of such a mixture is Similac Antireflux, which contains rice starch as a thickener.In addition, Similac Antireflux is lactose-free and does not contain palm oil, which also helps to reduce the amount of regurgitation.
Be sure to follow your pediatrician’s recommendations for the duration of the antireflux mixture. For each baby, the terms are assigned individually and can reach two to three months. After the need for antireflux formula is no longer necessary, the doctor will recommend how to transfer your baby to the usual adapted milk formula.
As a rule, the period of regurgitation in healthy babies does not last very long, their frequency and intensity begin to decrease after 6 months, and by the year the vast majority of babies have no more regurgitation. By this time, the baby’s digestive system is improving its work, thicker complementary foods appear in the baby’s diet, so the mother can breathe easy.
The material was prepared on the basis of sources:
one.”Programs for optimization of feeding of children of the first year of life in the Russian Federation”, Moscow: Union of Pediatricians of Russia, 2019,
2. Nutrition for a healthy and sick child. A guide for physicians, ed. Tutelyana V.A., Konya I.Ya., Kaganova B.S. Moscow, 2013 .– 264 p.
3. Clinical dietetics of childhood: a guide for doctors. Edited by T.E. Borovik, K.S. Ladodo Moscow, 2015 .– 720 p.
Regurgitation in newborns after feeding with formula
At least 80% of babies under the age of six months regurgitate some volume of the food they just eaten.This happens for various reasons, and most often it is a variant of the norm.
But since the biggest aspiration of parents during this period is the baby’s weight gain, regurgitation often causes real panic. The child seems to be malnourished.
Let’s figure it out: what is the norm, and in what cases you need to run to the doctor.
Reasons for regurgitation
First, consider the causes of regurgitation, which occurs in most babies and should not cause concern for parents:
- Immaturity of the digestive system .In an adult, a special muscle valve or sphincter is located between the stomach and the esophagus. It’s called Cardia. This valve prevents food from being thrown back into the esophagus. In babies up to six months, it is not sufficiently developed. Therefore, any contraction of the stomach walls causes regurgitation or reflux. This is the absolute norm for all children. Most often, by the age of 6 months, everything goes away. In rare cases, it continues until the age of one year.
- Overeating .Babies do not always eat as much as they need, they often eat as much as they like. And the body already regulates the required amount of food, regurgitating excess. This reason for regurgitation is typical for artificial children. The mixture flows through the nipple more easily than from the breast. The kid eats faster than the feeling of fullness sets in. Therefore, overeating occurs.
- Swallowing air with food . In this case, the air comes out back together with the milk, and the baby spits up.
- Gas and colic . Can also cause reflux. Air bubbles press on the walls of the intestines and stomach and facilitate the return of food to the esophagus.
- Increased nervous excitability . When the baby is worried, the walls of the stomach begin to contract and the milk eaten returns.
Alarming symptoms, which are the reason for an urgent visit to the doctor, are most often accompanied by disturbances in weight gain, since the milk eaten is not absorbed by the body:
- Frequent regurgitation by a fountain .It can be an indicator of lactase deficiency – in other words, the indigestibility of milk. Read more about lactase deficiency in our article. Fountain regurgitation can also occur due to improper development of the child’s digestive system.
- Regurgitation of yellowish or greenish milk . May be an indicator of an infectious disease. Or occur as a result of the throwing of bile into the stomach. Your baby is likely to be restless because bile irritates the stomach wall.
But how do you determine the cause of reverse reflux? In fact, this is not necessary! There is only one indicator that is important to watch out for – weight gain. If your child is gaining weight normally and you are not experiencing alarming symptoms, then there is no cause for concern. Regurgitation will stop by itself as the child grows up.
Regurgitation after formula feeding
This is not to say that regurgitation after formula feeding is more common than with breast milk.However, it happens that the mixture did not fit the baby due to the peculiarities of the composition.
In any case, remember that if profuse regurgitation occurs in a fountain after the mixture, then there is an indication to consult a doctor. And this must be done immediately.
The pediatrician will determine the cause. And if it is in the mixture, it will prescribe a different or special antireflux mixture.
How to reduce regurgitation
It will not be possible to completely get rid of the natural process of returning food, but this process can be made easier for the baby and parents.
- Carry your baby in an upright column after feeding. So the air that he swallowed during feeding will be released faster.
- Make sure that the baby grasps the entire circumference of the nipple. Then the air will not penetrate when sucking.
- Use anti-colic nipples when breastfeeding. They are designed to keep air out.
- After feeding, do not entertain the baby, let him be alone for a while.
- Try feeding a little less time to avoid overeating.
- Give your baby a pacifier before bed to stimulate digestive activity for some time after eating.
- Provide your baby with more movement: exercises, massage, swimming, tactile contact, walks in the fresh air. So that the muscular system develops more actively. All internal organs will develop along with it.
There is no drug that can reduce regurgitation.Because it is not a disease, it is either a symptom of it or a natural process.
The only thing that can affect the amount of food returned is the use of anti-colic drugs, which reduce gas production in the intestines. Their use is justified only if the baby is tormented by gaziki. Pay attention to the Israeli drug for colic Simicol, which is suitable for babies from birth.
Rassadina Zinaida Vladimirovna, pediatrician
Regurgitation in babies – norms, deviations and prevention :: Statti
The reaction of newly-made parents to infant regurgitation is not difficult to imagine – they are afraid that something they do not make the child sick, or maybe hungry again.And the amount of milk released by the baby on the diaper or clothes looks much larger than it actually is, and, accordingly, more frightening. Therefore, to calm yourself down, at least once take a tablespoon of water and pour it on a cloth next to the milk stain. Compare them. If they practically do not differ in size, then you should calm down. Most likely, your child, unlike you, does not bother regurgitation.
If you continue to experience something wrong, then watch the child.If, along with frequent regurgitation, the child pees at least 12 times a day, and gains at least 150 grams per week – everything is in order. Both you and your child need to outgrow these regurgitation.
The most common cause of regurgitation is the wrong feeding technique. It is best if you seek advice from a breastfeeding specialist. But if this is not possible, then look at how you feed the child.For example, if, when feeding, the baby’s lower lip is tucked inward, and not outward, like the upper one, he actively draws in air with his mouth. As a result, it accumulates in his stomach and after he is full, regurgitation will certainly take place. If you feed frequently and your baby is used to eating small portions, then his stomach cannot accept much food. And when this happens, he naturally “throws away” the excess milk.
What can be done to reduce the amount of regurgitation? Firstly, try to latch your baby to the breast more often, then he will gorge himself in smaller portions.When applying, make sure that the baby’s lips are tightly squeezing the nipple in a tight ring.
Very often you can hear advice from doctors, and especially grandmothers – after each feeding, keep the baby upright, then the air leaves more easily. As a result, very responsible moms turn the GW into a “hurdle race”. This is especially felt at night, because even then you need to “hold it vertically.” But, if you apply the child correctly, then he will not swallow air. If you notice that during feeding the baby is still gorging on air, then you can vilify him vertically.But do not turn it into an obligatory procedure that brings inconvenience to you or the child (he fell asleep, and you turn him over here and there).
If your baby is bottle-fed, then try not to overfeed him, take breaks while eating for belching. Also, keep in mind that the opening in the nipple should be such that the milk does not flow too much through it, but not tight either.
And finally – remember that regurgitation is what the baby outgrows. Some up to six months, some up to a year.But, in any case, over time they will become less and less.
Questions to the pediatrician – articles from the specialists of the clinic “Mother and Child”
My son (he is two months old) spits up every time he feeds. Tell me what to do?
– Most often, children spit up due to the structural features of the gastrointestinal tract: for example, a short esophagus, immaturity of the sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach, the “fusiform” shape of the stomach, etc. are predisposed to regurgitation.All this is normal: the baby will grow up, the gastrointestinal tract will mature and regurgitation will pass.
More regurgitation occurs due to overfeeding or improper and erratic feeding. Plus, very often children swallow air when they suckle a breast or a bottle – this also provokes regurgitation. Also, regurgitation can cause a quick change in body position or the child’s braking immediately after feeding, tight swaddling. Therefore, if the baby is receiving formula, check the nipples and bottles, he may be swallowing a lot of air during feeding.If the baby is breastfeeding, see if he is latching on correctly. After feeding, hold the baby upright in a “column” for several minutes. Usually, regurgitation does not affect the child’s condition in any way, but if something bothers you anyway, show your son to the pediatrician.
I know that all newborns are tested for congenital diseases while still in the maternity hospital. What do they look at and why do they do it?
– This is the so-called neonatal screening – examination of all newborns to identify some serious hereditary diseases even before their clinical symptoms appear.If a diagnosis is made as early as possible and treatment is started immediately, the disease will proceed much easier, sometimes not even affecting the health and life of the child at all. Today in our country newborns are examined for five diseases: phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, galactosemia, andrenogenital syndrome and cystic fibrosis. Usually, full-term babies on the 4th day, and premature babies on the 7th day of life, take one or two drops of blood from the heel, then this test is sent to the laboratory. The test results will be ready in 10 days.Parents will find out about them only if, according to the results of the analysis, there is a suspicion of the presence of a disease – then an emergency notification will be sent to the children’s clinic at the place of residence. If the child, for some reason, did not undergo a test for congenital diseases (for example, the mother was discharged from the hospital earlier), the parents themselves should contact the polyclinic at the place of residence or the medical genetic consultation, where this study is also conducted
Every winter my skin starts to dry and peel off, especially on my face.And I am very worried that my seven-month-old daughter will have the same problem, she is allergic, like me. Advise on how to prevent possible problems.
– Yes, in winter the skin of both children and adults dries very often. This is caused by constant temperature fluctuations (indoor – outdoor) and very low air humidity. First of all, during the heating season, you must constantly turn on the air humidifier. If the batteries are too hot, then the heat supply should be adjusted. When bathing your baby, try to use mild, non-drying, nourishing oil products.If you feel that hydration is not enough, use special creams and lotions for body and face. It is very important to use a protective frost protection cream before going out, such as MommyCare’s Wind and Weather Cream Balm. Lubricate the open areas of the child’s face with it – with such protection, the skin will not lose the necessary moisture and will not begin to peel off.
My baby is 1.5 months old. From about 3 weeks of age, his eye festers. Antibacterial eye drops dripped – nothing helps.What should I do?
– Most often at this age, children have dacryocystitis – a purulent inflammation of the nasolacrimal canal. Through this channel, a tear from the lacrimal sac enters the nasal cavity. After the birth of a child, elements of embryonic tissue may remain in the lumen of the nasolacrimal canal, which interferes with the outflow of tears from the lacrimal sac. This leads to the fact that the tear begins to stagnate, which can cause purulent inflammation. At first, dacryocystitis is treated conservatively: they do the so-called massage of the nasolacrimal canal.After each feeding, the parents, with some effort, run their finger along the canal (how to do this, the pediatrician or ophthalmologist must show). After that, the eye is washed to remove pus particles and an antibiotic or antiseptic solution is instilled. All treatment is prescribed only by a doctor. As a rule, after the massage, after a few days, the canal becomes passable, and this is where it all ends. If long-term conservative treatment does not help, they move on to the second stage – the canal is bougier on an outpatient basis in the children’s hospital (the procedure is very quick and goes without consequences for the child).
My daughter is 5 months old, I breastfeed her only. Two weeks ago, the girl developed diathesis on her face and elbows, although I did not introduce any allergens into my diet. Maybe it makes sense to transfer your daughter to a mixture?
– There is no need to switch the child to formula. An allergic reaction could have been provoked by food, clothing, water, wool, down, and animals, and not just breast milk. Try to isolate your daughter from potential allergens (check laundry detergent, new clothes) and rethink your diet carefully.If allergic lesions on the skin do not go away, contact your pediatrician and take the tests that he recommends to you.
Cocoonababy baby cocoon is very popular now. Is it not dangerous to sit on your back in a cocoon when regurgitating?
– No, not dangerous. In the Cocoonababy cocoon, the child is in a physiologically safe position – the baby lies on its back, its spine and shoulders are slightly rounded, the head is slightly raised, the position of the hands allows you to touch the face or grab various objects.Due to the high resistance of the material, the baby’s movements are not constrained. The 20 ° tilt under the back helps to give the child a physiological and, most importantly, a safe posture when regurgitating.
90,000 When should you see a neurologist?
Even the most caring mother, as a rule, does not have a medical education. Therefore, with all doubts about the health of the child, you should immediately consult a doctor. The child does not fall asleep well, shakes the pen, loses consciousness – these symptoms can be signs of serious illness.A neurologist, one of the main doctors in a baby’s life, will definitely pay attention to them.
In the competence of a neurologist, diagnostics and treatment of diseases caused by damage to the nervous system. Among them: various neuralgias, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, etc. Simply put, a neurologist examines the child’s behavior and formed skills, on the basis of which he makes a conclusion about the correct development of the baby. Will a person be socialized, will he be able to find contact with people, and will he be able to speak and think at all.It is the nervous system that is responsible for all this, so it is very important to notice and eliminate any violations on time.
The formation of the child’s nervous system occurs gradually. With each month of life, the baby acquires new skills: he learns to speak, listen, sit, walk, think. Due to the fact that each child develops individually (sometimes, outside the accepted medical framework), deviations in development can be noticed only at the second visit to the neurologist. The Russian Ministry of Health has identified 4 age stages: 1, 3, 6 and 12 months.But even if several weeks remain until the next examination, and the child has dangerous symptoms (increased muscle tone, tremor, frequent regurgitation, constant tantrums), you cannot hesitate, you should urgently see a doctor.
So, what symptoms should alert parents and become a reason for an unscheduled visit to a doctor.
1. The child’s chin is trembling.
Chin trembling during crying in a child under three months old is considered normal.This is because the nervous system is not yet fully formed. Under the influence of simple emotions, the nerve centers are excited, and a slight tremor appears. It’s another matter if a child’s chin trembles at rest, and this symptom did not appear immediately, but several months after birth. Please note: in parallel with the chin trembling, there may be other symptoms (frequent regurgitation, increased muscle tone, trembling of the entire head). This is a common occurrence, especially if there was a difficult birth, hypoxia, or the baby was born prematurely.And yet, if you notice that your baby’s chin often trembles for a long time, you should tell about it at a neurologist’s appointment.
2. The child has tremors (arms, legs).
Shaking hands or feet is a symptom of increased excitability, it also appears due to the immaturity of the nervous system. The appearance of this symptom without physical or emotional activity of the child indicates possible serious disorders. A tremor in a child appears in very serious diseases, such as: encephalopathy, hyperglycemia, etc.Only a competent neurologist at the reception can study the condition of the child, exclude pathology or prevent it from developing.
Increased muscle tone.
For newborns, a condition in which muscle tone is decreased or increased is absolutely normal, it happens more than half of the babies. Muscular dystonia usually goes away after a few weeks and the baby begins to develop fully. However, if muscle tone remains elevated or decreased after six months, you need to sound the alarm.Muscular dystonia, if not eliminated, will lead to delays in physical and mental development. For example, due to increased muscle tone in the future, a child may develop hyperexcitability, and due to decreased tone, posture may be crooked and even speech may be impaired.
Decreased muscle tone.
A similar picture is also with a low tone, but, unlike an increased one (when a child can beat himself with handles or torticollis is observed), here, on the contrary, the baby is lethargic, motionless, often lies in a frog position.This condition will also negatively affect the health of the child. As a rule, such children develop more slowly than their peers, later they begin to crawl and sit down, have little interest in the world around them. In addition, this symptom (along with frequent crossing of the legs) can be with cerebral palsy. Even if the doctor did not diagnose this serious disease, increased or decreased muscle tone must be treated. Moreover, it can be easily corrected (massage, physiotherapy).
Child often spits up
The first and main reason for frequent regurgitation in children is overeating.Unlike vomiting, this process occurs easily, without gushing, after a short period of time after feeding, in the amount of about 1-2 tablespoons. Usually, regurgitation does not affect the health of the baby in any way, it is just that his fragile body gets rid of excess food. It is necessary to build the correct feeding scheme by age and this symptom will go away. But if regurgitation continues for a long time, occurs in large volumes, the baby does not gain weight, behaves passively – this is a reason to turn to specialists.Frequent regurgitation can be a symptom of bloating, various malformations of the gastrointestinal tract, in children with intrauterine growth retardation.
Child loses consciousness
In such cases, you cannot hesitate, you need to immediately call an ambulance! At this time, try to help the baby, note how quickly he regained consciousness, whether breathing was disturbed, whether the skin color changed. Loss of consciousness is a very alarming symptom, it can accompany both completely harmless overheating, dehydration, lack of oxygen, and extremely serious diseases: diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, asthma, vegetative-vascular dystonia, etc.In the case when the child often loses consciousness, it will be necessary to consult not only a neurologist, but also other specialists.
The child has dilated pupils
This state of affairs can have many reasons, ranging from poor lighting in the room where the child spends most of the time, ending with serious pathologies. At the appointment with a neurologist, you need to explain how long ago the pupils dilated, whether this condition changes and from what it arose. It is speculated that a child may have dilated pupils after experiencing severe fright or witnessing a conflict.A nervous breakdown, stress, severe or frequent headache – cause dilated pupils. Also, dilated pupils in a child are one of the signs of traumatic brain injury. In addition, it is necessary to exclude eye diseases and hypoxia, so a professional examination cannot be avoided.
Frequent tantrums in a child
This condition should not be attributed to the complex nature of the child. Of course, the psychological aspect takes place, especially in 3-year-old children, when the first age crisis occurs.They are not yet able to clearly articulate desires, so they achieve their goal with the help of hysteria, screams, beating with their hands. In this case, the advice of a psychologist will help. Meanwhile, the cause of constant tantrums in a child (especially under the age of one year) may be painful sensations against the background of neurological abnormalities. Increased intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus have in their symptoms: tantrums in children, tremors, poor sleep. Do not think that everything will go away by itself when the child grows up. Serious pathologies can lead to serious consequences, including disability.
Poor sleep in a child
Children often fall asleep poorly due to overexcitation (strong emotions, new surroundings, many people around, quarrels in the family). It is important not to lay the child in such a state, but to achieve his complete calmness with the help of a relaxing bath, warm drinks and close contact with the mother in a comfortable environment. Otherwise, due to overexcitation, there will be intermittent sleep, and the child will get even more tired. Be sure to follow the regime, including daytime sleep, so the baby’s nervous system will be easier to cope with overloads.But if the child does not fall asleep well, the sleep is short, the baby twitches in sleep, and when he wakes up, cries – you should look for a good neurologist. At the reception at the Center for Pediatrics and Neurology, a neurologist examines the child with amplitude-frequency diagnostics and identifies the reason why the child does not fall asleep well.
So, the future of your child now depends on how attentive you are to his health and early development. It should be added that any treatment must be under the supervision of a competent doctor.It is better if the baby is monitored by a permanent doctor in a specialized center. Neurologists and other children’s specialists: pediatricians, speech therapists, defectologists, exercise therapy instructors, massage therapists, psychologists, etc., are receiving appointments at the Research Institute of Neurology and Pediatrics “Indigo Children”.
90,000 Why does a child spit up and whether it is worth clutching his head about it | Health
Regurgitation in newborns and infants is a normal and even necessary physiological phenomenon. Meanwhile, the reasons why a child spits up are different.Some of them are worth seeking the help of a pediatrician. Let’s talk about them!
In most cases, spitting up in newborns and infants occurs for completely safe, natural reasons. You cannot completely “cure” babies from regurgitation. However, it is in your power, if you wish, to somewhat reduce the intensity and frequency of “spitting”.
Regurgitation in newborns and infants: the main reasons
To understand why a child regurgitates, and to distinguish a physiological norm from a potentially dangerous situation, it is necessary to delve into some details of the process as such.In itself, regurgitation in babies is the involuntary throwing of stomach contents into the esophagus and above, into the baby’s mouth. And accordingly – spitting out food. The child spits up “on the sly” or literally gushes – it depends on the force with which the walls of the stomach push the food out.
About 80% of all children of the first six months of life “feel sick” every day. But how much, how often and when exactly each of them spits up depends on many factors on an individual basis: on the degree of maturity, on birth weight, on the dynamics of weight gain, as well as on how strong the mother’s desire is to “feed always, feed everywhere. “Already from the moment of birth, mom, dad and other relatives should understand that the principle “as much as you fit, so much is useful” rather harms the health and comfort of the child than contributes to his growth and well-being.
There can be several reasons why the baby spits up after feeding the eaten milk or formula:
- The baby eats more than it is able to digest and “hold” in the stomach. Many pediatricians believe that overfeeding and the “on demand” breastfeeding style is the main reason for frequent regurgitation, as well as the reason that the baby spits up a fountain.
- The cardiac part of the baby’s stomach (that is, the part of the stomach that is directly behind the esophagus) in the first six months of the baby’s life is not yet perfect . Namely, in children after six months and in adults, the border between the esophagus and the cardiac part of the stomach is a special cardiac sphincter, which, by contracting, does not allow food to be thrown back into the esophagus. So in the first months of a baby’s life, this sphincter is not yet developed.
- Dissonance between the pharynx and intestinal motility. During the meal, the newborn usually suckles milk or formula in series of 3-5 times. And between these series, the baby pauses, during which he swallows what he managed to suck. Breast milk and formula are simple, liquid foods that reach the infant’s intestines very quickly. As soon as “food” enters the intestines, peristaltic waves arise, during which the fundus of the stomach is strongly strained and the pressure in it rises slightly. This pressure creates an impetus for the food in the stomach to “hurry” out.
- Excessive gas and colic in newborns also cause regurgitation. Air bubbles press on the walls of the stomach and intestines, thereby causing pressure, which provokes the spitting out of food.
- “All troubles are from nerves.” With a high activity of the nervous system in newborns and infants, the phenomenon of stretching the walls of the stomach is often observed, in which regurgitation is the most common symptom. However, this reason is too rare and “medical” for parents to go into it and try to “see” it on their own.
It is not so much important why the child spits up, how much – how he gains weight at the same time
Mom, dad and other household members of a newborn baby should be worried first of all, not why and how the child spits up (this problem is always secondary! ), and above all – the dynamics of the baby’s weight.
If the baby is steadily gaining weight, then no matter how much and how often the child regurgitates food debris, this is considered a safe and physiological norm – his gastrointestinal tract system is formed, and regurgitation in this case is not considered a negative symptom.If the baby does not gain the prescribed weight, and even more so – loses it, only in this case it is worth sounding the alarm and rushing to the doctor for advice, informing him in detail – how often, how much and when exactly the child spits up.
If the weight of the child is normal, and also if he is cheerful, smiling, sleeping well, and so on, then the very phenomenon of regurgitation is not a problem of the baby’s health, it is a problem of the mother, who, seeing that the child spits out food, is completely without any reason, he is unnecessarily worried.
Again – worrying and panicking because the baby is spitting up, as well as trying to figure out exactly why the baby is spitting up, makes no sense if the baby is gaining weight well. And only if the “newborn” kilograms suddenly began to melt – then the phenomenon of regurgitation becomes significant. First of all – for the doctor to whom you are obliged to show the “losing weight” baby.
Why does the child spit up and lose weight at the same time?
When a baby spits up food during the day (a lot, a little, often or rarely – this is not so important) and at the same time not only does not gain weight, but also loses it – regurgitation is no longer regarded as a physiological norm, but as an alarming symptom.Symptom of what?
This question will be answered by the doctor to whom you will bring the baby. The most common and common causes of the phenomenon of “regular regurgitation of food plus weight loss” are as follows:
- Abnormal development of the digestive system. The gastrointestinal tract system is quite complex in its organization, and not every baby at birth has the organs involved in the process of digesting food, the proper size, shape and are clearly located in their places. Often, something is too small, often something is twisted or pinched – there may be a sea of variants of anomalies.The doctor will determine the only one, the very “marriage” in the gastrointestinal tract system that prevents you from eating well and gaining weight.
- Lactose intolerance. In a nutshell, it is the following: the breast milk of any mammal (including humans) contains a protein – lactose, which is broken down in the stomach by special enzymes – lactase. When this enzyme is not produced in sufficient quantities, or not at all, milk intolerance arises.And, of course, if it is impossible to digest it, the baby will regurgitate it often and in large quantities. And as a result – to lose weight. In this case, the doctor will help you choose a special lactose-free mixture.
- Infectious disease. In any infectious disease, the gastrointestinal tract system is the first to respond to infection. In this case, the color of the regurgitated food in the baby will have a yellow, and more often greenish tint. Due to the fact that milk eructation is mixed with bile. If you notice that your baby is spitting up “green milk” – rush to the doctor with a bullet.
Is it possible to “stop” or reduce regurgitation in a newborn?
Even if we take into account that regurgitation in newborns and infants who are normally gaining in their weight category is a physiological norm (that is, it is not dangerous and will go away on its own), not every mother will like that all her dresses began to smell like baby burps …
Question “How to stop or at least reduce spitting up in a newborn?” very often sounds in the office of pediatricians. And the first answer to it from the doctors is just to wait.
Children stop spitting up food debris at about the moment when they begin to sit confidently – that is, about 6-7 months of age.
And what can those parents who cannot wait to do? Let’s make a reservation right away – today there are no safe medicines, means or devices that reduce the frequency and volume of regurgitation in children. The maximum that can be asked from pharmacists in a pharmacy is a remedy for excessive gas formation. Namely: preparations based on simethicone , or preparations based on fennel fruits .The amount of gases inside the baby will decrease – the pressure on the walls of the stomach will also decrease, and, accordingly, the volume of regurgitated food should also decrease.
In addition to the use of “gas mask” means, all other measures to reduce regurgitation should be exclusively organizational and household in nature. Namely:
- 1 After feeding, carry the newborn and the baby “in a column” as long as possible – let, pardon me, burst into plenty: the more he can release the swallowed air, the less “return” milk or mixture will then pour out on you.
- 2 Reduce food volumes for a while. If the baby is breastfed: feed less time, but do not reduce the number of feeds per day. If the baby is artificial, then simply reduce the number of grams of ready-made formula that you give per feeding. How much to cut – the doctor will tell you, because this figure strictly depends on how much the child weighs and the dynamics of its addition.
- 3 When putting a newborn baby to bed, doctors advise to swaddle (just do not tighten the legs with a diaper – as a prophylaxis of hip dysplasia in newborns and children under one year old).When the baby is swaddled, his nervous activity calms down – decreases. And along with it, the pressure on the walls of the stomach decreases. This, in turn, reduces the likelihood that the child will spit up in a dream.
- 4 Lead an active lifestyle – walk with your baby every day and bathe him, wear him in a sling and in a special backpack, if there is even the slightest opportunity – visit the pool, massage and gymnastics courses with him. All this will speed up the process of strengthening the muscles of the baby, including those muscles that are included in the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
- 5 Give your baby a pacifier before bed, or at least allow him to suck his thumb – this is somewhat beneficial. The fact is that in this situation food no longer enters the stomach, but the sucking movements continue to stimulate intestinal activity. As a result, more food gets “under the digestion” of the baby than will be spat out.
The use of pillows and rollers, as well as laying the baby on the tummy face down while sleeping, is highly discouraged. All of these techniques increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome during sleep.How, then, can the baby be laid on its back so that it does not choke on its own belch? Place a flat pillow directly under the mattress so that the baby is lying at an angle of about 30 degrees (of course, the head is higher than the priests). At the same time, from time to time, make sure that the child’s head is slightly tilted – to the left or to the right. In this case, even if he spits up (which is unlikely), he will not choke.
So, if spitting up in an infant does not proceed in parallel with weight loss, then it is considered a normal, safe phenomenon that will pass by itself as soon as the baby grows up.If the child regularly regurgitates the food he eats every day, and at the same time “melts” before our eyes, run to the doctor and find out the reason. There are no medicinal safe remedies for spitting up in newborns and infants. But you can to some extent reduce the frequency and volume of regurgitation if you lead an active lifestyle with your baby, often carry him upright, put him to bed properly and make sure that excessive gas formation does not interfere with the child’s comfortable existence.
And that’s it! The rest will be done by nature itself when the baby grows up and gets stronger.